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Introduction
to
Philosophy
Of the
Human Person
Teacher: Ms. Rizza Mae C. Pelomino
What is Society?
What drives human
beings to establish
societies?
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
SOCIETY
A society is a group of
individuals involved in
persistent social interaction
or a large social group
sharing the same spatial or
social territory, typically
subject to the same
political authority and
dominant cultural
expectations.
•Society is considered unique among all other
groups because of the nature of the human
persons that compose it, as well as the
relationships among its member.
•Philosophers consider a society the product of
deliberate actions by individuals who come
together in pursuit of a common goal.
•In turn, humans are also able to influence society
through their actions.
What is a Society Characterized by?
•Societies are characterized by patterns of
relationships (social relations) between
individuals who share a distinctive culture and
institutions
•Society also provides you opportunities to
further your growth in the coming years.
Two Kinds of Social Relationships
JURGEN HABERMAS:
There are two kinds of
social relationships
1. Personal
2. Transactional
Personal
•Interactions are based on mutual regard from
each other as persons. Interactions in personal
relationships are defined by cooperation rather
than by competition. The focus of personal
relationship is preservation and development of
the mutual regard for each other.
Transactional
•Interactions are based on a regard for each
other as a means of attaining one’s goal.
Persons are “used” not necessarily in the
derogatory sense, to help one attain his goals or
succeed in his plans. Here we put aside personal
matters in our interactions. In most cases, the
atmosphere is competitive.
Two Kinds of Interaction in Society:
Social Relation Kind of Interaction How are one treats
the other in the
social relationship
Transactional Instrumental or
strategic
As an object, a means
for attaining one’s
goal ( subject-subject)
Personal Communicative
Action
As a fellow subject, a
fellow person
(Intersubjective)
The Social Contract Theory
• During the enlightenment, social philosophers pondered the natural
laws that govern human societies, and in their discussions, several
philosophers put forth their theories regarding the formation of
societies.
• Enlightenment philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke,
Jean Jacques Rousseau were among the most prominent social
theorist who tackled the origins of human society.
• To fully understand the true character of society, they imagined
humans as living in so called “natural state” removed from
modernity and civilization.
Thomas Hobbes
• For Thomas Hobbes, persons in their natural
state are governed by their desires and these
often lead to conflict with their fellowmen.
Society, therefore is the means by which
people seek to control their natural
tendencies and impose order. Individuals
who establish societies enter into a “social
contract” and agreement where individuals
sacrifice an amount of their freedom and
submit to a higher authority. In this way,
society is able to function and meet the
needs of the many, ensuring the survival of
humanity.
John Locke
•Proposed his own ideas on the social
contract with a different assumption.
Unlike Hobbes, Locke considered persons
in their natural states as more
cooperative and reasonable, and that
society is known as the consent of the
governed. Locke’s social contract is a
covenant among individuals to cooperate
and share the burden of upholding the
welfare od society.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
• Proposed his own ideas on the social ed him
to advocate the concept of the “general will”.
• He believed that even if people are the ones
who organized society and established an
authority or government, in extreme cases,
the government is able to impose its will on
the people.
• This is based on the assumption that the
people have empowered the government to
act on their behalf, and that it is considered
to be the best judge of what is most
beneficial for society.
John Rawls
• Redefined the social contract and explained
that human beings approach social
cooperation in a rational manner in order to
meet their individual self-interest
• He introduced a version of the natural state
which he called the “original position” to
explain social formation.
• He imagined humans as having a “veil of
ignorance” or no knowledge of one’s own
characteristics such as gender, race or social
status.
David Gauthier
•Described people’s self interest as a
significant factor in building and
maintaining societies.
•People choose to cooperate since it is
beneficial to meet their self-interests. But
this selfish interest benefits society as a
whole, since the actions of individuals in
meeting their individual needs also
further the interests of the other
members of society.
•It is important to note that in a society, one
is not compromised for the sake of the
other: the individual is not in any way
violated for the sake of the community and
vice versa.
•Only society which ensures the development
of the individual and his or her community
may be considered proper and humanizing
society.
•It is important to note that society
is founded on the concept of the
common good.
•This common good refers to the
social conditions which enable
persons ad groups to fulfill their
goals and achieved well-being.
Different Forms of Societies
1. Hunting and gathering Society
2. Pastoral Society
3. Horticultural Society
4. Agrarian or Agricultural Society
5. Feudal Society
6. Industrial Society
7. Post- Industrial Society
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
1.Hunting and Gathering Society
•This is recognized as the earliest and simplest form of
society. It is generally characterized by its small size
and is composed mainly of families. They are nomadic
because they spend most of their time searching for
food and thus, have no permanent territory.
•The hierarchy in this type of society is not very varied.
•Its members are generally treated equally and
decisions are usually arrived at through a consensus.
Because of this, the roles of its members and the
division of labor is not very clearly defined.
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
2. Pastoral Society
•This type of society is characterized by the domestication
of animals for food for a more stable and predictable
food supply. Pastoral communities have larger
populations than hunting and gathering societies and
remain longer in one place.
•In addition, pastoral societies often produce surplus food
and resources, which they trade with other societies.
This relative prosperity enables the people to engage in
other activities apart from those necessary for survival,
such as handicrafts.
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
3. Horticultural Society
• A horticulture society primarily engages in the small-scale
cultivation of plants, fruits, and vegetables and the
domestication of animals.
• Horticultural societies are semi-nomadic, which means that
they travel to another place when they have already depleted
the resources in one area.
• In this society, roles and responsibilities are more clearly
defined with many tasks assigned according to gender.
• Similar to pastoral society, there is also a surplus of goods,
which sometimes leads to inequalities among its members.
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
4. Agrarian or Agricultural Society
•This type of society is a further evolution of the
pastoral and horticultural societies. Agriculture
involves the large scale and long term cultivation of
crops and domestication of animals.
•This society is characterized by improved
technology and the use of tools to aid in farming.
•Improved technology and farming methods result
in increased production, giving rise to a growing
population in agricultural societies.
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
5. Feudal Society
• A feudal society is based on the ownership of land. Feudal societies
arose out of developments in Western Europe during Medieval times,
when kingdoms were engaged in conflict over resources, particularly
land.
• Those who own land are considered the most powerful and influential
members of society, while the peasants are considered the lowest
group.
• An agrarian and feudal society gives rise to individuals who value
relations among family members and with other members in the
community.
• People who belong to the “higher classes” are treated with respect by
the members of the community. They are often traditional and are
resistant to social change, preferring to maintain the way things are in
their community.
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
6. Industrial society
• An industrial society is based on the use of specialized machinery
in the production of goods and services.
• The advance in science and technology in the late 18th century
resulted in the Industrial Revolution, which in turn gave rise to
new production and industrial methods, as well as innovations in
transportation and communication.
• These technological advances resulted in improved trade and
commerce and better life conditions for many people.
• Work is done in factories and public education is more prevalent.
• However, the emerge of industrial societies is characterized by
greater inequalities in wealth, power and influence.
6. Industrial society
•An industrial society is a significant departure
from the agrarian society, as many of the
relations are not family or community-based.
•An important factor in social relations is the
workplace, and people often interact with
individuals who do not come from the same
family, clan, or community.
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
7. Post-Industrial Society
• Are societies dominated by information, services and high
technology more than the production of goods.
• Advanced industrial societies are now seeing a shift toward an
increase in service over manufacturing and production.
• The growth and development of the various forms of societies
highlight the growing complexity of human interactions over
time.
• These developments have led to innovations in human
interactions such as language and the establishment of
governments.
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person
LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person

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LESSON 7 of intro to philosophy of human person

  • 2. What is Society? What drives human beings to establish societies?
  • 4. SOCIETY A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
  • 5. •Society is considered unique among all other groups because of the nature of the human persons that compose it, as well as the relationships among its member. •Philosophers consider a society the product of deliberate actions by individuals who come together in pursuit of a common goal. •In turn, humans are also able to influence society through their actions.
  • 6. What is a Society Characterized by? •Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions •Society also provides you opportunities to further your growth in the coming years.
  • 7. Two Kinds of Social Relationships JURGEN HABERMAS: There are two kinds of social relationships 1. Personal 2. Transactional
  • 8. Personal •Interactions are based on mutual regard from each other as persons. Interactions in personal relationships are defined by cooperation rather than by competition. The focus of personal relationship is preservation and development of the mutual regard for each other.
  • 9. Transactional •Interactions are based on a regard for each other as a means of attaining one’s goal. Persons are “used” not necessarily in the derogatory sense, to help one attain his goals or succeed in his plans. Here we put aside personal matters in our interactions. In most cases, the atmosphere is competitive.
  • 10. Two Kinds of Interaction in Society: Social Relation Kind of Interaction How are one treats the other in the social relationship Transactional Instrumental or strategic As an object, a means for attaining one’s goal ( subject-subject) Personal Communicative Action As a fellow subject, a fellow person (Intersubjective)
  • 11. The Social Contract Theory • During the enlightenment, social philosophers pondered the natural laws that govern human societies, and in their discussions, several philosophers put forth their theories regarding the formation of societies. • Enlightenment philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau were among the most prominent social theorist who tackled the origins of human society. • To fully understand the true character of society, they imagined humans as living in so called “natural state” removed from modernity and civilization.
  • 12. Thomas Hobbes • For Thomas Hobbes, persons in their natural state are governed by their desires and these often lead to conflict with their fellowmen. Society, therefore is the means by which people seek to control their natural tendencies and impose order. Individuals who establish societies enter into a “social contract” and agreement where individuals sacrifice an amount of their freedom and submit to a higher authority. In this way, society is able to function and meet the needs of the many, ensuring the survival of humanity.
  • 13. John Locke •Proposed his own ideas on the social contract with a different assumption. Unlike Hobbes, Locke considered persons in their natural states as more cooperative and reasonable, and that society is known as the consent of the governed. Locke’s social contract is a covenant among individuals to cooperate and share the burden of upholding the welfare od society.
  • 14. Jean Jacques Rousseau • Proposed his own ideas on the social ed him to advocate the concept of the “general will”. • He believed that even if people are the ones who organized society and established an authority or government, in extreme cases, the government is able to impose its will on the people. • This is based on the assumption that the people have empowered the government to act on their behalf, and that it is considered to be the best judge of what is most beneficial for society.
  • 15. John Rawls • Redefined the social contract and explained that human beings approach social cooperation in a rational manner in order to meet their individual self-interest • He introduced a version of the natural state which he called the “original position” to explain social formation. • He imagined humans as having a “veil of ignorance” or no knowledge of one’s own characteristics such as gender, race or social status.
  • 16. David Gauthier •Described people’s self interest as a significant factor in building and maintaining societies. •People choose to cooperate since it is beneficial to meet their self-interests. But this selfish interest benefits society as a whole, since the actions of individuals in meeting their individual needs also further the interests of the other members of society.
  • 17. •It is important to note that in a society, one is not compromised for the sake of the other: the individual is not in any way violated for the sake of the community and vice versa. •Only society which ensures the development of the individual and his or her community may be considered proper and humanizing society.
  • 18. •It is important to note that society is founded on the concept of the common good. •This common good refers to the social conditions which enable persons ad groups to fulfill their goals and achieved well-being.
  • 19. Different Forms of Societies 1. Hunting and gathering Society 2. Pastoral Society 3. Horticultural Society 4. Agrarian or Agricultural Society 5. Feudal Society 6. Industrial Society 7. Post- Industrial Society
  • 21. 1.Hunting and Gathering Society •This is recognized as the earliest and simplest form of society. It is generally characterized by its small size and is composed mainly of families. They are nomadic because they spend most of their time searching for food and thus, have no permanent territory. •The hierarchy in this type of society is not very varied. •Its members are generally treated equally and decisions are usually arrived at through a consensus. Because of this, the roles of its members and the division of labor is not very clearly defined.
  • 24. 2. Pastoral Society •This type of society is characterized by the domestication of animals for food for a more stable and predictable food supply. Pastoral communities have larger populations than hunting and gathering societies and remain longer in one place. •In addition, pastoral societies often produce surplus food and resources, which they trade with other societies. This relative prosperity enables the people to engage in other activities apart from those necessary for survival, such as handicrafts.
  • 27. 3. Horticultural Society • A horticulture society primarily engages in the small-scale cultivation of plants, fruits, and vegetables and the domestication of animals. • Horticultural societies are semi-nomadic, which means that they travel to another place when they have already depleted the resources in one area. • In this society, roles and responsibilities are more clearly defined with many tasks assigned according to gender. • Similar to pastoral society, there is also a surplus of goods, which sometimes leads to inequalities among its members.
  • 31. 4. Agrarian or Agricultural Society •This type of society is a further evolution of the pastoral and horticultural societies. Agriculture involves the large scale and long term cultivation of crops and domestication of animals. •This society is characterized by improved technology and the use of tools to aid in farming. •Improved technology and farming methods result in increased production, giving rise to a growing population in agricultural societies.
  • 35. 5. Feudal Society • A feudal society is based on the ownership of land. Feudal societies arose out of developments in Western Europe during Medieval times, when kingdoms were engaged in conflict over resources, particularly land. • Those who own land are considered the most powerful and influential members of society, while the peasants are considered the lowest group. • An agrarian and feudal society gives rise to individuals who value relations among family members and with other members in the community. • People who belong to the “higher classes” are treated with respect by the members of the community. They are often traditional and are resistant to social change, preferring to maintain the way things are in their community.
  • 40. 6. Industrial society • An industrial society is based on the use of specialized machinery in the production of goods and services. • The advance in science and technology in the late 18th century resulted in the Industrial Revolution, which in turn gave rise to new production and industrial methods, as well as innovations in transportation and communication. • These technological advances resulted in improved trade and commerce and better life conditions for many people. • Work is done in factories and public education is more prevalent. • However, the emerge of industrial societies is characterized by greater inequalities in wealth, power and influence.
  • 41. 6. Industrial society •An industrial society is a significant departure from the agrarian society, as many of the relations are not family or community-based. •An important factor in social relations is the workplace, and people often interact with individuals who do not come from the same family, clan, or community.
  • 45. 7. Post-Industrial Society • Are societies dominated by information, services and high technology more than the production of goods. • Advanced industrial societies are now seeing a shift toward an increase in service over manufacturing and production. • The growth and development of the various forms of societies highlight the growing complexity of human interactions over time. • These developments have led to innovations in human interactions such as language and the establishment of governments.