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Biodiversity
  Year 9 & 10
Biodiversity is not simply
the variety of plants and animals
            on Earth…
Biodiversity is…..

The total of all living organisms found on Earth:
       plants, animals, microorganisms
                         and
             the genes they contain
                         and
      the ecosystems they are a part of.
There are three levels of biodiversity


1. Genetic
   diversity
2. Species
   diversity
3. Ecosystem
   diversity
1. Genetic diversity
Genes are the basic units of heredity!
High genetic diverse means there is a great
variety of genes that are present in the
population. This maximizes the adaptive
potential for a species and reduces it vulnerably
to change.
1. Genetic diversity continued…
Although a species may look the same, genetic
diversity in a population is essential for survival.

High genetic diversity maximises survival potential
of a species by:
   -increasing the number of different alleles in the
   gene pool
   -increasing the chance of adaptation to
   change/threat
2. Species diversity
A species is a group of organisms capable of
interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.

For example: A donkey and a horse are from
different species because their offspring is
infertile.
2. Species Diversity continued…

Two types:
• Species richness: the
number of different
species in a particular
area
• Species abundance: the
amount (abundance) of
individual species in a
particular area
Compare Species Richness and
      Species Diversity in these two samples




Sample 1                              Sample 2
3. Ecosystem Diversity
Different species depend on a variety of
ecosystems.
Common ecosystems include:
Forests, Rainforest, Woodlands, Shrublands,
Marine, Freshwater, Estuarine, Heath, Grassl
and, Tundra, Alpine, Desert, Riparian, Wetlan
ds
Let’s reflect…
What is an ecosystem?
A community of organisms that depend upon and
interact with each other and the abiotic factors
surrounding them.
What is a community?
A number of populations of different species
interacting within a particular region.
What is a population?
Groups of organisms belonging to the one species
and living together in an area
Ecosystems
Any group of living (biotic) and non-living
(abiotic) things that are connected together in a
self-sustaining way are called ecosystems.

An ecosystem can be as large as a desert or
lake, or as small as a tree or puddle!
What are the major parts of an ecosystem?
All non-living components of an ecosystem are
ABIOTIC. For example, a rock or humidity.

All living parts of an ecosystem are known as BIOTIC.
For example, a bush or lizard.

Sort the following ecosystem parts into abiotic and
biotic components:

  Soil, kangaroo, atmosphere, cactus,
  sunlight, water, bacteria
Did you know…
Earth has existed for 4.5 billion years.
Life has existed on Earth for 3.5 billion years.
Life today is therefore a result of evolution that has
taken place over those 3.5 billion years.
Modern humans have only existed for only 100,000
years but we are having negative effects on
biodiversity!
Threats to Biodiversity
Humans have been damaging our biosphere
and ecosystems, which is affecting our
biodiversity!

What has happened in these pictures below?
The Sixth Mass Extinction

• Many scientists believe that that we are in
  a period of mass extinction caused by
  humans.
• Globally, humans have caused the
  extinction of a total of 86 flora and 723
  fauna.
Why conserve biodiversity?

1. Ecosystem Services
2. Biological Resources
3. Social Benefits
1. Ecosystem services
•    Clean drinking water
•    Soil formation and protection
•    Nutrient storage and cycling
•    Pollution breakdown and
     absorption
•    Contribution to climate stability
•    Maintenance of ecosystems
•    Pollination of crops
2. Biological Resources
•    Food
•    Medicines
•    Resources use
•    Ornamental plants
•    Breeding stocks and population
     reservoirs
3. Social Benefits

•   Education
•   Recreation and research
•   Cultural
•   Aesthetic
Conservation
         We need high levels of
         biodiversity for clean
         air, food, fresh
         water, clothes, energy
         and medicine.

         Without
         biodiversity, life for
         humans would be both
         dull and dangerous. So
         we must conserve it.
Conservation Categories
        The International Union for
        Conservation of Nature (ICUN) Red
        List is a global list of threatened
        species.

        It divides animals into categories such
        as:
        • Vulnerable
        • Endangered
        • Critically Endangered
        • Extinct in the wild
        • Extinct
Although humans have been changing the Australian
landscape for 50,000 years or more, the changes in the
last 200 years have caused a terrible loss of
soil, vegetation and biodiversity.
This sounds bad! What on earth are we humans doing
to cause all this?
Human Changes

• Pollution: Pollution of our
  oceans, our air, our rivers and
  our land. Pollution from
  cars, industries, energy
  production, and manufacturing.

• Over-fishing in our oceans has
  drastically reduced fish
  stocks, to the point of
  extinction in some cases.
• Feral plants and animals
  continue to cause devastation
  to native plant and animal
  communities, including those
  in our oceans.

• Over-consumption:
  We’re simply buying and eating
  and consuming too much stuff!

• Climate change will potentially
  cause further problems and
  threats to biodiversity.
Habitat loss: We’ve been clearing or damaging the natural
environment to make way for all the stuff that we need (like
building houses, grazing sheep and cows, and growing food) that
there aren’t many healthy habitats left for our native plants and
animals.




       THEN                            NOW
It’s not all bad
There are things that you can do to help stop
the damage to biodiversity.
And there are lots of people who are already
working hard to help protect and restore our
biodiversity. But they do need your help. In
fact, they need the help of everybody!

• So what can you do?
Tips for helping biodiversity
Tips for helping biodiversity
• Use less stuff!
• Plant native plants in your garden - good for the
  birds, butterflies and bees, and good for the soil!
• Pollute less by driving less, buying less and wasting less
  and thinking about what you’re flushing down the drain!
• Buy organic fruit and veggies if you can - these haven’t
  been sprayed with chemicals that can harm biodiversity!
• Lock up your pets at night - the night belongs to native
  animals!
• Donate some time to vegetating or cleaning up a local
  wildlife park!
• Choose sustainably harvested fish to have with your chips!
• Spread the word!
• For more tips and more information on biodiversity visit
  the Cool Australia site (www.cool.australia.org).
Biodiversity Review Questions:

Q1. What are the three levels of biodiversity?
Q2. Why is genetic diversity important?
Q3. What are the two components of species
diversity?
Q4. List 3 reasons why we should conserve
biodiversity.
Q5. What are conservation categories?
Q6. How can we help conserve biodiversity?
Cool australia biodiversity 9 & 10 presentation

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Cool australia biodiversity 9 & 10 presentation

  • 2. Biodiversity is not simply the variety of plants and animals on Earth…
  • 3. Biodiversity is….. The total of all living organisms found on Earth: plants, animals, microorganisms and the genes they contain and the ecosystems they are a part of.
  • 4. There are three levels of biodiversity 1. Genetic diversity 2. Species diversity 3. Ecosystem diversity
  • 5. 1. Genetic diversity Genes are the basic units of heredity! High genetic diverse means there is a great variety of genes that are present in the population. This maximizes the adaptive potential for a species and reduces it vulnerably to change.
  • 6. 1. Genetic diversity continued… Although a species may look the same, genetic diversity in a population is essential for survival. High genetic diversity maximises survival potential of a species by: -increasing the number of different alleles in the gene pool -increasing the chance of adaptation to change/threat
  • 7. 2. Species diversity A species is a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. For example: A donkey and a horse are from different species because their offspring is infertile.
  • 8. 2. Species Diversity continued… Two types: • Species richness: the number of different species in a particular area • Species abundance: the amount (abundance) of individual species in a particular area
  • 9. Compare Species Richness and Species Diversity in these two samples Sample 1 Sample 2
  • 10. 3. Ecosystem Diversity Different species depend on a variety of ecosystems. Common ecosystems include: Forests, Rainforest, Woodlands, Shrublands, Marine, Freshwater, Estuarine, Heath, Grassl and, Tundra, Alpine, Desert, Riparian, Wetlan ds
  • 11. Let’s reflect… What is an ecosystem? A community of organisms that depend upon and interact with each other and the abiotic factors surrounding them. What is a community? A number of populations of different species interacting within a particular region. What is a population? Groups of organisms belonging to the one species and living together in an area
  • 12. Ecosystems Any group of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) things that are connected together in a self-sustaining way are called ecosystems. An ecosystem can be as large as a desert or lake, or as small as a tree or puddle!
  • 13. What are the major parts of an ecosystem? All non-living components of an ecosystem are ABIOTIC. For example, a rock or humidity. All living parts of an ecosystem are known as BIOTIC. For example, a bush or lizard. Sort the following ecosystem parts into abiotic and biotic components: Soil, kangaroo, atmosphere, cactus, sunlight, water, bacteria
  • 14. Did you know… Earth has existed for 4.5 billion years. Life has existed on Earth for 3.5 billion years. Life today is therefore a result of evolution that has taken place over those 3.5 billion years. Modern humans have only existed for only 100,000 years but we are having negative effects on biodiversity!
  • 15. Threats to Biodiversity Humans have been damaging our biosphere and ecosystems, which is affecting our biodiversity! What has happened in these pictures below?
  • 16. The Sixth Mass Extinction • Many scientists believe that that we are in a period of mass extinction caused by humans. • Globally, humans have caused the extinction of a total of 86 flora and 723 fauna.
  • 17. Why conserve biodiversity? 1. Ecosystem Services 2. Biological Resources 3. Social Benefits
  • 18. 1. Ecosystem services • Clean drinking water • Soil formation and protection • Nutrient storage and cycling • Pollution breakdown and absorption • Contribution to climate stability • Maintenance of ecosystems • Pollination of crops
  • 19. 2. Biological Resources • Food • Medicines • Resources use • Ornamental plants • Breeding stocks and population reservoirs
  • 20. 3. Social Benefits • Education • Recreation and research • Cultural • Aesthetic
  • 21. Conservation We need high levels of biodiversity for clean air, food, fresh water, clothes, energy and medicine. Without biodiversity, life for humans would be both dull and dangerous. So we must conserve it.
  • 22. Conservation Categories The International Union for Conservation of Nature (ICUN) Red List is a global list of threatened species. It divides animals into categories such as: • Vulnerable • Endangered • Critically Endangered • Extinct in the wild • Extinct
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Although humans have been changing the Australian landscape for 50,000 years or more, the changes in the last 200 years have caused a terrible loss of soil, vegetation and biodiversity. This sounds bad! What on earth are we humans doing to cause all this?
  • 26. Human Changes • Pollution: Pollution of our oceans, our air, our rivers and our land. Pollution from cars, industries, energy production, and manufacturing. • Over-fishing in our oceans has drastically reduced fish stocks, to the point of extinction in some cases.
  • 27. • Feral plants and animals continue to cause devastation to native plant and animal communities, including those in our oceans. • Over-consumption: We’re simply buying and eating and consuming too much stuff! • Climate change will potentially cause further problems and threats to biodiversity.
  • 28. Habitat loss: We’ve been clearing or damaging the natural environment to make way for all the stuff that we need (like building houses, grazing sheep and cows, and growing food) that there aren’t many healthy habitats left for our native plants and animals. THEN NOW
  • 29. It’s not all bad There are things that you can do to help stop the damage to biodiversity. And there are lots of people who are already working hard to help protect and restore our biodiversity. But they do need your help. In fact, they need the help of everybody! • So what can you do?
  • 30. Tips for helping biodiversity
  • 31. Tips for helping biodiversity • Use less stuff! • Plant native plants in your garden - good for the birds, butterflies and bees, and good for the soil! • Pollute less by driving less, buying less and wasting less and thinking about what you’re flushing down the drain! • Buy organic fruit and veggies if you can - these haven’t been sprayed with chemicals that can harm biodiversity! • Lock up your pets at night - the night belongs to native animals! • Donate some time to vegetating or cleaning up a local wildlife park! • Choose sustainably harvested fish to have with your chips! • Spread the word! • For more tips and more information on biodiversity visit the Cool Australia site (www.cool.australia.org).
  • 32. Biodiversity Review Questions: Q1. What are the three levels of biodiversity? Q2. Why is genetic diversity important? Q3. What are the two components of species diversity? Q4. List 3 reasons why we should conserve biodiversity. Q5. What are conservation categories? Q6. How can we help conserve biodiversity?

Editor's Notes

  1. Definition: Biodiversity is the “totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a region.”
  2. Ensure your students understand that genes are transferred from a parent to offspring and code for particular traits, such as eye colour, fur colour, personality traits.
  3. A night genetic diversity increase the survival potential by having a increased no. of different alleles in gene pool and increased chance of adaptation to change/threat
  4. Ask your students what the name of the offspring is?
  5. Get your students to compare the species richness and species diversity of sample 1 and sample 2
  6. Students should have a clear understanding of the difference between population, community and ecosystem.
  7. Stress to your students that the definition of ecosystem is “A groups of living things (biotic) and non-living things (biotic) interacting together in a community.” Students get confused between the definitions of environment, ecosystems, community, population and habitat.
  8. Get your students to identify from the list of ecosystem parts the abiotic and biotic factors.Abiotic: Soil, atmosphere, water, sunlightBiotic: Kangaroo, cactus, bacteriaThe abiotic and biotic factors rely on each other.
  9. Get students to research why the Yellow-Eyed Penguin is ‘Endangered’. Answer: The reasons for its decline may include habitat loss, predation by introduced species, human interference and disease. Local conservation groups and the New Zealand government are working to recover this lovely little species, to restore its habitats, and to protect it from new and existing threats.
  10. Ask students to find out the difference between Critically Endangered and Endangered! Answer: an observed population decline over the last 10 years or three generations of at least 80%, occurrence is estimated to be less than 100km2, the population is estimated to be fewer than mature individuals, probability of extinction is at least 50% within 5 years.For factsheets see: http://coolaustralia.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Sumatran-Orangutan-11.pdf