SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 46
Introduction
to
Philosophy
Of the
Human Person
Teacher: Ms. Rizza Mae C. Pelomino
Learning Competency
Distinguish opinion from truth
Learning Competency Code
PPT11/12-lc-2.1
OBJECTIVES
 Discuss the philosophical bases of knowing the
truth.
 Differentiate opinion from truth.
 Act with self confidence in sharing own ideas and
conclusions
 Practice concern for others by respecting their
own opinions.
Philosophy was born out of
Man’s desire to know, to
interpret and to understand
the world.
It came to being a persistent
attempts to acquire real
knowledge and truth.
Methods
of
Philosophizing
Activity 1: Complete the phrase
I know that ……………………………….
I know why ……………………………….
I know how ……………………………….
KNOWLEDGE
It pertains to the
Ideas and beliefs
that we know to
be true.
There are also statements that are
not evidently or immediately know
to be true.
We say that man has a knowledge
of a thing?
Identify
Give examples
Point out
Relate or associates
Rene Descartes said that
doubt everything can be
doubted.
In Philosophy systematic doubt is
employed to help to determine the
truth
Basis of Determining the Truth
Lifted from the book of Roberto Abella
1. A belief is true if it can be justified or proven through the use of
one’s senses.
Lets investigate the nature of knowledge by simple giving
examples starting the very obvious thing that we know about our
self.
Basis of Determining the Truth
Lifted from the book of Roberto Abella
2. A belief or statement is true if it based on facts.
If your are claim for something then you have to use all the facts
that will guide you in searching for truth.
3. Getting a consensus or having people agree on a common belief.
This is another way of determining of what is true. But this
approach has certain limitations in getting everyone’s to agree
on something may not make the belief true. However you may
use other evidences to determine its truthfulness
Basis of Determining the Truth
Lifted from the book of Roberto Abella
4. A statement shall be proven through an action to determine its
truth.
Example: If you brag about your skills in baking cakes. You
should know how to do it and the quality of the product will
speak for itself.
5. Claims and beliefs should be subjected to test in order to
determine truth.
The claims should be subjected to prove to its validity.
Things to remember…
Truth lies the heart of any inquiries.
Discovering truth about oneself is a
first step in exploring knowledge and
truth.
Basis of Determining the Truth
1. A belief is true if it can be justified or proven through the use of
one’s senses.
2. A belief or statement is true if it based on facts.
3. Getting a consensus or having people agree on a common
belief.
4. A statement shall be proven through an action to determine its
truth.
5. Claims and beliefs should be subjected to test in order to
determine truth.
Systematic doubt and Senses
Facts
Action
Test
Other evidences agreed by group of people
The first concept about truth is
rooted in an ancient Greek
Philosophy’s concept of knowledge
as “justified, true belief” This
concept rest on three conditions:
(1) True things can be known,
(2)something is true because you
believe it to be true, and that (3)
there is justification for such belief.
Theories in Determining the Truth
1. Correspondence Theory states
that something is true if it
corresponds to reality or the
actual state of affairs. This theory
assumes a direct relationship
between an idea and reality to be
able to take a statement as
“facts”
Theories in Determining the Truth
1. Correspondence Theory
Analyze the following headlines
using the Correspondence Theory.
1. Manananggal terrorizes
Mantalongon, Dalaguete.
2. Man gives birth to twins.
Theories in Determining the Truth
2. Coherence Theory proposes that something is true if it makes
sense when placed in a certain situation or context. Based on this
theory, there is a possibility that there will be varied “truth” from
different perspective. An idea is true because it makes sense in its
own context, and that it has a certain degree of consistency which
renders it truthful. Coherence and consistency are also important in the
context of law and politics. Laws make sense if they conform to
previous laws and to a set of general principles like justice, democracy, and liberty.
Within a democratic society, only democratic laws and practices are accepted to be
true. Relativism is a philosophical concept which contends that there are no absolute
truths. An idea or principles is only true within a particular context, it differs with
every knowing individual and thus, it is possible for alternative truth to exist in various
context or situation
Theories in Determining the Truth
2. Coherence Theory
Analyze the following headlines using
the Coherence Theory.
Pope Francis Says Abortion is an
acceptable practice for Catholics.
Theories in Determining the Truth
3. Constructivist Theory holds that knowledge
is shaped by social forces and influenced by
culture and history. What is true, or what a
person considers true, is shaped by the
structures within the individuals society and
culture. The constructivist perspective also
believes that knowledge is gained as part of
social experience and requires interaction and
collaboration.
Theories in Determining the Truth
3. Constructivist Theory
Analyze the question using the
Constructivist Theory.
1. How important family here in the
Philippines?
Theories in Determining the Truth
4. Consensus Theory views knowledge as based
on agreement, and that something is true if
almost everyone agrees that it is true. Certain
beliefs, traditions, and practices are often that
product of consensus as they may be imposed
by influential groups or institutions such as
government or religious organizations. It is also
used to determine the truth of scientific claims,
where experts must agree on a certain
phenomenon before it can be established as
true.
Theories in Determining the Truth
4. Consensus Theory
List down ideas and statements you know that are
primarily based on consensus. Identify the
authority or group which arrived at this consensus.
Use the table below.
Idea, Statement Group or Authority
Theories in Determining the Truth
5. Pragmatic Theory holds the view that
something is true if we can put it into practice or is
useful in real life. It also believes that ideas should
be continually tested to confirm their validity. It
related to the concept of verificationism,
considers that ideas must be verified using the
senses or experience. The scientific method, where
experiments are designed to test hypothesis or
confirm conclusions, is an example of a pragmatic
approach in determining truth.
Theories in Determining the Truth
3. Pragmatic Theory
Analyze the question using the Coherence
Theory.
1. Why is testing and verification
important in determining the truth?
Theory Something is true if… We can determine truth by…
Correspondence
Theory
It corresponds to reality
Determine if the idea has a basis
in reality or is factual
Coherence
Theory
It makes sense when placed in a
certain context or situation
Looking for consistency when
placed in a certain context
Constructivist
Theory
It is shaped by society, culture,
and history
Looking at background influences
and events and determine how
these shaped ideas and truth
Consensus
Theory
Almost everyone believes it to be
true
Looking at the decisions and
views of recognized authorities
and influential institutions
Pragmatic Theory
We can put it into practice in real
life
Subjecting the idea to testing and
verification
1. The sun is the center of the solar system.
2. Asia is the largest continent in the world.
3. God made the world in seven days.
4. Man has the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
5. A person must always consider the interest of his family before
his own happiness
6. Citizen have the right to take up arms and
overthrow an oppressive government.
7. The President has done very little to uphold democracy and
look after the interest of the Filipino people
If you would be a real seeker after truth.
It is necessary that at least once in your
life you doubt as far as possible , all things
-Rene Descartes-
Who
Knows
Best?
Other things we consider in determining the truth
In determining the truth of any statement or claim, we must be
familiar with how ideas are presented. Ideas and claims are often
presented in the form of arguments, and these arguments are phrased
in such a way that they seem reasonable. Arguments is a series of
statement which provides reasons that convince a reader or listener
that an opinion is truthful. A number of arguments, however, may be
based on faulty argumentation, and these are called fallacies.
Fallacies or errors in reasoning may be intentional, as the person
making the claim is desperate to convince you to accept his or her
argument. The following are examples of fallacies.
Other things we consider in determining the truth
Argument made an assumption that a certain claim is yet to
determine.
Argument is not the same with fighting because fighting expresses
anger and hurt without being sensitive of your choice of words. So, if
you don’t know how to argue with reason and logic then that is what
do we call fighting. However, argument is coming thru an agreement.
If you don’t know how to do it right then it can’t resolve any conflict.
Logic is a branch of philosophy that focuses on arguments.
Fallacy Characteristic Example
1. Ad hominem
(against the person)
attacking the person focus our
attention on people rather than
on arguments or evidence
“Why would I believe? You’re not
even the smartest person in our
section?”
2. Ad baculum
(Appeal to force)
using the threat of force or an
undesirable event to advance an
argument
“My father is known to be the
richest man in this town, I’m sure
you know what he is capable of.
Don’t you dare mess up with me!”
3. Ad Misericordiam
(Appeal to emotion)
Strong appeal to sympathy and
pity
“Sir please, accept my late
submission of modules. I spend the
last five days, with our hours of
sleep each day, working extra time
on it.”
Fallacy Characteristic Example
4. Ad populum
(Appeal to the
people/popular)
the idea is presented
must true because many
people believe it
“Majority of boys at your age
already has a girlfriend, you
should go and find”
5. Appeal to tradition
the idea is acceptable
because it has been true
for a long time
"Marriage should be between a
man and a woman. It has been
so for a long time in this
country, it should remain so
today and in the future"
6. Begging the question
assuming the thing or
idea to be proven is true;
also known as "circular
argument
"I have a right to free speech,
therefore, you cannot stop me
from talking”
Fallacy Characteristic Example
7. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter
Hoc (Cause - and – effect)
assuming a "cause-and-
effect" relationship
between unrelated events
"Ever since you bought that
sweater, everything has
been going wrong in your
life. You should get rid of it.”
8. Fallacy of composition
assuming that what is
true for a part is true for
the whole
“because all of the
components of this car are
light and easy to carry, then
the car itself must also be
light and easy to carry.”
9. Fallacy of division
assuming that what is
true for the whole is true
for its parts
"You come from a family of
doctors and intellectual!
Surely you can do better in
this course”
Fallacy Characteristic Example
10. Slippery slope
Assuming a very small
action will lead to
extreme outcomes
“If we allow our 16 year old
to have a boyfriend, then
what’s next? A baby?”.
11. Ad Verecundiam
(appeal to authority)
Insisting that the claim is
true simple because a
valid authority or expert
on the issue said it was
true, without any other
supporting evidence
offered
“UFOs do not exist because
the astronomer Carl Sagan
said it”.
One should also know the difference between fact and
opinion. Facts are generally established truths that are
verifiable and do not easily change from one situation to
another. Opinions, on the other hand, are more subjective
and may express certain views a beliefs. When looking at
opinions, be aware of bias or the personal views of the
personal views of the person presenting it. Biases are not
necessarily errors in reasoning, but refer to a prejudice in
favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with
another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. The most
common biases are numerated below
Bias Characteristic Example
Correspondence
bias or attribution
effect
tendency to judge a person's
personality by his or her actions,
without regard for external factors
or influences
"These soldiers who fought in the
war are all bloodthirsty murderers”
Confirmation bias
tendency to look for and readily
accept information to fit with
one's own beliefs or views and to
reject ideas or views that go
against it
"How can I accept his view that
there is no God? I am a Christians?
Framing
focusing on a certain aspect of a
problem while ignoring other
aspects
"Preliminary evidences have still
not pointed out the actual cause of
the plane crash, but investigation
are currently focusing on the
possibility of pilot error.
Bias Characteristic Example
Hindsight
the tendency to see past events as
predicable, or to ascribe a pattern to
historical events
"Magellan's assault on Mactan Island was
foolhardy venture, made by an
overconfident, careless man who
underestimated the valor of the native
Filipinos
Conflict of
interest
a person or group is connected to or
has a vested interest in the issue
being discussed
"As the President of the company and the
daughter of the accused, I believed I have
the right to express my opinion on the
issue of his alleged corrupt practice;.
Cultural bias
analyzing an event or issue based on
one's culture standards
"I do not agree with his western practice
of placing aged parents in retirement
homes. We Filipinos take care of our
family members
ASSIGNMENT
ASSIGNMENT
ASSIGNMENT
ACTIVITY
Test 1: Direction: Fill each blank with correct answer. Write your answer on the blank
provided.
_________ 1. It is shaped by society, culture, and history.
_________ 2. It uses threat of force or an undesirable event to advance an argument
_________ 3. The idea is presented must true because many people believe it
_________ 4. It makes sense when placed in a certain context or situation.
_________ 5. Assuming that what is true for the whole is true for its parts
_________ 6. We can put it into practice in real life.
_________ 7. Strong appeal to sympathy and pity
_________ 8. Attacking the person focus our attention on people rather than on arguments
or evidence
_________ 9. It corresponds to reality.
_________ 10. The idea is acceptable because it has been true for a long time
ACTIVITY
Test 2
DIRECTION: Write “TRUE” IF THE STATEMENT EXPRESSES OPINION AND “OPINION” IF IT
EXPRESSES A TRUTH.
_________ 11. The use of illegal drugs is prohibited.
_________ 12. Drug addicts deserve to get a shoot to kill order.
_________ 13. President Duterte is the best Filipino President ever.
_________ 14. The National Telecommunication Commission stops ABS-CBN’s operation due
to an expired franchise.
_________ 15. Cigarette smoking can cause lung cancer.
_________ 16. Mars is the fourth planet from the sun.
_________ 17. Filipinos celebrate Christmas day every 25th of December.
_________ 18. Labradors are the best king of dogs to have as a pet.
_________ 19. Orange taste better than mango.
_________ 20. Covid-19 virus is experienced worldwide.

More Related Content

Similar to Distinguish-truth-and-opinion-LESSON 2.pptx

Philo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptx
Philo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptxPhilo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptx
Philo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptxAnonymousMQq1pIuw26
 
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptxREPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptxMAMILVAJIMENEZ1
 
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptxREPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptxMAMILVAJIMENEZ1
 
Topic 4. doing philosophy
Topic 4. doing philosophyTopic 4. doing philosophy
Topic 4. doing philosophydan_maribao
 
Theories of truth and its application in media practice
Theories of truth and its application in media practiceTheories of truth and its application in media practice
Theories of truth and its application in media practiceRas Felix Vogarenpi
 
1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptx
1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptx1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptx
1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptxhaydee388321
 
Epistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledgeEpistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledgeNoel Jopson
 
IntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docx
IntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docxIntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docx
IntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docxnormanibarber20063
 
4_5800656854291843975.pptx
4_5800656854291843975.pptx4_5800656854291843975.pptx
4_5800656854291843975.pptxAderawAlemie
 
THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
THEORY OF KNOWLEDGETHEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
THEORY OF KNOWLEDGEClaraSimmone
 
philosophy of the human person first grading.pptx
philosophy of the human person first grading.pptxphilosophy of the human person first grading.pptx
philosophy of the human person first grading.pptxfitzzamora
 
Essay Speech Sample. Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...
Essay Speech Sample.  Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...Essay Speech Sample.  Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...
Essay Speech Sample. Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...Bridget Zhao
 
The basic concepts of Critical thinking.
The basic concepts of Critical thinking.The basic concepts of Critical thinking.
The basic concepts of Critical thinking.BisrateabFekadu
 
Informal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docx
Informal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docxInformal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docx
Informal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docxdirkrplav
 
Social Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docx
Social Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docxSocial Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docx
Social Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docxwhitneyleman54422
 

Similar to Distinguish-truth-and-opinion-LESSON 2.pptx (18)

Philo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptx
Philo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptxPhilo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptx
Philo-Week-4-Truth-or-Opinion.pptx
 
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptxREPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
 
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptxREPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
REPORT ON PHILO AND SOCIO FOUNDATION.pptx
 
Topic 4. doing philosophy
Topic 4. doing philosophyTopic 4. doing philosophy
Topic 4. doing philosophy
 
Theories of truth and its application in media practice
Theories of truth and its application in media practiceTheories of truth and its application in media practice
Theories of truth and its application in media practice
 
1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptx
1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptx1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptx
1stQ_3opinion_truth_2.pptx
 
Epistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledgeEpistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledge
 
IntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docx
IntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docxIntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docx
IntroductionThis class helped me to solve out and answer the ver.docx
 
4_5800656854291843975.pptx
4_5800656854291843975.pptx4_5800656854291843975.pptx
4_5800656854291843975.pptx
 
THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
THEORY OF KNOWLEDGETHEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
 
philosophy of the human person first grading.pptx
philosophy of the human person first grading.pptxphilosophy of the human person first grading.pptx
philosophy of the human person first grading.pptx
 
Essay Speech Sample. Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...
Essay Speech Sample.  Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...Essay Speech Sample.  Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...
Essay Speech Sample. Speech essay format. 10 Essay Writing Examples amp; Sam...
 
Essay Speech Sample.pdf
Essay Speech Sample.pdfEssay Speech Sample.pdf
Essay Speech Sample.pdf
 
The basic concepts of Critical thinking.
The basic concepts of Critical thinking.The basic concepts of Critical thinking.
The basic concepts of Critical thinking.
 
Logic4
Logic4Logic4
Logic4
 
Logic4
Logic4Logic4
Logic4
 
Informal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docx
Informal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docxInformal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docx
Informal FallaciesEnterline Design Services LLCiStockThinkst.docx
 
Social Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docx
Social Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docxSocial Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docx
Social Justice as a Form of Discourse Impacting Identity for Action.docx
 

More from RIZZAMAEVPELOMINO

typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3
typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3
typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3RIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
operatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptx
operatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptxoperatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptx
operatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
WEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptx
WEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptxWEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptx
WEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptxWEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
Front Office Services-Hotel Reservation in Hotel
Front Office Services-Hotel Reservation in HotelFront Office Services-Hotel Reservation in Hotel
Front Office Services-Hotel Reservation in HotelRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
OPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptx
OPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptxOPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptx
OPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
Community engagement, solidarity and Citizenship
Community engagement, solidarity and CitizenshipCommunity engagement, solidarity and Citizenship
Community engagement, solidarity and CitizenshipRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
cOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIP
cOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIPcOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIP
cOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIPRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
Overview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptx
Overview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptxOverview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptx
Overview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
LESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human personLESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human personRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human personLESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human personRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
FASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docx
FASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docxFASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docx
FASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
Lecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptx
Lecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptxLecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptx
Lecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 

More from RIZZAMAEVPELOMINO (20)

typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3
typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3
typesofrooms2-171016140448123153r613y1t3
 
operatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptx
operatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptxoperatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptx
operatingacomputerizedreservationsystem-capiznhs-201109123608.pptx
 
WEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptx
WEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptxWEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptx
WEEK 4.different typologies of communitiespptx
 
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptxWEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
 
Front Office Services-Hotel Reservation in Hotel
Front Office Services-Hotel Reservation in HotelFront Office Services-Hotel Reservation in Hotel
Front Office Services-Hotel Reservation in Hotel
 
OPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptx
OPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptxOPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptx
OPENING OF CLASSES PRESENTATION For PTA.pptx
 
Community engagement, solidarity and Citizenship
Community engagement, solidarity and CitizenshipCommunity engagement, solidarity and Citizenship
Community engagement, solidarity and Citizenship
 
cOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIP
cOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIPcOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIP
cOmmunity engagement week 1-nsolidarity and CITIZENSHIP
 
Overview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptx
Overview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptxOverview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptx
Overview on Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship.pptx
 
LESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human personLESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 2-intro to philosophy of human person
 
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human personLESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
 
PERDEV-M4.pptx
PERDEV-M4.pptxPERDEV-M4.pptx
PERDEV-M4.pptx
 
PERDEV-M3-2-NO-VIDEO.pptx
PERDEV-M3-2-NO-VIDEO.pptxPERDEV-M3-2-NO-VIDEO.pptx
PERDEV-M3-2-NO-VIDEO.pptx
 
PERDEV-M1.pptx
PERDEV-M1.pptxPERDEV-M1.pptx
PERDEV-M1.pptx
 
RECREATIONAL QUIZ.pptx
RECREATIONAL QUIZ.pptxRECREATIONAL QUIZ.pptx
RECREATIONAL QUIZ.pptx
 
2NDSEM-Q3-P2.pptx
2NDSEM-Q3-P2.pptx2NDSEM-Q3-P2.pptx
2NDSEM-Q3-P2.pptx
 
2NDSEM-Q3-P1.pptx
2NDSEM-Q3-P1.pptx2NDSEM-Q3-P1.pptx
2NDSEM-Q3-P1.pptx
 
FASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docx
FASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docxFASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docx
FASHION ACCESSORIES FOR COT.docx
 
PROJECT PROPOSAL.pptx
PROJECT PROPOSAL.pptxPROJECT PROPOSAL.pptx
PROJECT PROPOSAL.pptx
 
Lecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptx
Lecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptxLecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptx
Lecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSAnaAcapella
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfPondicherry University
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfcupulin
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchCaitlinCummins3
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesPooky Knightsmith
 
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesAmanpreetKaur157993
 
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptxMichaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptxRugvedSathawane
 
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...nhezmainit1
 
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptxHMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptxmarlenawright1
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismDabee Kamal
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsSandeep D Chaudhary
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfJerry Chew
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
 
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptxMichaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
 
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
 
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptxHMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
 

Distinguish-truth-and-opinion-LESSON 2.pptx

  • 2. Learning Competency Distinguish opinion from truth Learning Competency Code PPT11/12-lc-2.1
  • 3. OBJECTIVES  Discuss the philosophical bases of knowing the truth.  Differentiate opinion from truth.  Act with self confidence in sharing own ideas and conclusions  Practice concern for others by respecting their own opinions.
  • 4. Philosophy was born out of Man’s desire to know, to interpret and to understand the world. It came to being a persistent attempts to acquire real knowledge and truth.
  • 6. Activity 1: Complete the phrase I know that ………………………………. I know why ………………………………. I know how ………………………………. KNOWLEDGE
  • 7. It pertains to the Ideas and beliefs that we know to be true.
  • 8. There are also statements that are not evidently or immediately know to be true. We say that man has a knowledge of a thing? Identify Give examples Point out Relate or associates
  • 9. Rene Descartes said that doubt everything can be doubted. In Philosophy systematic doubt is employed to help to determine the truth
  • 10. Basis of Determining the Truth Lifted from the book of Roberto Abella 1. A belief is true if it can be justified or proven through the use of one’s senses. Lets investigate the nature of knowledge by simple giving examples starting the very obvious thing that we know about our self.
  • 11. Basis of Determining the Truth Lifted from the book of Roberto Abella 2. A belief or statement is true if it based on facts. If your are claim for something then you have to use all the facts that will guide you in searching for truth. 3. Getting a consensus or having people agree on a common belief. This is another way of determining of what is true. But this approach has certain limitations in getting everyone’s to agree on something may not make the belief true. However you may use other evidences to determine its truthfulness
  • 12. Basis of Determining the Truth Lifted from the book of Roberto Abella 4. A statement shall be proven through an action to determine its truth. Example: If you brag about your skills in baking cakes. You should know how to do it and the quality of the product will speak for itself. 5. Claims and beliefs should be subjected to test in order to determine truth. The claims should be subjected to prove to its validity.
  • 13. Things to remember… Truth lies the heart of any inquiries. Discovering truth about oneself is a first step in exploring knowledge and truth.
  • 14. Basis of Determining the Truth 1. A belief is true if it can be justified or proven through the use of one’s senses. 2. A belief or statement is true if it based on facts. 3. Getting a consensus or having people agree on a common belief. 4. A statement shall be proven through an action to determine its truth. 5. Claims and beliefs should be subjected to test in order to determine truth. Systematic doubt and Senses Facts Action Test Other evidences agreed by group of people
  • 15.
  • 16. The first concept about truth is rooted in an ancient Greek Philosophy’s concept of knowledge as “justified, true belief” This concept rest on three conditions: (1) True things can be known, (2)something is true because you believe it to be true, and that (3) there is justification for such belief.
  • 17. Theories in Determining the Truth 1. Correspondence Theory states that something is true if it corresponds to reality or the actual state of affairs. This theory assumes a direct relationship between an idea and reality to be able to take a statement as “facts”
  • 18. Theories in Determining the Truth 1. Correspondence Theory Analyze the following headlines using the Correspondence Theory. 1. Manananggal terrorizes Mantalongon, Dalaguete. 2. Man gives birth to twins.
  • 19. Theories in Determining the Truth 2. Coherence Theory proposes that something is true if it makes sense when placed in a certain situation or context. Based on this theory, there is a possibility that there will be varied “truth” from different perspective. An idea is true because it makes sense in its own context, and that it has a certain degree of consistency which renders it truthful. Coherence and consistency are also important in the context of law and politics. Laws make sense if they conform to previous laws and to a set of general principles like justice, democracy, and liberty. Within a democratic society, only democratic laws and practices are accepted to be true. Relativism is a philosophical concept which contends that there are no absolute truths. An idea or principles is only true within a particular context, it differs with every knowing individual and thus, it is possible for alternative truth to exist in various context or situation
  • 20. Theories in Determining the Truth 2. Coherence Theory Analyze the following headlines using the Coherence Theory. Pope Francis Says Abortion is an acceptable practice for Catholics.
  • 21. Theories in Determining the Truth 3. Constructivist Theory holds that knowledge is shaped by social forces and influenced by culture and history. What is true, or what a person considers true, is shaped by the structures within the individuals society and culture. The constructivist perspective also believes that knowledge is gained as part of social experience and requires interaction and collaboration.
  • 22. Theories in Determining the Truth 3. Constructivist Theory Analyze the question using the Constructivist Theory. 1. How important family here in the Philippines?
  • 23. Theories in Determining the Truth 4. Consensus Theory views knowledge as based on agreement, and that something is true if almost everyone agrees that it is true. Certain beliefs, traditions, and practices are often that product of consensus as they may be imposed by influential groups or institutions such as government or religious organizations. It is also used to determine the truth of scientific claims, where experts must agree on a certain phenomenon before it can be established as true.
  • 24. Theories in Determining the Truth 4. Consensus Theory List down ideas and statements you know that are primarily based on consensus. Identify the authority or group which arrived at this consensus. Use the table below. Idea, Statement Group or Authority
  • 25. Theories in Determining the Truth 5. Pragmatic Theory holds the view that something is true if we can put it into practice or is useful in real life. It also believes that ideas should be continually tested to confirm their validity. It related to the concept of verificationism, considers that ideas must be verified using the senses or experience. The scientific method, where experiments are designed to test hypothesis or confirm conclusions, is an example of a pragmatic approach in determining truth.
  • 26. Theories in Determining the Truth 3. Pragmatic Theory Analyze the question using the Coherence Theory. 1. Why is testing and verification important in determining the truth?
  • 27. Theory Something is true if… We can determine truth by… Correspondence Theory It corresponds to reality Determine if the idea has a basis in reality or is factual Coherence Theory It makes sense when placed in a certain context or situation Looking for consistency when placed in a certain context Constructivist Theory It is shaped by society, culture, and history Looking at background influences and events and determine how these shaped ideas and truth Consensus Theory Almost everyone believes it to be true Looking at the decisions and views of recognized authorities and influential institutions Pragmatic Theory We can put it into practice in real life Subjecting the idea to testing and verification
  • 28. 1. The sun is the center of the solar system. 2. Asia is the largest continent in the world. 3. God made the world in seven days. 4. Man has the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 5. A person must always consider the interest of his family before his own happiness 6. Citizen have the right to take up arms and overthrow an oppressive government. 7. The President has done very little to uphold democracy and look after the interest of the Filipino people
  • 29. If you would be a real seeker after truth. It is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt as far as possible , all things -Rene Descartes-
  • 30.
  • 32. Other things we consider in determining the truth In determining the truth of any statement or claim, we must be familiar with how ideas are presented. Ideas and claims are often presented in the form of arguments, and these arguments are phrased in such a way that they seem reasonable. Arguments is a series of statement which provides reasons that convince a reader or listener that an opinion is truthful. A number of arguments, however, may be based on faulty argumentation, and these are called fallacies. Fallacies or errors in reasoning may be intentional, as the person making the claim is desperate to convince you to accept his or her argument. The following are examples of fallacies.
  • 33. Other things we consider in determining the truth Argument made an assumption that a certain claim is yet to determine. Argument is not the same with fighting because fighting expresses anger and hurt without being sensitive of your choice of words. So, if you don’t know how to argue with reason and logic then that is what do we call fighting. However, argument is coming thru an agreement. If you don’t know how to do it right then it can’t resolve any conflict. Logic is a branch of philosophy that focuses on arguments.
  • 34. Fallacy Characteristic Example 1. Ad hominem (against the person) attacking the person focus our attention on people rather than on arguments or evidence “Why would I believe? You’re not even the smartest person in our section?” 2. Ad baculum (Appeal to force) using the threat of force or an undesirable event to advance an argument “My father is known to be the richest man in this town, I’m sure you know what he is capable of. Don’t you dare mess up with me!” 3. Ad Misericordiam (Appeal to emotion) Strong appeal to sympathy and pity “Sir please, accept my late submission of modules. I spend the last five days, with our hours of sleep each day, working extra time on it.”
  • 35. Fallacy Characteristic Example 4. Ad populum (Appeal to the people/popular) the idea is presented must true because many people believe it “Majority of boys at your age already has a girlfriend, you should go and find” 5. Appeal to tradition the idea is acceptable because it has been true for a long time "Marriage should be between a man and a woman. It has been so for a long time in this country, it should remain so today and in the future" 6. Begging the question assuming the thing or idea to be proven is true; also known as "circular argument "I have a right to free speech, therefore, you cannot stop me from talking”
  • 36. Fallacy Characteristic Example 7. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (Cause - and – effect) assuming a "cause-and- effect" relationship between unrelated events "Ever since you bought that sweater, everything has been going wrong in your life. You should get rid of it.” 8. Fallacy of composition assuming that what is true for a part is true for the whole “because all of the components of this car are light and easy to carry, then the car itself must also be light and easy to carry.” 9. Fallacy of division assuming that what is true for the whole is true for its parts "You come from a family of doctors and intellectual! Surely you can do better in this course”
  • 37. Fallacy Characteristic Example 10. Slippery slope Assuming a very small action will lead to extreme outcomes “If we allow our 16 year old to have a boyfriend, then what’s next? A baby?”. 11. Ad Verecundiam (appeal to authority) Insisting that the claim is true simple because a valid authority or expert on the issue said it was true, without any other supporting evidence offered “UFOs do not exist because the astronomer Carl Sagan said it”.
  • 38. One should also know the difference between fact and opinion. Facts are generally established truths that are verifiable and do not easily change from one situation to another. Opinions, on the other hand, are more subjective and may express certain views a beliefs. When looking at opinions, be aware of bias or the personal views of the personal views of the person presenting it. Biases are not necessarily errors in reasoning, but refer to a prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. The most common biases are numerated below
  • 39.
  • 40. Bias Characteristic Example Correspondence bias or attribution effect tendency to judge a person's personality by his or her actions, without regard for external factors or influences "These soldiers who fought in the war are all bloodthirsty murderers” Confirmation bias tendency to look for and readily accept information to fit with one's own beliefs or views and to reject ideas or views that go against it "How can I accept his view that there is no God? I am a Christians? Framing focusing on a certain aspect of a problem while ignoring other aspects "Preliminary evidences have still not pointed out the actual cause of the plane crash, but investigation are currently focusing on the possibility of pilot error.
  • 41. Bias Characteristic Example Hindsight the tendency to see past events as predicable, or to ascribe a pattern to historical events "Magellan's assault on Mactan Island was foolhardy venture, made by an overconfident, careless man who underestimated the valor of the native Filipinos Conflict of interest a person or group is connected to or has a vested interest in the issue being discussed "As the President of the company and the daughter of the accused, I believed I have the right to express my opinion on the issue of his alleged corrupt practice;. Cultural bias analyzing an event or issue based on one's culture standards "I do not agree with his western practice of placing aged parents in retirement homes. We Filipinos take care of our family members
  • 45. ACTIVITY Test 1: Direction: Fill each blank with correct answer. Write your answer on the blank provided. _________ 1. It is shaped by society, culture, and history. _________ 2. It uses threat of force or an undesirable event to advance an argument _________ 3. The idea is presented must true because many people believe it _________ 4. It makes sense when placed in a certain context or situation. _________ 5. Assuming that what is true for the whole is true for its parts _________ 6. We can put it into practice in real life. _________ 7. Strong appeal to sympathy and pity _________ 8. Attacking the person focus our attention on people rather than on arguments or evidence _________ 9. It corresponds to reality. _________ 10. The idea is acceptable because it has been true for a long time
  • 46. ACTIVITY Test 2 DIRECTION: Write “TRUE” IF THE STATEMENT EXPRESSES OPINION AND “OPINION” IF IT EXPRESSES A TRUTH. _________ 11. The use of illegal drugs is prohibited. _________ 12. Drug addicts deserve to get a shoot to kill order. _________ 13. President Duterte is the best Filipino President ever. _________ 14. The National Telecommunication Commission stops ABS-CBN’s operation due to an expired franchise. _________ 15. Cigarette smoking can cause lung cancer. _________ 16. Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. _________ 17. Filipinos celebrate Christmas day every 25th of December. _________ 18. Labradors are the best king of dogs to have as a pet. _________ 19. Orange taste better than mango. _________ 20. Covid-19 virus is experienced worldwide.