SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Prepared By – Kartik Tiwari (Lecturer)
Hygia College of Pharmacy, Lucknow (U.P)
Content as Per D. Pharm Syllabus
Diuretic
Definition: Diuretics are the medications that increase the flow of urine
(diuresis). These drugs work by removing sodium and chloride from the body
through urine.
 Diuretics used in the treatment of hypertension and edema (swelling).
LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METALS
 Classification of diuretics
1. Thiazide diuretics: Hydrochlorthiazide, Chlorthalidone and Benzthiazide.
2. Thiazide like diuretics: Metolazone and Xipamide.
3. Loop diuretics: Furosemide and Bumetanide
4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Acetazolamide.
5. Potassium sparing diuretics: Spironolactone.
6. Osmotic diuretic: Mannitol and Glycine.
Brand Name: Lasix and frusenex
LIMIT TEST FOR ARSENIC
LIMIT TEST
Hypoglycemicagents
Definition: Hypoglycemic agents are the medications used for the treatment
of diabetes.
 Diabetes is a disease state which impairs the body’s ability to maintain
blood glucose level.
 It is characterized by the hyperglycemia which is due to the defect in the
secretion and action of the insulin
 Classification of hypoglycemic agents
1. Sulfonylureas:
a) First generation: Acetohexamide, Chlorpropamide, Tolazamide,
Tolbutamide
b) Second generation: Glibenclamide, Glipizide, Gliclazide.
2. Biguanides: Metformin, Phenformin
3. Meglitinides: Repaglitinide, Nateglitinide
4. Thiazolidinediones: Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone.
5. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors: Acarbose, Miglitol.
6. Incretin agonists: Exenatide, Liraglutide.
7. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin.
8. DPP-4 Inhibitors: Sitagliptin, Vildagliptin, Saxagliptin.
Brand Name: Afdiex and Bionil
Brand Name: Glucophage
and Fortamet
 Uses: It is used in the treatment of the diabetes ( Type-2 and Type-1)
 Stability and storage: It should be stored in the closed container and
keep away from light and moisture
 Formulation: Tablets.
 Stability and storage: It should be stored in the closed container and
keep away from light and moisture
 Formulation: Tablets.
 Uses: It is used in the treatment of edema, hypertension and
inflammation
Principle:
The limit test for Arsenic Principle as per pharmacopeia is based on the
fact that arsenic in arsenious state can be easily reduced to arsenic gas.
when this gas is passed over mercuric chloride paper. it produces a stain
that ranges in color from yellow to brown. The intensity and length of
which are proportional to the amount of arsenic.
Reaction:
As3+ H3AsO4
Arsenic acid
H3AsO4
Arsenic acid
H3AsO3
Arsenious acid
H3AsO3 + 3H2 AsH3 + 3H2O
Arsine gas
2AsH3 + HgCl2 Hg(AsH2)2 + 2HCl
Yellow Color
Stain
Standard Test
Add 1ml std. soln of arsenic
(10ppm) in 50 ml of water.
Dissolved sample in 50ml water.
Add 10ml of stannous HCl acid. Add 10ml of stannous HCl acid.
Add 1gm of Potassium Iodide +
10gm of granulated zinc.
Add 1gm of Potassium Iodide +
10gm of granulated zinc.
Place in Gutzeit Apparatus for 40
minutes.
Place in Gutzeit Apparatus for 40
minutes.
Principle:
Limit test of heavy metals is based on the reaction of metallic impurities
with the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sodium sulfide in an acidic medium to
produce metal sulfides which gives brown colour.
Heavy metals like cobalt, tin, manganese, bismuth, antimony, silver,
arsenic, lead etc.
Heavy metals + H2S/ Na2S Sulfides of heavy metals
(Brown colour)
Standard Test
Place 2 ml of standard lead
solution (0.02mg lead) in a
Nessler cylinder labelled as
Standard and diluted with water
to 25 ml
Place 25 ml of the solution of the
test sample prepared according
to direction of I.P. in a Nessler
cylinder labelled as ‘Test’
Adjust with dil. Acetic acid or
ammonia to a pH b/t 3 to 4 and
dilute with water to 35 ml.
Adjust with dil. Acetic acid or
ammonia to a pH b/t 3 to 4 and
dilute with water to 35 ml.
Adjust with dil. Acetic acid or
ammonia to a pH b/t 3 to 4 and
dilute with water to 35 ml.
Add 10 ml of freshly prepared
saturated solution of hydrogen
sulphide
Make the volume to 50 ml with
distilled water and mix.
Make the volume to 50 ml with
distilled water and mix.
Allow to stand for 5 min Allow to stand for 5 min
Reaction:
Procedure:
Procedure:

More Related Content

Similar to Diuretic, Hypoglycemic and Limit test of Heavy metals and Arsenic.-1.pdf

LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEAD
LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEADLIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEAD
LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEAD
Gnanabhaskar Danaboina
 
Poison and antidote
Poison and antidotePoison and antidote
Poison and antidote
Dipali Kulkarni
 
Poison and antidote
Poison and antidotePoison and antidote
Poison and antidote
Dipali Kulkarni
 
Diuretic Analysis
Diuretic AnalysisDiuretic Analysis
Diuretic Analysis
Naushiyakhan
 
Antacid 1
Antacid 1Antacid 1
Antacid 1
Dipali Kulkarni
 
Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)
Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)
Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)
Dr. Alex Martin
 
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYUnit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Sayali Powar
 
Non Aqueous Titration
Non Aqueous TitrationNon Aqueous Titration
Estimation of heavy metals in crude drugs
Estimation of heavy metals in crude drugsEstimation of heavy metals in crude drugs
Estimation of heavy metals in crude drugs
MehulJain143
 
Unit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar Gupta
Unit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for  B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar GuptaUnit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for  B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar Gupta
Unit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar Gupta
ChevallaMaheshwari
 
SM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdf
SM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdfSM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdf
SM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdf
Keval81
 
Analysis of diuretics
Analysis of diureticsAnalysis of diuretics
Analysis of diuretics
basha16111995
 
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit TestLimt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
EXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptx
EXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptxEXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptx
EXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptx
NourMansour11
 
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptxGastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Gastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agents
rashmimishra39
 
Cathartics by adk
Cathartics by adkCathartics by adk
Cathartics by adk
Adarsh Khilawdiya
 
9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt
9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt
9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt
ssusere48699
 
Analysis of Food additives.pdf
Analysis of Food additives.pdfAnalysis of Food additives.pdf
Analysis of Food additives.pdf
BbCc12
 
physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,
physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,
physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,
Sharath Hns
 

Similar to Diuretic, Hypoglycemic and Limit test of Heavy metals and Arsenic.-1.pdf (20)

LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEAD
LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEADLIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEAD
LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METAL LEAD
 
Poison and antidote
Poison and antidotePoison and antidote
Poison and antidote
 
Poison and antidote
Poison and antidotePoison and antidote
Poison and antidote
 
Diuretic Analysis
Diuretic AnalysisDiuretic Analysis
Diuretic Analysis
 
Antacid 1
Antacid 1Antacid 1
Antacid 1
 
Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)
Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)
Limit test (B.Pharm, PCI Syllabus)
 
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYUnit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 
Non Aqueous Titration
Non Aqueous TitrationNon Aqueous Titration
Non Aqueous Titration
 
Estimation of heavy metals in crude drugs
Estimation of heavy metals in crude drugsEstimation of heavy metals in crude drugs
Estimation of heavy metals in crude drugs
 
Unit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar Gupta
Unit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for  B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar GuptaUnit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for  B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar Gupta
Unit-III Gastro-intestinal agent for B&D Pharmacy.pptx by Bulet Kumar Gupta
 
SM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdf
SM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdfSM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdf
SM_b70c6b76-9696-41a0-a265-34b997ffbbee_75.pdf
 
Analysis of diuretics
Analysis of diureticsAnalysis of diuretics
Analysis of diuretics
 
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit TestLimt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
 
EXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptx
EXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptxEXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptx
EXPERIMENT 5 - CARBOHYDRATES.pptx
 
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptxGastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
 
Gastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agents
 
Cathartics by adk
Cathartics by adkCathartics by adk
Cathartics by adk
 
9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt
9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt
9.LIMIT TESTS Revised.ppt
 
Analysis of Food additives.pdf
Analysis of Food additives.pdfAnalysis of Food additives.pdf
Analysis of Food additives.pdf
 
physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,
physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,
physicochemical and instrumental method analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms,
 

More from Kartik Tiwari

Chapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdf
Chapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdfChapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdf
Chapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdf
Kartik Tiwari
 
Chapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptx
Chapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptxChapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptx
Chapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
MakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdf
MakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdfMakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdf
MakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdf
Kartik Tiwari
 
Chapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdf
Chapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdfChapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdf
Chapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdf
Kartik Tiwari
 
Chapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdf
Chapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdfChapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdf
Chapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdf
Kartik Tiwari
 
Precipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptx
Precipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptxPrecipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptx
Precipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
Local Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptx
Local Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptxLocal Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptx
Local Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
Gravimetric Analysis.pptx
Gravimetric Analysis.pptxGravimetric Analysis.pptx
Gravimetric Analysis.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptx
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptxHigh Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptx
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
Histaminic Agent.pptx
Histaminic Agent.pptxHistaminic Agent.pptx
Histaminic Agent.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
continuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptx
continuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptxcontinuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptx
continuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
Gc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptx
Gc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptxGc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptx
Gc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
LC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptx
LC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptxLC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptx
LC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
3D QSAR.pptx
3D QSAR.pptx3D QSAR.pptx
3D QSAR.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
Kartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptx
Kartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptxKartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptx
Kartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
Affinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptx
Affinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptxAffinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptx
Affinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx
Kartik Tiwari
 
Presentation on Lead Discovery (1).ppt
Presentation on Lead Discovery (1).pptPresentation on Lead Discovery (1).ppt
Presentation on Lead Discovery (1).ppt
Kartik Tiwari
 

More from Kartik Tiwari (20)

Chapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdf
Chapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdfChapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdf
Chapter -12, Antibiotics (One Page Notes).pdf
 
Chapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptx
Chapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptxChapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptx
Chapter -13, Anti-neoplastic drugs (one page notes).pptx
 
MakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdf
MakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdfMakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdf
MakeIntern IIT Delhi CADD Presentation.pdf
 
Chapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdf
Chapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdfChapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdf
Chapter 1 notes Part-2 (One Page Note) Error and limit test .pdf
 
Chapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdf
Chapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdfChapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdf
Chapter 1 (One Page Note) Definition and errors of Pharmaceutical chemistry.pdf
 
Precipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptx
Precipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptxPrecipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptx
Precipitation_titration_mohr's_method_Chart.pptx
 
Local Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptx
Local Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptxLocal Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptx
Local Anaesthetic (General Overview).pptx
 
Gravimetric Analysis.pptx
Gravimetric Analysis.pptxGravimetric Analysis.pptx
Gravimetric Analysis.pptx
 
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptx
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptxHigh Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptx
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.pptx
 
(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.pptx
 
(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm syllabus orientation..pptx
 
Histaminic Agent.pptx
Histaminic Agent.pptxHistaminic Agent.pptx
Histaminic Agent.pptx
 
continuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptx
continuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptxcontinuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptx
continuous flow reactor M.Pharm .pptx
 
Gc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptx
Gc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptxGc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptx
Gc-AAS (Gas chromatography - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).pptx
 
LC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptx
LC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptxLC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptx
LC-FTIR PPT.pptx S.pptx
 
3D QSAR.pptx
3D QSAR.pptx3D QSAR.pptx
3D QSAR.pptx
 
Kartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptx
Kartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptxKartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptx
Kartik Tiwari microwave ppt.pptx
 
Affinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptx
Affinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptxAffinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptx
Affinity Chromatography MP MPAT Presentation.pptx
 
(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx
(Kartik Tiwari) Denovo Drug Design.pptx
 
Presentation on Lead Discovery (1).ppt
Presentation on Lead Discovery (1).pptPresentation on Lead Discovery (1).ppt
Presentation on Lead Discovery (1).ppt
 

Recently uploaded

RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
zuzanka
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour TrainingNutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
melliereed
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
PsychoTech Services
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
siemaillard
 
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
Steve Thomason
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
S. Raj Kumar
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
HajraNaeem15
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
danielkiash986
 
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDFLifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Vivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
deepaannamalai16
 

Recently uploaded (20)

RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour TrainingNutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
 
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
 
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDFLifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
 

Diuretic, Hypoglycemic and Limit test of Heavy metals and Arsenic.-1.pdf

  • 1. Prepared By – Kartik Tiwari (Lecturer) Hygia College of Pharmacy, Lucknow (U.P) Content as Per D. Pharm Syllabus Diuretic Definition: Diuretics are the medications that increase the flow of urine (diuresis). These drugs work by removing sodium and chloride from the body through urine.  Diuretics used in the treatment of hypertension and edema (swelling). LIMIT TEST FOR HEAVY METALS  Classification of diuretics 1. Thiazide diuretics: Hydrochlorthiazide, Chlorthalidone and Benzthiazide. 2. Thiazide like diuretics: Metolazone and Xipamide. 3. Loop diuretics: Furosemide and Bumetanide 4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Acetazolamide. 5. Potassium sparing diuretics: Spironolactone. 6. Osmotic diuretic: Mannitol and Glycine. Brand Name: Lasix and frusenex LIMIT TEST FOR ARSENIC LIMIT TEST Hypoglycemicagents Definition: Hypoglycemic agents are the medications used for the treatment of diabetes.  Diabetes is a disease state which impairs the body’s ability to maintain blood glucose level.  It is characterized by the hyperglycemia which is due to the defect in the secretion and action of the insulin  Classification of hypoglycemic agents 1. Sulfonylureas: a) First generation: Acetohexamide, Chlorpropamide, Tolazamide, Tolbutamide b) Second generation: Glibenclamide, Glipizide, Gliclazide. 2. Biguanides: Metformin, Phenformin 3. Meglitinides: Repaglitinide, Nateglitinide 4. Thiazolidinediones: Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone. 5. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors: Acarbose, Miglitol. 6. Incretin agonists: Exenatide, Liraglutide. 7. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin. 8. DPP-4 Inhibitors: Sitagliptin, Vildagliptin, Saxagliptin. Brand Name: Afdiex and Bionil Brand Name: Glucophage and Fortamet  Uses: It is used in the treatment of the diabetes ( Type-2 and Type-1)  Stability and storage: It should be stored in the closed container and keep away from light and moisture  Formulation: Tablets.  Stability and storage: It should be stored in the closed container and keep away from light and moisture  Formulation: Tablets.  Uses: It is used in the treatment of edema, hypertension and inflammation Principle: The limit test for Arsenic Principle as per pharmacopeia is based on the fact that arsenic in arsenious state can be easily reduced to arsenic gas. when this gas is passed over mercuric chloride paper. it produces a stain that ranges in color from yellow to brown. The intensity and length of which are proportional to the amount of arsenic. Reaction: As3+ H3AsO4 Arsenic acid H3AsO4 Arsenic acid H3AsO3 Arsenious acid H3AsO3 + 3H2 AsH3 + 3H2O Arsine gas 2AsH3 + HgCl2 Hg(AsH2)2 + 2HCl Yellow Color Stain Standard Test Add 1ml std. soln of arsenic (10ppm) in 50 ml of water. Dissolved sample in 50ml water. Add 10ml of stannous HCl acid. Add 10ml of stannous HCl acid. Add 1gm of Potassium Iodide + 10gm of granulated zinc. Add 1gm of Potassium Iodide + 10gm of granulated zinc. Place in Gutzeit Apparatus for 40 minutes. Place in Gutzeit Apparatus for 40 minutes. Principle: Limit test of heavy metals is based on the reaction of metallic impurities with the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sodium sulfide in an acidic medium to produce metal sulfides which gives brown colour. Heavy metals like cobalt, tin, manganese, bismuth, antimony, silver, arsenic, lead etc. Heavy metals + H2S/ Na2S Sulfides of heavy metals (Brown colour) Standard Test Place 2 ml of standard lead solution (0.02mg lead) in a Nessler cylinder labelled as Standard and diluted with water to 25 ml Place 25 ml of the solution of the test sample prepared according to direction of I.P. in a Nessler cylinder labelled as ‘Test’ Adjust with dil. Acetic acid or ammonia to a pH b/t 3 to 4 and dilute with water to 35 ml. Adjust with dil. Acetic acid or ammonia to a pH b/t 3 to 4 and dilute with water to 35 ml. Adjust with dil. Acetic acid or ammonia to a pH b/t 3 to 4 and dilute with water to 35 ml. Add 10 ml of freshly prepared saturated solution of hydrogen sulphide Make the volume to 50 ml with distilled water and mix. Make the volume to 50 ml with distilled water and mix. Allow to stand for 5 min Allow to stand for 5 min Reaction: Procedure: Procedure: