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Hello Geographers!
Welcome to the
Presentation
GES 10th
Development of
Geographical Knowledge
and Concept: Ancient Age
Team A
Team Leader: Ashanur Rahman
ID:1811060
Session: 2018-19
Dept. of Geography & Environmental
Science
Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur
Submitted By Submitted To
#
#
#
#
Our team
Amartya Anu Neshe Mony
Aklima Akter Sanzida Akther
Mahim Hasan Jannatul Ferdoush
Our team
Arif Foysal Sabiha Farjana
Asma Israt Haimonti Rani
Ashanur Rahman
Contents of this Presentation
Aim and Objective
To explore and emerge the concepts and ideas
during the ancient age
To examine the impact of ancient geographical
knowledge and concepts on other fields
To provide an understanding of influencing the
modern geography
To introduce the concept and its importance
To describe the key civilizations
01
Methods
02
Secondary
Data
Introduction
03
FRAMEWORK
Approaches to Study
Historical Approach
Geographical Approach
Paradigmatic Approach
Pre-Existing
Ancient(Greeks & Romans)
Medieval(Middle ages)
Age of Discovery
Pre-Modern
Classical
Modern
Post-Modern
Development of Geographical Knowledge and
Concepts of Different Ages
Pre-Greco-Roman
History
04
• Mesopotamians
• Phoenicians
• Egyptians
• Summerians
• Chaldeans
• Babylonians
• Assiriyans
Pre-Greco-Roman History
Mesopotamians
05
Location: On the banks of the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers in what is today Iraq and Kuwait.
Wheel Agriculture
Cuneiform
Writing
Equal Rights
The legal right to be treated equally,
whatever age, sex, race, etc.
Mesopotamian Women’s Role
• Housekeeper
• Priestesses
• Administrator
• Business and traders
• Prostitution
• Slave
Irrigation System
The Hanging Garden
ZIGGURAT
SEXAGESIMAL METHOD
Phoenicians
06
Topic: Phoenicians Alphabet & Navigator
Phoenicians: Phoenicians were the most renowned civilization of ancient times.
Present Location: Ancient region along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean that corresponds to modern Lebanon
with adjoining parts of Syria & Israel.
Figure: Phoenicians Civilization (1500-300 B.C.)
Major City states:
• Tyre
• Sidon
• Byblos
• Arwad
Founded: 1500 B.C.
Government: Monarchy
Famous For: Alphabets, Navigations,
trading & City-States
Phoenicians Alphabet
Alphabets were initially created by Phoenicians.
• The Phoenician Alphabet is an alphabet known in modern times, from the Canaanite
and Aramaic inscriptions found across the Mediterranean region
Figure: Alphabet origin
from
Kipling to Sinai
Figure: Ancient Alphabet Phoenicians Language: Phoenician,
Punic, Ammonite, Moabite and old Arabic.
Phoenician Alphabet developed to the English Alphabet
Alphabet Direction: Right to Left script
Letter Number: 22 Letters all are consonant.
21
Phoenicians Navigator
• As they were situated on the coast of Mediterranean so they were great Navigator
The Phoenicians used natural
features for navigation as; coastlines,
the stars and dead reckoning to guide
their way & reach their destination
Fig: Example of Phoenicians
Navigator.
Methods: Coast hopping, open
sea sailing
Phoenicians ships were so
advanced that both Persians and
Assyrians used their ships to sail
Figure: World wide Navigation
There 3 things for
Phoenicians are known for:
1. Wood
2. Ivory
3. Metal working
They were some of the first to use
stars to navigate
Figure: Phoenicians city-state stands with both coast line and land
22
Purple Dye
Purple Dye
Ships Merchant Ships War Ships Crafts
Phoenician Ship Making
Development of Geographical Knowledge and Concept: Ancient Age.pptx
Egyptians
07
Step Pyramid
of Djoser
Papyrus
Sheets
THE OX-DOWN PLOW
THE SICKLE
BLACK AND RED INK
Egyptian
Irrigation
Shadoof
Egyptians Mathematics
01
02
03
04
Ancient
Egyptian Astronomy
Summerians
08
Summerians
Geographical
Range
Mesopotamia, Near
East, Middle East
Period Late Neolithic, Middle
Bronze Age
Dates c. 4500 – c. 1900 BC
Contribution and Inventions:
 Map Making
 Wagon Wheel
 Plow
 Sailboat
 Number System Based on 60
 Geometry
 12-Month Calendar
Chaldeans
09
Location: Central Iran, Iraq, Syria, and
Turkey Modern-day Southern Iraq
Contributions:
 First to make astrological studies
 Compiled the first star lists
 Invented the 24-hour day, 60-minute
hour, and 60-second minute.
 Divided the circle into 360 degrees
Assiriyans
10
●
●
●
Babylonians
11
BABYLONIYAS TIMELINE:
 19th- 16th centuries B.C
 16th- 11th centuries B.C
 11th-7th centuries B.C
 7th-6th centuries B.C
 To the 7th county A.D
The Babylonian Map of the World
 Babylon first rose to prominence in the late Bronze Age, around the beginning of the
second millennium B.C. when it was occupied by people known as the Amorites.
 A series of strong Amorte kings — including King Hammurabi, famous for compiling the
world's first legal code.
 Babylonian reasoning and rationality developed beyond empirical observation and had an
influence on Greek philosophy.
Critical Analysis
12
Strengths:
 1. Contextualizing human history:
 2. Insights into settlement patterns:
 3. Environmental determinism:
Implications and Future Directions:
 Informing contemporary geography:
 Interdisciplinary collaboration:
 Incorporating technological advancements
Limitations and Methodological Challenges:
Impedes detailed data capture, hindering understanding of
dynamic processes and temporal patterns
Interpretation's subjectivity shapes diverse understandings,
influenced by perspectives, biases, and cultural backgrounds,
impacting data analysis.
Research and decision-making face challenges due to
incomplete data, proxies, and biases, necessitating careful
interpretation and validation
References
13
45
1. Aprilholloway, Aprilholloway, & Aprilholloway. (2020). More than fifty ancient Greek inventions brought to life
through incredible reconstructions. Ancient Origins Reconstructing the Story of Humanity’s Past.
https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/more-fifty-ancient-greek-inventions-brought-life-through-incredible-
reconstructions
2. Mlblevins. (2015). Environmental Possibilism Vs. Environmental Determinism. Science Struck.
https://sciencestruck.com/environmental-possibilism-vs-environmental-determinism.
3. Zhou, J., & Gu, Y. (2016). Geometallurgical Characterization and Automated Mineralogy of Gold Ores. In Elsevier
eBooks (pp. 95–111). https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-444-63658-4.00006-2
4. Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (January/February 2000): 21.
5. Fischer, Steven Roger (2004). A history of writing. Reaktion Books. p. 90.
6. Cross, Frank Moore (1980). "Newly Found Inscriptions in Old Canaanite and Early Phoenician Scripts". Bulletin of
the American Schools of Oriental Research. The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The American Schools of
Oriental Research. 238 (238 (Spring, 1980)): 1–20. doi:10.2307/1356511. JSTOR 1356511. S2CID 222445150.
7. Deibert, B. (2018). Who are the Assyrians? 10 Things to Know about their History & Faith. Christianity.com.
https://www.christianity.com/church/denominations/discover-the-assyrians-10-things-to-know-about-their-history-
faith.html
46
8. Frye, R. N., Edzard, D. O., & Von Soden, W. T. (2023, April 1). History of Mesopotamia | Definition, Civilization,
Summary, Agriculture, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Mesopotamia-historical-
region-Asia
9. Mesopotamia. (n.d.). https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/resource-library-
mesopotamia/#:~:text=It%20is%20a%20historic%20region,with%20influencing%20mathematics%20and%20astrono
my.
10. Mesopotamia Geography. (n.d.). HISTORY’S HISTORIES
You Are History. We Are the Future. http://www.historyshistories.com/mesopotamia-geography.html
11. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2023, April 14). Babylonia | History, Map, Culture, & Facts.
Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Babylonia
12. TheGeoecologist. (2020, July 26). CONTRIBUTION OF PRE-GREEK AND ROMAN SCHOLARS |
GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT | By Dr.Krishnanand [Video]. YouTube.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFNKLHnf-3s
13. Wikipedia contributors. (2023). History of geography. Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_geography
Thank You

Does anyone have any
questions?

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Development of Geographical Knowledge and Concept: Ancient Age.pptx

  • 1. Hello Geographers! Welcome to the Presentation GES 10th
  • 3. Team A Team Leader: Ashanur Rahman ID:1811060 Session: 2018-19 Dept. of Geography & Environmental Science Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur Submitted By Submitted To # # # #
  • 4. Our team Amartya Anu Neshe Mony Aklima Akter Sanzida Akther Mahim Hasan Jannatul Ferdoush
  • 5. Our team Arif Foysal Sabiha Farjana Asma Israt Haimonti Rani Ashanur Rahman
  • 6. Contents of this Presentation
  • 7. Aim and Objective To explore and emerge the concepts and ideas during the ancient age To examine the impact of ancient geographical knowledge and concepts on other fields To provide an understanding of influencing the modern geography To introduce the concept and its importance To describe the key civilizations 01
  • 10. Approaches to Study Historical Approach Geographical Approach Paradigmatic Approach
  • 11. Pre-Existing Ancient(Greeks & Romans) Medieval(Middle ages) Age of Discovery Pre-Modern Classical Modern Post-Modern Development of Geographical Knowledge and Concepts of Different Ages
  • 13. • Mesopotamians • Phoenicians • Egyptians • Summerians • Chaldeans • Babylonians • Assiriyans Pre-Greco-Roman History
  • 15. Location: On the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is today Iraq and Kuwait. Wheel Agriculture Cuneiform Writing
  • 16. Equal Rights The legal right to be treated equally, whatever age, sex, race, etc. Mesopotamian Women’s Role • Housekeeper • Priestesses • Administrator • Business and traders • Prostitution • Slave
  • 20. Topic: Phoenicians Alphabet & Navigator Phoenicians: Phoenicians were the most renowned civilization of ancient times. Present Location: Ancient region along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean that corresponds to modern Lebanon with adjoining parts of Syria & Israel. Figure: Phoenicians Civilization (1500-300 B.C.) Major City states: • Tyre • Sidon • Byblos • Arwad Founded: 1500 B.C. Government: Monarchy Famous For: Alphabets, Navigations, trading & City-States
  • 21. Phoenicians Alphabet Alphabets were initially created by Phoenicians. • The Phoenician Alphabet is an alphabet known in modern times, from the Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions found across the Mediterranean region Figure: Alphabet origin from Kipling to Sinai Figure: Ancient Alphabet Phoenicians Language: Phoenician, Punic, Ammonite, Moabite and old Arabic. Phoenician Alphabet developed to the English Alphabet Alphabet Direction: Right to Left script Letter Number: 22 Letters all are consonant. 21
  • 22. Phoenicians Navigator • As they were situated on the coast of Mediterranean so they were great Navigator The Phoenicians used natural features for navigation as; coastlines, the stars and dead reckoning to guide their way & reach their destination Fig: Example of Phoenicians Navigator. Methods: Coast hopping, open sea sailing Phoenicians ships were so advanced that both Persians and Assyrians used their ships to sail Figure: World wide Navigation There 3 things for Phoenicians are known for: 1. Wood 2. Ivory 3. Metal working They were some of the first to use stars to navigate Figure: Phoenicians city-state stands with both coast line and land 22
  • 23. Purple Dye Purple Dye Ships Merchant Ships War Ships Crafts Phoenician Ship Making
  • 27. THE OX-DOWN PLOW THE SICKLE BLACK AND RED INK
  • 32. Summerians Geographical Range Mesopotamia, Near East, Middle East Period Late Neolithic, Middle Bronze Age Dates c. 4500 – c. 1900 BC
  • 33. Contribution and Inventions:  Map Making  Wagon Wheel  Plow  Sailboat  Number System Based on 60  Geometry  12-Month Calendar
  • 35. Location: Central Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey Modern-day Southern Iraq Contributions:  First to make astrological studies  Compiled the first star lists  Invented the 24-hour day, 60-minute hour, and 60-second minute.  Divided the circle into 360 degrees
  • 39. BABYLONIYAS TIMELINE:  19th- 16th centuries B.C  16th- 11th centuries B.C  11th-7th centuries B.C  7th-6th centuries B.C  To the 7th county A.D
  • 40. The Babylonian Map of the World  Babylon first rose to prominence in the late Bronze Age, around the beginning of the second millennium B.C. when it was occupied by people known as the Amorites.  A series of strong Amorte kings — including King Hammurabi, famous for compiling the world's first legal code.  Babylonian reasoning and rationality developed beyond empirical observation and had an influence on Greek philosophy.
  • 42. Strengths:  1. Contextualizing human history:  2. Insights into settlement patterns:  3. Environmental determinism: Implications and Future Directions:  Informing contemporary geography:  Interdisciplinary collaboration:  Incorporating technological advancements
  • 43. Limitations and Methodological Challenges: Impedes detailed data capture, hindering understanding of dynamic processes and temporal patterns Interpretation's subjectivity shapes diverse understandings, influenced by perspectives, biases, and cultural backgrounds, impacting data analysis. Research and decision-making face challenges due to incomplete data, proxies, and biases, necessitating careful interpretation and validation
  • 45. 45 1. Aprilholloway, Aprilholloway, & Aprilholloway. (2020). More than fifty ancient Greek inventions brought to life through incredible reconstructions. Ancient Origins Reconstructing the Story of Humanity’s Past. https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/more-fifty-ancient-greek-inventions-brought-life-through-incredible- reconstructions 2. Mlblevins. (2015). Environmental Possibilism Vs. Environmental Determinism. Science Struck. https://sciencestruck.com/environmental-possibilism-vs-environmental-determinism. 3. Zhou, J., & Gu, Y. (2016). Geometallurgical Characterization and Automated Mineralogy of Gold Ores. In Elsevier eBooks (pp. 95–111). https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-444-63658-4.00006-2 4. Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (January/February 2000): 21. 5. Fischer, Steven Roger (2004). A history of writing. Reaktion Books. p. 90. 6. Cross, Frank Moore (1980). "Newly Found Inscriptions in Old Canaanite and Early Phoenician Scripts". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The American Schools of Oriental Research. 238 (238 (Spring, 1980)): 1–20. doi:10.2307/1356511. JSTOR 1356511. S2CID 222445150. 7. Deibert, B. (2018). Who are the Assyrians? 10 Things to Know about their History & Faith. Christianity.com. https://www.christianity.com/church/denominations/discover-the-assyrians-10-things-to-know-about-their-history- faith.html
  • 46. 46 8. Frye, R. N., Edzard, D. O., & Von Soden, W. T. (2023, April 1). History of Mesopotamia | Definition, Civilization, Summary, Agriculture, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Mesopotamia-historical- region-Asia 9. Mesopotamia. (n.d.). https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/resource-library- mesopotamia/#:~:text=It%20is%20a%20historic%20region,with%20influencing%20mathematics%20and%20astrono my. 10. Mesopotamia Geography. (n.d.). HISTORY’S HISTORIES You Are History. We Are the Future. http://www.historyshistories.com/mesopotamia-geography.html 11. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2023, April 14). Babylonia | History, Map, Culture, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Babylonia 12. TheGeoecologist. (2020, July 26). CONTRIBUTION OF PRE-GREEK AND ROMAN SCHOLARS | GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT | By Dr.Krishnanand [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFNKLHnf-3s 13. Wikipedia contributors. (2023). History of geography. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_geography
  • 48. Does anyone have any questions?