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Blockchain Singularities

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Beyond digitalizing money, payments, economics, and finance, blockchains are a singularity-class technology that enables the secure, trackable, automated coordination of very large-scale projects, fleets, and swarms
The implications could be an orderly transition to the automation economy and trust-rich human-machine collaboration in the digital smartnetwork societies of the future

Published in: Technology

Blockchain Singularities

  1. 1. San Francisco CA, Aug 28, 2016 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan Philosophy & Economic Theory New School for Social Research, NY NY melanie@BlockchainStudies.org Blockchain Singularities Blockchain 101: the Automation Economy and the Future of Money Part of a Series on Cryptophilosophy cryptophilosophy
  2. 2. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities 1 Melanie Swan, Blockchain Futurist  Philosophy and Economic Theory, New School for Social Research, New York NY  Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies  Singularity University Instructor; Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technology Affiliate Scholar; EDGE Essayist; FQXi Advisor (Foundational Questions Inst) Traditional Markets Background Economic Theory Leadership New Economies research group Source: http://www.melanieswan.com, http://blockchainstudies.org/NSNE.pdf, http://blockchainstudies.org/Metaphilosophy_CFP.pdf https://www.facebook.com/groups/NewEconomies
  3. 3. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain 2 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  4. 4. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Agenda I. Blockchain technology: What is it?  Basic: definition and status  Advanced: automation economy II. Singularity-class applications  Friendly AI  Brain as a DAC  Bio-cryptoeconomy  Blockchains in Space  Nanotech/Synbio III. Conclusion: Singularity futures 3
  5. 5. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Thesis Statement 4 Beyond digitalizing money, payments, economics, and finance, blockchains are a singularity-class technology that enables the secure, trackable, automated coordination of very large-scale projects, fleets, and swarms The implications could be an orderly transition to the automation economy and trust-rich human-machine collaboration in the digital smartnetwork societies of the future
  6. 6. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain Technology: What is it? 5  Blockchain technology is the secure distributed ledger software that underlies cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin  Bitcoin Internet of Money: Skype is an app allowing phone calls via Internet without POTS; Bitcoin is an app allowing money transfer via the Internet without banks; ‘decentralized Paypal’ Internet (decentralized network) Blockchain Bitcoin Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Application Layer Protocol Layer Infrastructure Layer SMTP Email VoIP Phone calls OSI Protocol Stack
  7. 7. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain: a chain of transaction blocks  Every 10 minutes, the latest block of submitted transactions is validated (by cryptographic mining) and posted to a single distributed ledger  Each new block of transactions calls the last block, so that the transactions are chained together sequentially, hence the word blockchain 6 Source: https://blockexplorer.com
  8. 8. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Internet phase transitions 7  Phase I: transfer information  Modernize publishing, music, news; content, information  Phase 2: transfer money, property  Modernize of economics and finance  Digital payments layer the Internet never had  Baking the qualitative good of trust into the infrastructure  Moving up the stack, pushing different qualitative states through the Internet pipes, building future smartnetworks Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  9. 9. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchains useful for the Singularity-class project: Financial Inclusion  Just as the Printing Press and the Internet flattened access to communicating information...  …blockchains are giving the power of the printing press to banking, credit, finance, economics, and currency  Access to economic and financial systems (credit) as a basic human right (2 billion unbanked)  Long-tail economics: any two parties can transact on the network (eBay of money) 8 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  10. 10. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Issue: hierarchy is not scalable 9 Sources: What is Decentralization? http://futurememes.blogspot.com/search?q=datt.co, http://blog.midem.com/2016/04/blockchain-broken-music-industry/  Blockchains are a form of trust-making technology  A system of checks and balances that is universal and planetary-scale (Kardashev-level)  New tiers of scalability are needed  Million-genome repositories (largest is 3700 currently), connectome databases to reveal brain structure
  11. 11. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Economic Principles: not just for Economics 10 Economic Principles  Traditional Deployment  Buy/sell transactions  Financial markets  Blockchain Deployment  Any interaction is a discovery and exchange process  Decentralized models supplement hierarchy  Demurrage: incitatory potential and resource redistribution across network nodes  Reciprocal mining communities (smarthome IOT, brain BCI) Blockchain technology is prompting a rethinking of economic principles and concepts (resources, exchange, allocation, pricing, distribution, markets) to apply in non-monetary contexts
  12. 12. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain Economics and Finance 11 Bitcoin, Crypto-currencies Smart Contracts Economics Finance Spot, Cash Market Futures, Options Market Present Future Source: http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-payment-systems, http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-financial- networks, http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-temporality-smart-contract-timespecifiability-with-blocktime Real-time payments Utility Settlement Coin (USC) (8/24/16) Temporality Regime
  13. 13. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Decentralized Economics and Finance 12 The organizing assumption of economic systems has been scarcity; an orientation to the production and distribution of scarce material goods. This no longer holds in an era of digital services, non-rival goods, and complementarity Mindset Shifts: 1. Scarcity to Abundance 2. Labor to Fulfillment 3. Hierarchy to Decentralization The organizing assumption of financial systems has been the control or at least prediction of the future value of assets and liabilities; finance = credit (credit is really about trust). Also no longer holding. Mindset Shifts: 1. Access instead of Ownership 2. Topological Ranges instead of Point Values 3. Assurity instead of Insufficiency Source: New School New Economies and Finance Working Group: http://blockchainstudies.org/NSNE.pdf Economics Finance Present FutureTemporality Regime
  14. 14. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Abundance Philosophy of Economics: decentralized economics and finance 13 Source: Swan, M. "Automation Economy: An Abundance Philosophy of Economics" In Emerging Technology and Unemployment. Palgrave Macmillan. Forthcoming.  Phase I: transition to Automation Economy  Phase II: transition to Actualization Economy A B C
  15. 15. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Technological Unemployment  Key singularity-class challenge: orderly transition to the Automation Economy  Half (47%) of U.S. employment is at risk of automation in the next two decades – Carl Frey, Oxford, 2015  Why are there still so many jobs in a world that could be automating more quickly? – David Autor, MIT, 2015 14 Source: Swan, M. "Automation Economy: An Abundance Philosophy of Economics" In Emerging Technology and Unemployment. Palgrave Macmillan. Forthcoming.
  16. 16. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Next to Automate? Driving & Transportation  Indicator: automotive company R&D labs in Silicon Valley  Autonomous passenger cars  Singapore self-driving taxis - 8/24/16  Uber’s first self-driving fleet arrives in Pittsburgh – Aug 2016  Commercial trucking  “Autonomous Driving Long-Distance Trucks within Ten Years” - 2014 15 Source: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/aug/25/hail-progress-singapore-launches-worlds-first-self-driving-taxi- service, http://truckyeah.jalopnik.com/autonomous-driving-long-distance-trucks-will-be-a-reali-1603746933 http://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2016-08-18/uber-s-first-self-driving-fleet-arrives-in-pittsburgh-this-month-is06r7on
  17. 17. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Agenda I. Blockchain technology: What is it?  Basic: definition and status  Advanced: automation economy II. Singularity-class applications  Friendly AI  Brain as a DAC  Bio-cryptoeconomy  Blockchains in Space  Nanotech/Synbio III. Conclusion: Singularity futures 16
  18. 18. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchains help Singularity-class Problems 17 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  Properties: secure trackable automated coordination of large-scale projects and large numbers of things  Fleets, swarms, and networks  Autonomous vehicles, IOT sensors, synaptic connections, deep-learners, social robotics, medical nanorobots, planet terraformers, synbio agents, environmental cleanup bots  Implication: vast amount of self- orchestrating network activity  Automated system of checks and balances; all “transactions” must confirm via reputation confirmation, algorithmic trust and smartnetwork consensus mechanisms
  19. 19. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain AI Apps Enact Friendly AI (Artificial Intelligence) 18  Digital intelligences running on consensus-managed smartnetworks  Not in isolation  Good reputational standing required to conduct operations  Transactions to access resources (like fund-raising), provide services, enter into contracts, even retire  Smartnetwork consensus only validates and records bonafide transactions from ‘good’ agents Sources: http://cointelegraph.com/news/113368/blockchain-ai-5-top-reasons-the-blockchain-will-deliver-friendly-ai, http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/swan20141117
  20. 20. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Thinking DACs (Decentralized Autonomous Corporation (packages of smart contracts))  Register and integrate deep learners with blockchains for tracking and security  State storing: Recurrent neural nets  Memory: modular machine learning add-on (Neural Turing Machines)  File-serving architecture, Internet’s new plumbing: IPFS  Predictability: structural equation modeling, causal graphical models  Automate thinking process  Input-processing-output  Example: Autonomous lab robots  On-chain IP discovery tracking 19 Source: Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC. Neural Turing Machines: https://arxiv.org/abs/1410.5401. IPFS (Benet): https://medium.com/@ConsenSys/an-introduction-to-ipfs-9bba4860abd0#.bgig18cgp
  21. 21. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Consciousness and the Brain as a DAC 1. Hard problem of consciousness  What is it like to be a bat, me, you, etc.  Consciousness and the human brain  Need to connect information and meaning  Use Brain DACs to automate modeling  Big data needed for progress: Large-scale databases of personal connectome files to reveal brain structure, synaptic relations 2. Personal Thinking Chains (backup)  Life-log memories, impute utility functions and goals, generate QS biometric datastore  Example: Oculus Rift–connectome integration for experience sharing (SnapChat t+1) 20 Source: Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Corporation). Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE 2015; 34(4): 41-52.
  22. 22. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Large possibility space of Intelligence 21 Source: Yudkovsky, E. In Roman V. Yampolskiy. Artificial Superintelligence. 2015.
  23. 23. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities 22 Future of Diverse Thinking Entities Autonomous Car Smart Contract DAOs/DACs Enhanced Human IOT/M2M Smartnetworks Whole Brain Emulations Hybrid Classic Human Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/01/blockchain-thinking-transition-to.html Neocortical Column Arrays Deep-Learning Clusters Machine Learning Algorithms Simulated Minds High-frequency Trading Networks Real-time Bidding Arrays Brain-computer Interfaces Digital Mindfile Uploads Artificial Life Synthetic BiologyDesigned Life Cellular Automata Supercomputers AI Agents Expert Systems Autonomic Computing Natural Language Processors Brain Scans Animals Personal Robotics Smarthome Networks
  24. 24. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities VR DACs: metaverse chains & prototyping  Blockchains automate VR world-building  Simulations, models: QFT, entropy, etc.  VR exceeds IRL limitations  Entertainment, challenge, fun, meaningful activity, 10,000 gaming hours; VR is composable and rewarding in ways the physical world is not; Simulation  VR/IRL interplay and embedded world  Computational universe embedded in physical universe (all objects “smart”; ARG: Pokémon Go, Ingress)  Physical universe in the computational universe (living in VR) 23 Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/09/vr-chains-and-dac-brains-upload-your.html http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v11/n2/abs/nphys3230.html
  25. 25. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Social Robotics  Personal voice assistants, social robotics  All apps become voice-activated, interactive  Cross-cloud accessibility (IOT smarthome, connected car, smartcity)  Fleet coordination functionality  Automated, secure, tracking/logging, remunerative structure, transaction coordination, apps/processes (smart contracts), coordination (updates), audit log 24 Source: Swan, M. Philosophy of Social Robotics: Abundance Economics. Sociorobotics, 2016. http://www.melanieswan.com/documents/SocialRobotics.pdf.
  26. 26. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Nanotech Grey Goo and Runaway Synbio 25 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  Worry: Grey Goo (unchecked nanotech proliferation), DNA- printed synthetic bio-plague  Science fiction examples: Blood Music, Prey  Solution: signing; as physical- world engineers sign the bridges they build, likewise synbio engineers sign DNA and nanotech designs (unavoidable signing per detectable origins)
  27. 27. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Instead of grey goo, blockchain Utility Fog  Blockchain-based nano- compilers create and manage on-demand utility fog  Utility fog: a collection of nanorobots that can replicate a physical structure on- demand  Info probe, shield, control buffer, assessment tool, in-situ resource cloud  Example: auto-chair DAC for diabetic patients 26
  28. 28. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities  Bio-cryptoeconomics for secure automation and coordination of medical nanorobotics for cellular repair  Secure crypto-transaction tracking  Automated coordination  Medical nanorobotics as coming-onboard repair platform for the human body  Activity coordinated, tracked, monitored  High number of agents and “transactions”  Secure automation is obvious requirement  Crypto-tracking DAC coordinates medical nanorobotic cell repair 27 Sources: Bio-Cryptoeconomy: Nanorobotic DACs for Cell Repair and Enhancement http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2016/08/bio-cryptoeconomy-nanorobotic-dacs-for.html Bio-cryptoeconomy Medical nanorobotic DACs to coordinate cell repair
  29. 29. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Bio-cryptoeconomy Bio-Nano Repair DACs  In-cell repair DACs monitoring individual cell health and facilitating augmentation (enhancement platform)  Bio-DACs manage physical health and mental performance as a demurrage (action-inciting) health currency  Idea-tracking  BCI-interfacing 28 Sources: Bio-Cryptoeconomy: Nanorobotic DACs for Cell Repair and Enhancement http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2016/08/bio-cryptoeconomy-nanorobotic-dacs-for.html
  30. 30. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities BCI Cloudminds and Chainbrains  Cloudmind: cloud-based thinker or thinking entity  Joining a cloudmind collaboration, blockchains (cryptographic ledgers) to administer cloudminds  Line-item tracking and credit- assignation (like Github, or SVN/CVS for brainstorming)  Privacy, security  Remuneration  Protect against personal identity loss and absorption into a groupmind 29 Source: http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-cloudminds-humanmachine-pooledmind-dacs; Mind’ is generally denoting an entity with some capacity for processing, not the volitionary action and free will of a consciousness agent
  31. 31. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Spacechains: Blockchains in Space 30 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  Advances in space  Launch: microsats, small rockets, commercial launch (reusability, rocket design), regular Mars launches planned each 26 months with large-cargo drops, communications networks,  Light sail and optical propulsion  Asteroid mining, space settlement, transport  Exoplanet discovery in habitable zones (Alpha Centauri, TRAPPIST-1)  Relevant blockchain functionality  Secure, trackable, automated coordination of high numericity and dimensionality at scale  Autonomous entities, Bitsat backup network
  32. 32. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain IOT 31 Sources: http://www.zdnet.com/article/internet-of-things-market-to-hit-7-1-trillion-by-2020-idc/, http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  M2M/IOT Bitcoin payment network to enable the machine economy  IOT 2020: 26 bn devices in a $7 tn market  The economic layer the web never had  Smarthome IOT networks  Self-mining ecologies  Privacy orchestration: devices, robotics, digital personal health assistants  Blockchains: economic principle-driven large-scale resource allocation and coordination mechanisms Smartcity Connected Car Coordination Smarthome IOT and Personal Robotics Coordination
  33. 33. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain Health  Blockchain technology in health-related applications 1. EMRs: Personal Health Record Storage and Access  Personal health records stored and administered via blockchain  Users key-permission doctors and other parties into records 2. Health Research Commons  Aggregated personal medical records, quantified self data commons (DNA.bits), genome and connectome files 3. Health Document Notary Services  Proof-of-insurance, test results, prescriptions, status, condition, treatment, physician referrals 4. Doctor Vendor RFP Services  (Like Uber drivers) doctors and health practices bid to supply medical services; automated bidding via tradenets 32 Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.fr/2014/09/blockchain-health-remunerative-health.html
  34. 34. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Cryptocurrency design features  Economics as a design tool  Cryptocurrencies for non-monetary purposes  Example: demurrage property, a built-in mechanism for spend/action-taking  Anti-inflationary, supply can be set to expire, redistribute, etc. at certain moments  Good for systems where want full consumption: drug, neuro-transmitters, idea propagation, GBIs (Guaranteed Basic Income)  GBHA (Guaranteed Basic Health Initiative): paid out and payable in HealthCoin; HSA (Health Savings Account) 2.0  Fitbit is a demurrage health currency by encouraging action 33
  35. 35. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Bitcoin MOOCs Long-tail of learning  Blockchain-based “Kiva for literacy”  Peer-to-peer learning contracts  Literacy beyond reading  Technical, Agricultural, Vocational Literacy  Blockchain-based personal development contracts  QS-biometric utility function imputation and tracking  Maslow chains, subjectivation and actualization chains  Development Economics 2.0: CoinDrops  Literacy contracts, remittances, blockchain-tracked aid, microcredit, decentralized credit bureaus  Open-source FICO scores  Peer-vouched reputation 34
  36. 36. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Digital Cryptocitizen Sensibility  The new literacy: digital literacy  Cryptocitizen: back-up your money  Self-responsibility-taking; designing personalized economic, political, and social systems  Governance services vs. being governed  Monetary, economic, financial, and legal services (example: self-designed mortgage) 35 Source: Swan, M. Crypto Enlightenment: A Social Theory of Blockchains http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/the-crypto- enlightenment-social-theory-of-blockchains
  37. 37. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Agenda I. Blockchain technology: What is it?  Basic: definition and status  Advanced: automation economy II. Singularity-class applications  Friendly AI  Brain as a DAC  Bio-cryptoeconomy  Blockchains in Space  Nanotech/Synbio III. Conclusion: Singularity futures 36
  38. 38. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain downside and risks? ISSUE 37 Satoshi Roundtable #3: Scaling Bitcoin Milan Oct 8-9, 2016 Hacking Scandals Mt Gox, Ethereum DAO, Bitfinex Silk Road, drug dealers, terrorists, criminals Scalability, Block size, Sidechains, Mining Mining Centralization RESPONSE Centralization temporary; wider- spread at higher-scale; moving to 16 nm, solar/hydro-powered chips Building resilient system constantly under open attack 24/7 (remember early Internet DNS attacks) Blockchains are a universal technology available to all; non- criminal activity predominates Early Internet: this can’t scale, it is not resilient, Yahoo, AltaVista down for days of DNS attacks Source: http://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-scaling-conference-italy
  39. 39. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Seeking blockchain collaboration  New School New Economies working group  Mission statement: http://blockchainstudies.org/NSNE.pdf  Join: https://www.facebook.com/groups/NewEconomies  Papers  CFP 4000-word articles “Philosophy of Blockchains” due Oct 1, 2016, Wiley journal Metaphilosophy http://blockchainstudies.org/Metaphilosophy_CFP.pdf  Events: NY and CA  Rethink/ECONOMICS, Thursday, September 15, 7-9 pm, ConsenSys, 49 Bogart Street, Suite 22, Brooklyn NY 11249 https://www.facebook.com/events/960033624119253/  Book / special journal issue contributions  Decentralized economics, Decentralized finance 38 Source: http://blockchainstudies.org/NSNE.pdf Thank You! Questions?
  40. 40. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Thesis Statement 39 Beyond digitalizing money, payments, economics, and finance, blockchains are a singularity-class technology that enables the secure, trackable, automated coordination of very large-scale projects, fleets, and swarms The implications could be an orderly transition to the automation economy and trust-rich human-machine collaboration in the digital smartnetwork societies of the future
  41. 41. San Francisco CA, Aug 28, 2016 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan Philosophy & Economic Theory New School for Social Research, NY NY melanie@BlockchainStudies.org Blockchain Singularities Blockchain 101: the Automation Economy and the Future of Money Part of a Series on Cryptophilosophy cryptophilosophy Thank You! Questions?
  42. 42. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Cryptocurrency design features  Health itself as a demurrage currency, a continually auto-redistributing commodity among synapses, cells, humans; body and brain as a DAO/DAC AI  Cognitive enhancement drugs work this way, maximize distribution in the neuro-stack: piracetams, CILTEP  Concept: demurrage resource-allocation + Đapp (blockchain-based distributed app)  Automatic redistribution of any commodity within a system (brain or mindfile (potentiation, optogenetic stimulation)), body (‘health’ (oxygen, waste removal nanobots, circulating lab-on- chips)), work team (ideas), society (liberty) 41
  43. 43. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain Genomics 42  Jurisdictional regulation prevents individuals from having access to their own genetic data http://genomesunzipped.org/2011/03/people-have-a-right-to-access-their-own-genetic-information.php
  44. 44. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Blockchain Applications by Sector (selected) 43 Sources: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-health-and-crypto-wellness-futures Relevant Blockchain Properties • Cryptoledger • Decentralized network • Trustless counterparties • Independent consensus-confirmed transactions • Permanent record • Public records repository • Notarization time- stamping hashes • Universal format • Accessibility Government & Legal • Transnational orgs • Personalized governance services • Voting, propositions • P2P bonds • Tele-attorney services • IP registration and exchange • Tax receipts • Notary service and document registry Financial Services • Currency • Payments & Remittance • Banking & Finance • Clearing & Settlement • Insurance • FinTech • Trading & Derivatives • QA & Internal Audit • Crowdfunding IOT (M2M, computing) • Agricultural & drone sensor networks • Smarthome networks • Integrated smartcity, connected car, smarthome sensors • Self-driving car • Personalized robots, robotic companions • Personalized drones • Digital assistants • Communication (messaging) • Large-scale coordination • Entity ingress/egress • Transaction security • Universal format • Large-scale multi- data-stream integration • Privacy and security • Real-time accessibility Health • Universal EMR • Health databanks • QS Data Commons • Big health data stream analytics • Digital health wallet • Smart property • HealthToken • Personal development contracts • Large-scale infrastructural element for coordination • Checks-and- balances system for ‘good-player’ access • Community supercomputing • Crowd analysis • P2P resourcenets • Film, dataviz • AI: blockchain advocates, friendly AI, blockchain learners, digital mindfile services Science
  45. 45. Aug 28, 2016 Blockchain Singularities Permissioned (identity-known) and Permissionless (anonymous) Ledgers 44 Source: Swan, M. Blockchain Consensus Protocols. http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-consensus-protocols extended from: Swanson, T. (2015). Consensus as a service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems New car: Enduser freedom • Censorship-resistant • ‘Brave new world’ apps • Anonymous validators (network vulnerable to anonymous attack) Better horse: Enterprise efficiency • Identity-confirmed • ‘Reinvent the existing world’ improvement apps • Official legal registry Stellar

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