Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Blockchains in Space

Blockchains in Space

Download to read offline

Blockchains in Space: Non-Euclidean Spacetime and Tokenized Thinking - Two requirements for the large-scale beyond-terrestrial expansion of human intelligence into the universe are the ability to operate in diverse spatiotemporal regimes and to instantiate thinking in various formats. Newtonian mechanics describe everyday reality, but Einsteinian physics is needed for GPS and the orbital technologies of telescopes and spacecraft. Space agencies already integrate the Earth-day and the slightly-longer Martian-sol. A more substantial move into space requires facility with non-Euclidean spacetimes. One challenge is that general relativity and quantum mechanics are non-interoperable. However, the theories can be formulated together when considering black holes and quantum computing since geometric theories and gauge theories are both field-based. Quantum blockchains instantiate blockchain logic in quantum computational environments. Blockchains have their own temporal regime (blocktime: the number of blocks for an event to occur), and hence quantum blocktime is a non-classical functionality for operating in diverse spatiotemporal regimes. Thinking is a rule-based activity that is unrestricted by medium. Central to thinking is concepts, which are referenced by words. Word-types include universals, particulars, and indexicals which can be encoded into a formal system as thought-tokens, and registered to blockchains. Blockchains are contemplated as an automation technology for asteroid mining and space settlement construction, and thought-tokening adds an intelligence layer. Time and tokenized thinking come together in the idea of smart networks in space. In blockchain quantum smart networks, spatiotemporal regimes and thought-tokens are simply different value types (asset classes) coordinated with blockchain logic, towards the aim of extending human capabilities into the farther reaches of space.

Blockchains in Space: Non-Euclidean Spacetime and Tokenized Thinking - Two requirements for the large-scale beyond-terrestrial expansion of human intelligence into the universe are the ability to operate in diverse spatiotemporal regimes and to instantiate thinking in various formats. Newtonian mechanics describe everyday reality, but Einsteinian physics is needed for GPS and the orbital technologies of telescopes and spacecraft. Space agencies already integrate the Earth-day and the slightly-longer Martian-sol. A more substantial move into space requires facility with non-Euclidean spacetimes. One challenge is that general relativity and quantum mechanics are non-interoperable. However, the theories can be formulated together when considering black holes and quantum computing since geometric theories and gauge theories are both field-based. Quantum blockchains instantiate blockchain logic in quantum computational environments. Blockchains have their own temporal regime (blocktime: the number of blocks for an event to occur), and hence quantum blocktime is a non-classical functionality for operating in diverse spatiotemporal regimes. Thinking is a rule-based activity that is unrestricted by medium. Central to thinking is concepts, which are referenced by words. Word-types include universals, particulars, and indexicals which can be encoded into a formal system as thought-tokens, and registered to blockchains. Blockchains are contemplated as an automation technology for asteroid mining and space settlement construction, and thought-tokening adds an intelligence layer. Time and tokenized thinking come together in the idea of smart networks in space. In blockchain quantum smart networks, spatiotemporal regimes and thought-tokens are simply different value types (asset classes) coordinated with blockchain logic, towards the aim of extending human capabilities into the farther reaches of space.

Advertisement
Advertisement

More Related Content

Advertisement

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Blockchains in Space

  1. 1. Blockchains in Space Time and Thinking in the ethically-aware reach to Space SSoCIA Oxford 9 March 2022 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan, MBA, PhD Quantum Technologies Centre for Blockchain Technologies University College London “The past is never dead. It's not even past.“ – Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun, 1951
  2. 2. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 1 Advanced time and thinking technologies, implemented with blockchains, quantum computing, and artificial intelligence (smart network technologies) are next- generation “telescopes” and “microscopes” for extending humanity’s ethically-aware reach into space  Framing question: What philosophical tools are required to extend the reach into space?  Better time interoperability of physical theories (GR, CM, QM)  Better link between General Relativity, Classical (Newtonian) Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics in our technology platforms  Developing thinking itself as a technology Thesis
  3. 3. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 2  Smart network technologies: terrestrial+ intelligent self- operating networks, possibly with native time regimes 1. Blockchain (distributed ledger technology) 2. Artificial intelligence (deep learning networks) 3. Quantum computing 4. Internet of Things sensor networks 5. 3D prototyping gaming-engine asset networks (Unity, Unreal, Outerra) 6. Virtual reality headsets/BCIs (Oculus Rift, Valve Index, HTC Vive) 7. Bio: CRISPR, quantum genomics, quantum protein folding
  4. 4. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 3 Research program Smart Network Theory 2015 2019 2020 Blockchain Blockchain Economics Quantum Computing Quantum Computing for the Brain 2022  Aim: progression towards a Kardashev-plus society marshalling all tangible and intangible resources
  5. 5. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Agenda 4  Introduction  Very-large very-small  Blockchains  Blockchains in space  Smart network convergence  Time  Thinking
  6. 6. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space We are Here~! 5 Source: Tully, R.B., Courtois, H., Hoffman, Y. & Pomarede, D. (2014). The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies. Nature. 513(7516):71. Laniakea Supercluster Milky Way Galaxy Distribution of Galaxies Milky Way (Virgo Supercluster) in the Laniakea Supercluster Analyze relative velocities of galaxies as watershed divides
  7. 7. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space James Webb Space Telescope (Dec 2021)  Hopefully enabling us to “see” farther back into the Big Bang in the infrared spectrum 6 Source: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/content/about/comparisonWebbVsHubble.html Hubble (HST) can see “toddler galaxies” Webb (JWST) can see “baby galaxies” 6.25x larger collecting area than Hubble
  8. 8. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 5,000+ exoplanets discovered (Jan 2022)  NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)  Over 800 have more than one planet 7 Source: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/content/about/comparisonWebbVsHubble.html
  9. 9. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space The small scale of things 8  “Quantum” = anything at the scale of  Atoms (Nano 10-9)  Ions and photons (Pico 10-12)  Subatomic particles (Femto 10-15)  Nanotechnology is already “quantum”  Microscopy: atoms (femtosecond 10-15); electrons (attosecond 10-18) Scale Entities Special Properties 1 1 x 101 m Meter Humans 2 1 x 10-9 m Nanometer Atoms Surface-to-volume ratio, van der Waals and electrostatic forces, thermodynamics (heat transfer, melting point, crystallization, glass transition), magnetism and conductivity, solubility and dissolution 3 1 x 10-12 m Picometer Ions, photons Superposition, entanglement, interference, entropy (UV-IR correlations), renormalization, thermality, symmetry, scrambling, chaos, quantum probability 4 1 x 10-15 m Femtometer Subatomic particles Strong force (QCD), plasma, gauge theory 5 1 x 10-35 m Planck scale Planck length
  10. 10. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Life: one proposed theory 3 phases per computational sophistication  Life 1.0 Biology: evolves both its hardware and software  Life 2.0 Culture: evolves hardware & designs software  Life 3.0 Technology: designs both hardware and software  Any matter can be a substrate for computation  Has many different stable states  The stable states can be used as building blocks  Combined to make computational functions  Namely a NAND (NOT-AND) gate  Complement to AND gate  NAND gates and neurons  Universal “computational atoms” 9 Source: Tegmark, M. (2017). Life 3.0: Being human in the age of artificial intelligence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, pp. 42, 106. NAND gate (NOT-AND): logic gate producing an output which is false only if all its inputs are true
  11. 11. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Agenda 10  Introduction  Blockchains  Blockchains in space  Smart network convergence  Time  Thinking
  12. 12. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space internet transfer. 11 information. email. voice. video. money. neural files. High Sensitivity Low Sensitivity Medium Sensitivity transfer various types of content on the internet, each traffic type has its own instructions or protocol (webpages with http; mail with smtp; voice with voip; and blockchain is the protocol for transferring money) file header indicates traffic type, software version, routing, etc. challenge: secure internet transfer of increasingly valuable and unique files
  13. 13. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Digital money: special requirements  Information: send a PDF file or image many times  Money: requires unique instances (no double-spending)  Enabled by the internet as an always-on 24/7 global network technology to check transactions in real-time  Network time-stamps every transaction  Can submit duplicate transactions (try to double-spend) but the network only counts the first one  Blockchain network checks every transaction  Computational confirmation by each node 12 EMR: Electronic Medical Record
  14. 14. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Cryptoeconomics (digital economic system)  Blockchain (distributed ledger technology): distributed database of asset ownership 1.0 Cryptocurrency (Bitcoin) 2.0 Smart contracts (Ethereum)  Automatically-executing blockchain contract  DeFi (decentralized finance) 3.0 Beyond financial markets applications  Problem: need for trustable information  Cryptographically tamper-resistant  Computational verification, zero-knowledge proofs  Cryptographically-trustable space applications  Time-keeping, secure comms, supply chain  Transnational economic system, contracting 13 Digital financial and legal infrastructure Digital institutions better serving the public good Blockchain 1.0: Currency Blockchain 2.0: Contracts Blockchain 3.0: Beyond financial market applications: space, genomics, supply chain Blueprint for a New Economy
  15. 15. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space How does Bitcoin (any cryptocurrency) work? Use Wallet app to submit transaction 14 Scan recipient address and submit transaction Address: 32-character alphanumeric string Coin appears in recipient wallet (receive immediately, confirm later) Wallet has keys not money Creates PKI signature address pairs A unique PKI signature for each transaction PKI: public-private key pair (cryptography standard ) Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t5JGQXCTe3c
  16. 16. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space What happens in the background? P2P network confirms & records transaction 15 Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t5JGQXCTe3c Transaction computationally confirmed and ledger account balances updated Transactions submitted to a pool and miners assemble new batch (block) of transactions each 10 min (btc) Each block: transactions and a cryptographic hash of the last block, chaining the blocks, hence “blockchain” Wallet 1 Wallet 2 Peer network maintains the blockchain: ledger nodes and mining nodes Citizen Infrastructure Github
  17. 17. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space How robust is the network? 16 Source: https://getaddr.bitnodes.io/  15,010 global nodes hosting Bitcoin ledger (Mar 2022)  Historical context: 5,404 global nodes (Dec 2016)
  18. 18. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Blockchain primitive (building block) Hash functions  Hash function: function converting any length input (image, movie, legal document) to a fixed length encrypted output  Example: output (digest) of the SHA-256 hash function for  “My last will and testament on this day”  13789917A50601C55D396B83FD98F1A0BED628948AD5F84890C63 210E0897D76  “My last will and testament, on this day”  C6E9D7F4C9F7D0C8CD24E4D674BED1146331DB61555F9D68EBA AA3A0E827BBAB  Adding one comma results in a completely different hash digest  NP-complete problem: hard to compute, easy to verify  Cannot guess the output ahead of time without putting the inputs into the algorithm and performing the calculation  Must do the actual “work” to compute the output 17 Source: SHA-256 hash algorithm: https://passwordsgenerator.net/sha256-hash-generator/
  19. 19. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Hash-linked data structure (IPLD)  Merkle tree: hierarchical structure of hash codes corresponding to a large data structure  A hash is made for each data element, then a hash of these hashes, and so on, hierarchically until there is just one top- level hash that calls the entire data structure, the Merkle root  One top-level Merkle root calls an entire data corpus  Bitcoin blockchain: 725,000+ transaction blocks since inception (Jan 2009) as of Mar 2022  All Github code, all Pubmed publications  An entire brain or cloudmind (brain of brains)  All human knowledge (digitally encoded)  Data pillar (crypto science fiction, Bear, Eon, 1985)  Whole human genome or brain file 18 IPLD: interplanetary hash-linked data structure standard Source: Swan, M., dos Santos, R.P. & Witte, F. (2020). Quantum Computing: Physics, Blockchains, and Deep Learning Smart Networks. London: World Scientific. Blockchain: transaction blocks hashed together
  20. 20. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Automated supply chain 19  Call entire project as a unified data structure Source: PwC (2019). PwC’s Global Blockchain Survey. https://www.pwc.com/us/en/industries/industrial-products/library/blockchain-industrial-manufacturing.html Automotive track and trace Aircraft/spacecraft product lifecycle Blockchain data structure calls multiple levels and items
  21. 21. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 20  A brain is a Merkle forest of ideas  A group of Merkle trees, each calling an arbitrarily-large thought trajectory  Brain DAC I: Basic Brain DAC  Instantiate thinking in a blockchain  Brain DAC II: Quantum Brain DAC  Brain DAC on a quantum platform  Quantum blocktime and superpositioned states (Egan’s solipsist nation)  Personalized connectome scan  NFT-controlled hash structure Quantum Brain DAC Hash-linked data structure applications (IPLD for the Brain) Brain DAC and quantum brain DAC DAC: distributed autonomous corporation = package of blockchain-based smart contracts for automated execution Source: Swan, M. (2015). Blockchain thinking: The brain as a DAC (decentralized autonomous corporation). IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 34(4):41-52 Crypto science fiction: corporations replaced by AI DACs (Schroeder, Stealing Worlds, 2019)
  22. 22. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Source: https://www.seattletimes.com/business/bitcoin-miners-exit-china-beat-a-path-to-the-u-s-as-crypto-climate-shifts/ 21 Source: https://www.illumina.com/science/technology/next-generation-sequencing.html Mining shifting to US as China bans cryptocurrency production (June 2021) USD $45 million/day business: block reward 6.25 btc/block ($312,500) x 6 blocks/hour x 24 hours/day ~= $45,000,000 (at Bitcoin = $50,000) Mining. technical deep-dive.  Miners calculate a hash value using the block header (constant for a specific block) and a nonce (random string changed repeatedly) to create a hash output that hopefully meets the block requirements
  23. 23. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space How does mining work? 22 How does Bitcoin mining work? https://blockexplorer.com/block/0000000000000000002274a2b1f93c85a489c5d75895e9250ac40f06268fafc0 Difficulty: a measure of how hard it is to create a hash that is less than the target (system-set computational number involving floating point operations, exponents, integrals); re-tuned every 2016 blocks (~2 weeks) to keep PoW as a meaningful deterrent against rogue miners as the overall network computation power increases or decreases The winning nonce (number used once) for this block, a number appended to the current header, that when re-hashed, meets the difficulty level (for any block, the Bitcoin nonce is an integer between 0 and 4,294,967,296) Step 2: Record the block. The block hash is the digest of SHA-256 run on six data elements: 1. Bitcoin version number 2. previous block hash 3. Merkle Root of all the transactions in the block 4. timestamp 5. difficulty target 6. nonce 18 leading zeros (can vary) Step 1: Find the nonce (NP-complete problem). A miner guesses a nonce (random string), appends it to the hash of the current header, rehashes the value, and compares to the target hash value (which has a certain number of leading zeros). If the resulting hash value is equal to or lower than the target, the miner has a solution and is awarded the block HERE: Oct 7, 2018 (18 leading zeros) https://blockexplorer.com/block/0000000000000000002274a2b1f93c85a489c5d75895e9250ac40f06268fafc0 RECENT: Nov 6, 2021 (19 leading zeros) https://www.blockchain.com/btc/block/0000000000000000000633b91a8cd72235104935c9d3af0b0edae9ad6f89f4ef Summary: the hash is calculated using the block header, which is constant for a specific block, and a nonce, which is changed repeatedly by the miner, to create different hash digests in the hope of finding a digest that fits the block requirements Target value: an integer in the range of [0, (2256 - difficulty)]
  24. 24. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space PoW mining energy consumption  Proof-of-work competition among miners ensures security of blockchain ledger  Critics argue “wasteful” use of resources but provides secure computational system (725,000 btc blocks Jan 2009-Mar 2022)  39 per cent of proof-of-work mining is powered by renewable energy, primarily hydroelectric energy (Cambridge study, 2021)  Alternatives: proof-of-stake, entropy  Energy consumption 23 Sources: Statista. (2021). https://www.statista.com/chart/18632/estimated-annual-electricity-consumption-of-bitcoin/ Blandin, A. et al. (2021). 3rd Global Cryptographic Benchmarking Study. University of Cambridge.  Less than all the world’s data centers  Less than China, USA, Germany  Less overhead than worldwide bank branch infrastructure  Resource substitution from physical to digital domain
  25. 25. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space economic system. 24 old model. networks. banks. new model. Digital transformation
  26. 26. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Bitcoin denominations 25  Satoshis: common unit of transfer (wallet default)  500 satoshis = USD $0.25 (at Btc = $50,000)  $5 coffee = 10,000 satoshis  1 satoshi = USD $0.0005 (at Btc = $50,000) Source: Bitcoin Foundation, https:// bitcoin.org/ Unit Abbreviation Description BTC 1 Satoshi SAT Satoshi 0.00000001 BTC 2 Microbit uBTC Microbit or bit 0.000001 BTC 3 Millibit mBTC Millibitcoin 0.001 BTC 4 Centibit cBTC Centibitcoin 0.01 BTC 5 Decibit dBTC Decibitcoin 0.1 BTC 6 Bitcoin BTC Bitcoin 1 BTC 7 Decabit daBTC Decabitcoin 10 BTC 8 Hectobit hBTC Hectobitcoin 100 BTC 9 Kilobit kBTC Kilobitcoin 1000 BTC 10 Megabit MBTC Metabitcoin 1,000,000 BTC 100 millionth of a BTC 1 millionth of a BTC
  27. 27. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Non-fungible tokens (NFTs)  NFT: unique IP token registered to a blockchain  CryptoKitties (early NFT)  Ethereum smart contracts for breeding digital cats  CryptoDragons game: own dragon NFT and feed it CryptoKitties (send the dragon contract tokens from the kitties contract)  NFT marketplaces  Mint cryptoart: OpenSea, Rarible, Foundation  NFT registries of physical-world assets  Baseball cards (Candy Digital), Marvel comics (VeVe), Hot Wheels cars (Wax)  Owner/author rights  SIAE Italy 4.5 mn author rights tokenized (Algorand)  Genomics (Nebula Genomics) (Oasis) NGTs  Pharmaceutical supply chain (MediLedger) 26 “Catribute” DNA
  28. 28. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Christie’s $69 million NFT sale (2021)  Collage created over 5,000 days by US-based digital artist Beeple  Political cartoons of current events  Themes: fear and obsession with technology, resentment and desire for wealth, political turbulence  First purely digital artwork (NFT) offered at Christie’s  Sold online for $69,346,250 (2021)  NFT as a guarantee of authenticity  Christie’s accepting Ether payments 27 Source: https://www.christies.com/features/Monumental-collage-by-Beeple-is-first-purely-digital-artwork-NFT-to-come- to-auction-11510-7.aspx Everydays: The First 5,000 Days Beeple, 2007-2020 “Beeple is looking at his whole body of work as it is presented on Instagram as a kind of Duchampian readymade” – specialist Noah Davis Artworld acceptance:
  29. 29. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Financial infrastructure Gaming and 3d prototyping NFTs  Space prototyping automatically NFT-registered  Unity and Unreal engine 3d prototyping digital asset creation  Virtual reality CAD-CAM prototyping, product design and test  Game Asset Store merchandizing (analog to the App Store)  Blockchain-register game engine-developed assets as NFTs  Plug-ins (e.g. Arkane-Unity) enable NFT contract creation  Model for molecular printing design exchange (Etsy + Unity + NFTs)  Creating digital infrastructure of CAD/CAM design blueprints 28 Sources: https://unity.com/products; Corke, G. (2019). Unity for manufacturing. Develop 3D. https://develop3d.com/features/unity-visualisation-vr-manufacturing-industrial-design-game-on-simulation/ Digital Twin software Lightweight CAD viewer Robotic simulation Prototyping in VR
  30. 30. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Blockchain supply chain: Maersk  Maersk TradeLens supply chain blockchain  Provenance chains  Food security, cold storage  Operating at 20+ ports  Hong Kong, Singapore, Halifax, Rotterdam, Bilbao 29 Provenance chain: global supply chain of flowers TradeLens (Maersk-IBM supply chain blockchain) Source: Musienko, Y. (2021). Maersk Blockchain Use Case. Merehead. 16 November 2021. https://merehead.com/blog/maersk-blockchain-use-case/. Maersk TradeLens blockchain (Hyperledger Fabric/IBM): operating at 20+ worldwide ports
  31. 31. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Agenda 30  Introduction  Blockchains  Blockchains in space  Smart network convergence  Time  Thinking
  32. 32. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Blockchains in space  Integrated supply chain management  Automated multi-level asset registries  Missions, equipment, personnel  Transnational economic and legal system  Contracting, payment, audit, dispute resolution  IP registration (sNFTs: space NFTs)  In-space manufacturing  Lot feedstock serialization (additive manufacturing powders)  Printers (electromagnetic field directed aerosol)  B-SURE: biomanufacturing, survival, utility and reliability beyond Earth  Blockchain science  Replicability, evolution 31 Sources: Chin, A.C. (2020). Blockchain Biology. Front. Blockchain. 3:606413. Short, K. (2014). Printable spacecraft. https://spacenews.com/darpa-to-launch-dods-first-in-space-manufacturing-research-program
  33. 33. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Status: space agency planning Blockchains in space  Secure comms and extra-planetary economic system  European Space Agency Space 4.0 vision:  A sustainable space sector connected with the global economy using DLT (distributed ledger technology) applications for payments, procurement, supplier agreements, and automated smart contracts  Applications (ESA Space 4.0, NASA SensorWeb)  Financing and smart contract trustless execution  Supply chain management (provenance blockchains)  Networking and communications, traffic management  Identity and intellectual property rights management  Space-as-a-service (SpaceChain)  2019 Bitcoin demo in space, Jun 2021 Ethereum launch 32 Sources: Torben, D. (2017). Distributed Ledger Technology Leveraging Blockchain for ESA’s Success. ESA HQ: Strategy Department; Jones, K.L. (2020). Blockchain in the Space Sector. The Aerospace Corporation space consultancy. https://www.aero.org NASA SensorWeb: interoperable satellite sensors
  34. 34. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Smart contracts in space  Problem: secure asynchronous space communications  NASA grant to University of Akron (Jin Wei) for research into data analysis and other topics related to space exploration  Develop a resilient networking system partially based on the Ethereum blockchain 33 Source: NASA. 13 January 2018.
  35. 35. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 34 Smart contract-based satellite coordination  Proposal for blockchain application within a multi- sensor satellite architecture  Platform: Hyperledger Fabric Source: NASA and academic researchers Mital, R. et al. (2018). Blockchain application within a multi-sensor satellite architecture.
  36. 36. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space NASA Mission Priorities 35 Source: NASA. (2019). https://www.nasa.gov/ames/spacescience-and-astrobiology/overview
  37. 37. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Agenda 36  Introduction  Blockchains  Blockchains in space  Smart network convergence  Time  Thinking
  38. 38. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Various temporality regimes  Phenomenological human time  Time parallelism: access unlived trajectories  History, literature, social media streams  Biotime: natural cycles and rhythms  Birth-development-maturity-aging-death  The temporality of biological processes  Cellular lifecycles, oscillatory patterns, circadian rhythms, disease (cancer)  Migratory flight, krill swarms (bioconvection)  Compute-time: information technology  Blockchain blocktime  Quantum computing  Deep learning network function-finding time 37 Source: Winfree, A.T. (1980). The Geometry of Biological Time. Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany. (lived experience)
  39. 39. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Blocktime  Blocktime: native time regime of blockchains  Average time to add a new block  Bitcoin ~10 min so enough miners have time to confirm (Ethereum ~10 sec)  Blockchain events are specified in blocktime  Blockheight: total number of blockchain blocks (Btc 725,000 Mar 2022)  Software protocol updates go into effect at a certain blockheight  Taproot activated at blockheight 709, 632 (Nov 2021)  Miner rewards paid 100 blocks after block is added (~17 hours)  Mining difficulty changed every 2016 blocks (~2 weeks)  Block reward halving every 210,000 blocks (~4 years)  Completely separate alternative time domain  Time lock: restricted time period: escrow, check-dating  Time arbitrage opportunities between FiatFi and DeFi 38 FiatFi and DeFi: fiat finance and decentralized finance
  40. 40. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Quantum blocktime  Quantum blocktime: time regime of quantum blockchains  Quantum blockchains: blockchains using quantum methods for cryptography, mining (consensus), and protocol implementation  Migrate to quantum networks entails quantum blockchains  Quantum blockchains as a technology platform  Multi-time interface, implement diverse time regimes  Quantum computational time formulations  Traditional construction of Schrödinger wavefunction in the background of absolute time and space (Newton)  More recent discoveries of time entanglement, information scrambling, chaotic ballistic spread and saturation cycles, discrete time crystals, Floquet engineering (periodicity), spacetime superfluids, OTOCs (out-of-time-order-correlation functions) 39 Source: Hayden, P. & May, A. (2019). Localizing and excluding quantum information; or, how to share a quantum secret in spacetime. Quantum. 3(196).
  41. 41. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space The time of GR-CM-QM  Warped time  Normal time  Superpositioned time 40 General Relativity Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics  The “same” time, treated differently  Bent and stretched, distorted; same time multiple instances  GR-QM: similar domains of universal multiplicity  What is strange is the “squeezing in” of Earth’s classical regime Simultaneity and multiplicity Infinite magnitude Euclidean spacetime Time is simply a clock, an event denomination system (Oriti)
  42. 42. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics  Incompatible as traditionally formulated  GR: Riemannian curved geometry in dynamic space-time  QM: (Schrödinger wavefunction) Newtonian absolute space-time  Wheeler DeWitt: GR-QM linked in a universe without time  Integrated modern formulations  Field-based approach in gauge theories and gravity theories  AdS/CFT (Anti-de Sitter Space/Conformal Field Theory) correspondence: gauge/gravity duality  Random tensors (tensors generalized to 3+D), melonic diagrams  Relativistic quantum information  Study of GR and QM together: black holes, Big Bang, dark energy  Applicability of quantum information when relativistic effects become important in gravitational waves, spacetime structure, Hawking radiation, black hole information paradox 41 Sources: Barbour, J. (2009). The Nature of Time. Foundational Questions Institute essay competition (The Nature of Time) first prize winner. arXiv: 0903.3489. Rovelli, C. (2015). The Strange Equation of Quantum Gravity.” Classical & Quantum Gravity. 32:12, 124005. + -
  43. 43. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Interoperability: GR-CM-QM  Status: technology platforms link GR-CM-QM 42 General Relativity Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics GPS, spacecraft navigation, orbits, cometary trajectories (classical computing) Next-generation computing (quantum computing) Quantum computing in space: orbits, trajectories, navigation (quantum blockchains)
  44. 44. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Time on Mars  Mars24 Sunclock  Earth-day and Martian-sol 43 Sources: https://www.giss.nasa.gov/tools/mars24, https://marsclock.com
  45. 45. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Quantum astronomy (of the future) 44 Source: Luo, L. (2021). Architectures of neuronal circuits. Science. 373:eabg7285 Optical interferometry: European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in northern Chile is the world’s premier astronomical facility for optical interferometry, comprised of four 8.2-meter telescopes that can act as one  Quantum optical methods could allow astronomers to make larger more capable optical interferometers
  46. 46. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Interoperability stack 45 Time interoperable Thinking interoperable Communications Networks interoperable Economics interoperable Quantum blockchains AI (IPLD for the Brain) Internet Blockchain Low Med High News/information Money/contracts BCI/headset/connectome Smart Network Domain Sensitivity  Smart network convergence story Med Med Low High
  47. 47. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 46 IPLD hash-linked data structure for the brain Source: IPLD: interplanetary hash-linked data structure (call an entire data structure with top-level Merkle root). Swan, M. (2015). Blockchain thinking: The brain as a DAC (decentralized autonomous corporation). Technology and Society Magazine 34(4):41-52  A brain is a Merkle forest of ideas  A group of Merkle trees, each calling an arbitrarily-large thought trajectory  Brain DAC II: IPLD for the Brain  Thought content compatibility through multi-hash protocols and Merkle roots  Blockchain overlay realizes B/CI cloudminds through secure thought interoperability between minds  IPLD is an overlay for the web; IPLD for the Brain is an overlay for cloudminds  Brain DAC I  Instantiate thinking in a blockchain IPLD for the Brain
  48. 48. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 47 Neuroscience physics Neuroscience Physics Description AdS/Neuroscience AdS/CFT correspondence bulk-boundary relationships for neuroscience AdS/Brain 4-tier AdS/CFT model of neural signaling network-neuron-synapse-ion AdS/Memory Trigger information storage with highly-critical states AdS/Superconducting Neural signaling is a phase transition with ordered-disordered phases AdS/Energy Energy = Entropy (Hamiltonian energy calculation equated to entropy) Chern-Simons/Neuroscience Geometrical curvature-based min/max model indicates anomaly AdS/Chern-Simons Geodesic-determined neural signaling path (shortest-length curve) Neuronal Gauge Theories Gauge fields reset universal symmetry quantity (free energy) Network Neuroscience Graph theoretical basis for multiscalar brain function Random Tensors Extend random matrices (2D) to 3+D to consider high-dimensional systems Melonic Diagrams Solve graph particle interactions as geometry, label fields with vertices  Neuroscience physics: neuroscience interpretation of foundational physics findings Source: Swan, M., et al. (2022). Quantum Neurobiology. Quantum Reports. 3:1-30.
  49. 49. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space AdS/Neuroscience  AdS/CFT Correspondence  Mathematics to compute physical system with a bulk volume and a boundary surface  AdS/Brain (Neural Signaling)  Multiscalar phase transitions  Floquet periodicity-based dynamics  bMERA tensor networks and matrix quantum mechanics for renormalization  Continuous-time quantum walks  AdS/Information Storage (memory)  Highly-critical states trigger special functionality in systems (new matter phases, memory storage) Sources: Swan, M., dos Santos, R.P., Lebedev, M.A. & Witte, F. (2022). Quantum Computing for the Brain. London: World Scientific. Dvali, G. (2018). Black Holes as Brains: Neural Networks with Area Law Entropy. arXiv:1801.03918v1. 48 Tier Scale Signal 1 Network 10-2 Local field potential 2 Neuron 10-4 Action potential 3 Synapse 10-6 Dendritic spike 4 Molecule 10-10 Ion charge
  50. 50. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Quantum blocktime applications Thought tokening  Thinking functionality as an overlay  AI deep learning nets  Pattern recognition (sound, image, object, face)  Concept identification (tennis game)  Generative learning (make new samples)  Quantum AI deep learning nets  Born machines replace Boltzmann machines  Output interpretation of loss function based on Born rule  Thought-tokening overlay for computational “thinking”  Thinking as a rule-based activity  Word-types: universals, particulars, indexicals  Encoded into a formal system as thought-tokens, registered to blockchains 49 Existing New Source: Cheng, S., Chen, J. & Wang, L. (2018). Information perspective to probabilistic modeling: Boltzmann machines versus Born machines. Entropy. 20:583.
  51. 51. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Quantum blockchains in space  Smart network technologies needed for next steps in beyond planetary expansion into space  Indexicality tools: persistent form, fillable content  Tensor networks: canonical quantum index technology  Treat dimensions as indices (expand and contract)  Quantum blockchain (blocktime) applications  Multi-time interface  Quantum blockchains in space application  Integrate GM-human-QM time, and Euclidean and non-Euclidean time regimes for interoperability  Tokenized thinking  Quantum blockchains in space application  Tokenized thinking automation technology for asteroid mining and space settlement; thought-tokening adds an intelligence layer 50 Index Tech Tensors are indexical Thinking is indexical Time is indexical
  52. 52. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Agenda 51  Introduction  Blockchains  Blockchains in space  Smart network convergence  Time  Thinking
  53. 53. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space 52 Advanced time and thinking technologies, implemented with blockchains, quantum computing, and artificial intelligence (smart network technologies) are next- generation “telescopes” and “microscopes” for extending humanity’s ethically-aware reach into space  Framing question: What philosophical tools are required to extend the reach into space?  Better time interoperability of physical theories (GR, CM, QM)  Better link between General Relativity, Classical (Newtonian) Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics in our technology platforms  Developing thinking itself as a technology Thesis
  54. 54. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Risks and limitations  Technology cycle too early  Blockchains: deployments remain as get-rich-quick schemes not foundational life-improving information technologies  Quantum: no semiconductor supply chain roll-out for QPUs  Smart network technologies are complicated to understand  Quantum error correction stalls  Unable to move from ~100-qubit to million-qubit machines  Blockchain trust issues  Unclear consequences of network-based digital financial system  Social adoption stalls and alienation  Increasing difficulty adapting to intense presence of technology 53 QPU: Quantum Processing Unit
  55. 55. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Shipmind thinker  Standard SciFi tropes  Thinking as a technology (shipmind)  Interface as a technology (everything is an interface technology (i.e. yourself))  Alcubierre drive: idea to compact space in front and stretch it out in back for efficient travel (requires lots of energy)  Bear SciFi: Alcubierre-White drive: warp bubble FTL, intergalactic rescue of ships stuck in warp bubbles, dropping out of white space  Alcubierre: would not work IRL  White: exploring possible structure of the energy density present in a Casimir cavity 54 Sources: Bear, E. (2018). Ancestral Night; (2020) Machine. New York: Tor. Alcubierre, M. (1994). The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity. Classical and Quantum Gravity. 11:L73-L77. White, H. et al. (2021). Worldline numerics applied to custom Casimir geometry generates unanticipated intersection with Alcubierre warp metric. Eur. Phys. J. C. 81:677. Machine, 2020 Ancestral Night, 2018 White Space series
  56. 56. Blockchains in Space Time and Thinking in the ethically-aware reach to Space SSoCIA Oxford 9 March 2022 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan, MBA, PhD Quantum Technologies UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies “The past is never dead. It's not even past.“ – Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun, 1951 Thank you! Questions?
  57. 57. 9 Mar 2022 Blockchains in Space Conclusion  Blockchains in space  Smart network automation technology for advanced projects  Multi-level tracking, economics, contracting coordination  Convergence with other smart network technologies: CRISPR, BCIs, deep learning nets, molecular manufacturing, IoT  Kardashev-level (planetary scale) technologies  Internet, cryptoeconomic networks, coin community democracy  Blockchains and quantum blockchains: theoretical tools for extending humanity’s reach into space  Interoperability of major physical theories (GR, CM, QM)  Quantum blocktime interoperability  Thinking as a technology: IPLD for the Brain 56

×