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CLASSIFICATION OF
MALOCCLUSION
OCCLUSION
oc clusion
CLOSINGUP
CLOSING UP
MALOCCLUSION
MAL OCCLUSION
BITEBAD
BAD BITE
 DEFINITION
 The relation of the Maxillary and Mandibular
teeth when the jaws are
- Closed in centric relation
- Without strain of
musculature or
displacement of
condyles in their
fossae
IDEAL & NORMAL OCCLUSION
“IDEAL” is a hypothetical
concept or a standardized goal
“Normal” implies to the
variations around an average
mean value
The Perfect Occlusion
IDEAL OCCLUSION:
It is a theoretical concept based on the ideal teeth position and
arches relationships. It is rarely, , if ever, found in nature.
However, it provides a standard by which all other occlusions
may be judged.
• A coincident mid-line
• No (crowding/spacing/rotations)
• Over-jet = 2-3mm
• Correct crown angulation and
inclination
• Class I molar & canine
relationship
• A flat or slightly upwards curve of
Spee
- Is one which shows:
some deviation from that of the
ideal but is aesthetically
acceptable and functionally
stable for the individual
- the upper and lower teeth fit
nicely and evenly together with
the least amount of destructive
interferences
Andrews 6 KEYS of Normal Occlusion (1972)
Correct crown inclination
No spaces Flat to slight curve of spee
No rotation
Correct crown angulationClass I molar relationship
Definition:
Malocclusion may be defined as
―A condition where there is
departure from the normal relation
of the teeth to
- other teeth in the same dental arch
and/or to
- teeth in the opposing arch
The term was coined by Edward H Angle, the "father of
modern orthodontics.”
MALOCCLUSION
MALOCCLUSION:
An occlusion In which there is a malrelationship between the
arches in any of the planes of the spaces or in which there are
anomalies in tooth position beyond the limit of normal.
(Walther & Huston)
Why we need a Classification
for malocclusion ???
INTER ARCH
SKELETA
L
INTRA ARCH
INTRA ARCH
Includes variation in individual tooth position & a group of teeth within in a
arch
Abnormal inclination
Abnormal Displacements
Spacing and crowding within the same arch
Distal inclination Mesial inclination
Buccal inclination Lingual inclination
ABNORMAL INCLINATION
Labioversion
Lingoversion
ABNORMAL DISPLACEMENTS
Palatoversion
Buccoversion
Supraversion
Infraversion
Torsiversion
Types
Abnormal relationship between two teeth or group of
teeth of one arch to the other
Sagittal plane malocclusions
Vertical plane malocclusions
Transverse plane
malocclusions
SAGITTAL DIRECTION
Either :
- Abnormal overjet
- Anterior cross-bite
Anteriorly
Class II malocclusion
Class III malocclusion
Posteriorly
OR

Normal overbite
Deep overbite Open bite
Transverse plane malocclusions
Either :
DEVIATIONS OF THE MIDLINE
Anteriorly
POSTERIOR CROSS BITE: Posteriorly
OR
Malrelation of the apical bases:
Malrelation of the upper and
lower apical bases is due to:
a. Abnormal size;
b. Abnormal shape;
c. Abnormal relation to skull
d. Abnormal relation to each
other.
VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION
 ANGLE CLASSIFICATION
 LISCHER’S MODIFICATION OF ANGLES
CLASSIFICATION
 SIMONS SYSTEM
ACKERMANN AND PROFITT CLASSIFICATION
 BALLARDS CLASSIFICATION
ANGLE CLASSIFICATION
It was introduced by Edward H. Angle (1889)
• Based on the mesiodistal relationship of teeth, dental arches
and jaws
• Maxillary first molar is taken as the key of occlusion
• Three classes
Class I
Class II
Class II div 1
Class II div 2
Class II Subdivision
Class III
True Class III
Pseudo Class III
THREE CLASSES
Class III Subdivision
NORMAL LINE OF OCCLUSION
Neutroclusion
 Molar relationship
 Canine relationship
Line of occlusion: ALTERED in the max. & mand. Arches:
• individual tooth irregularities (crowding/spacing/….)
• Inter-arch problems (deep bite/open bite/ increased overjet/…)
Angle Class ІІ malocclusion
Canine relationship:
- the distal incline of upper canine anterior to
the mesial incline of lower first premolar
Distoclusion
Molar relationship:
There are two divisions of class ІІ designated, division 1 and
division 2
Angle Class ІІ malocclusion division 1
Angle Class ІІ malocclusion division 2
Angle Class ІІ malocclusion division II
Mandible is retruded and one or more
maxillary incisors are retruded
Class ІІ Division 2 :
 Class II molar relation
 Lingually tipped upper central
incisors
 Labially tipped lateral incisors
 Normal muscle activity
class I molar
class ІІ molar
Class ІІ malocclusion
subdivision
Angle Class III malocclusion
True class III
 Genetic in origin
 Excessively large mandible
 Smaller than normal maxilla
 Retropositioned maxilla
Class ІІІ malocclusion: 2 types
- True class ІІІ malocclusion (Skeletal)
- Pseudo class ІІІ (FALSE or postural)
Pseudo class ІІІ
 Forward movement of mandible during jaw closure
Occlusal prematurities
Premature loss of deciduous posteriors
Enlarged adenoids
Advantages of ANGLE classification
• First comprehensive classification- most widely accepted
• Simple
• Easy to use
• Most POPULAR
• Easy to Communicate
DEMERTIS OF ANGLE CLASSIFICATION
 Considers malocculsion only in antroposterior plane not in
transeverse/vertical
 Considered 1st molar as fixed point – skull
 Deciduous dentition
 1st molar extracted
 Doesn't distinguish between skeletal and dental
malocclusion
 Doesn’t highlight etiology
 Individual tooth positions
Lischer’s modification (1933)
Neutroclusion : Angles class I malocclusion
Distoclusion : Angles class II malocclsion
Mesioclusion : Angles class III malocclsion
Buccocclusion : Buccal placement of a tooth or a group of
teeth
Linguocclusion : lingual placement of a tooth or a group of a
tooth or a group of teeth
Supraocclusion : when a tooth or group of teeth have erupted
beyound normal level
Infraocclsion : when a tooth or group of teeth have not
erupted to normal level
Mesioversion : mesial to the normal position
Distoversion : distal to the normal position
Transversion : transposition of two teeth
Axiversion : Abnormal axial inclination of a tooth
Torsiversion : Rotation of a tooth around its long axis
SIMONS CLASSIFICATION (1926)
 It is craniometric classification
 Based on abnormal deviations of dental
arches from their normal position in relation
to these 3 planes
VERTICAL PLANE
ANTERO-POSRTERIOR
TRANSVERSE PLANE
‘ GNATHODYNAMOMETER ’
FH PLANE
This plane help to detect devotions in the
VERTICAL DIRECTION
ORBITAL PLANE
 Perpendicular to the FHP
 Simon’s law of canine- “this
plane should pass through
the distal third of the canine”
This plane used to describe malocclusion in ANTERIO-POSTERIOR
direction
Protraction
Retraction
THIS plane passes at right angle to FHP
MID SAGITTAL PLANE
It classifies malocclusion according to TRANSVERSE DEVIATION
from MSP
CONTRACTION
DISTRACTION
ACKERMAN-PROFIT SYSTEM ( 1960 )
 PROFILE :
concave, straight,
convex
 LIPS : protrusive,
normal, retrusive
 INCISOR DISPLAY
: Excessive, normal,
Inadequate
Involves assessment of alignment and
symmetry of dental arch
Classified as IDEAL / CROWDED /
SPACED
 The transverse skeletal
and dental relationship is
evaluated
 Buccal and palatal
crossbites are noted
 CROSS BITE : unilateral /
bilateral
 Skeletal or Dental cross
bite ?
 Involves assessment
of sagittal
relationship
 Angle’s Class- I / II /
III
 Differention between
skeletal and dental
malocclusion
 Malocclusions in vertical
plane are noted
 Anterior or posterior
open bite
 Anterior deep bite
 Posterior collapsed bite
 Skeletal / Dental ??
Two things particularly help this more
thorough analysis:
Esthetic line of occlusion.
Rotational axes.
 In modern analysis,
another curved line
characterizing the
appearance of the
dentition is important
 Esthetic line of
occlusion, follows
the facial edges of
the maxillary anterior
and posterior teeth.
 In addition to relationship in the transverse, antero-
posterior and vertical planes of space used in
traditional 3-D analysis, rotations around axes
perpendicular to three planes also must be
evaluated
 It’s a useful way to evaluate the relationship of the
teeth to the soft tissues that frame their display
 Pitch
 Roll
 Yaw
ROLL
 Roll describes the vertical position of the teeth
when this is different on the right & left sides.
 It’s seen with lips relaxed and more clearly on
smile, in both frontal and oblique views.
 The vertical relationship of the teeth to the lips &
cheeks can be conventionally described as up-down
deviations around the antero-posterior axes.
 The vertical relationship of the teeth to the lips &
cheeks can be conventionally described as up-down
deviations around the antero-posterior axes.
 Rotation of the jaw or dentition to one side or
the other, around a vertical axes, produces a
skeletal or dental midline discrepancy.
 Viewed as left-right deviations around the
vertical axis.
MERITS
• Explained complexities of
malocclusion
• All 3-Dimensional
problems included
• Patient profile included
• Differention between
skeletal and dental
problems
• Arch length problems are
evaluated
• Helps in complete
diagnosis and treatment
planning
DEMERITS
• Etiological considerations
are not given
• Based on static occlusion
only
BALLARDS
CLASSIFICATION
A classification of
malocclusion based on incisor
As treatment is often primarily
aimed at correcting this
relationship
Three CLASSES
Class I incisor
Class II incisor
Class III incisor
Class II incisor
Div 1
Class III incisor
classification of malocclusion

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classification of malocclusion

  • 4.
  • 5.  DEFINITION  The relation of the Maxillary and Mandibular teeth when the jaws are - Closed in centric relation - Without strain of musculature or displacement of condyles in their fossae
  • 6. IDEAL & NORMAL OCCLUSION “IDEAL” is a hypothetical concept or a standardized goal “Normal” implies to the variations around an average mean value The Perfect Occlusion
  • 7. IDEAL OCCLUSION: It is a theoretical concept based on the ideal teeth position and arches relationships. It is rarely, , if ever, found in nature. However, it provides a standard by which all other occlusions may be judged.
  • 8. • A coincident mid-line • No (crowding/spacing/rotations) • Over-jet = 2-3mm • Correct crown angulation and inclination • Class I molar & canine relationship • A flat or slightly upwards curve of Spee - Is one which shows: some deviation from that of the ideal but is aesthetically acceptable and functionally stable for the individual - the upper and lower teeth fit nicely and evenly together with the least amount of destructive interferences
  • 9. Andrews 6 KEYS of Normal Occlusion (1972) Correct crown inclination No spaces Flat to slight curve of spee No rotation Correct crown angulationClass I molar relationship
  • 10. Definition: Malocclusion may be defined as ―A condition where there is departure from the normal relation of the teeth to - other teeth in the same dental arch and/or to - teeth in the opposing arch The term was coined by Edward H Angle, the "father of modern orthodontics.” MALOCCLUSION
  • 11. MALOCCLUSION: An occlusion In which there is a malrelationship between the arches in any of the planes of the spaces or in which there are anomalies in tooth position beyond the limit of normal. (Walther & Huston)
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Why we need a Classification for malocclusion ???
  • 17.
  • 19. INTRA ARCH Includes variation in individual tooth position & a group of teeth within in a arch Abnormal inclination Abnormal Displacements Spacing and crowding within the same arch
  • 20. Distal inclination Mesial inclination Buccal inclination Lingual inclination ABNORMAL INCLINATION
  • 25. Types Abnormal relationship between two teeth or group of teeth of one arch to the other Sagittal plane malocclusions Vertical plane malocclusions Transverse plane malocclusions
  • 26. SAGITTAL DIRECTION Either : - Abnormal overjet - Anterior cross-bite Anteriorly Class II malocclusion Class III malocclusion Posteriorly OR
  • 28. Transverse plane malocclusions Either : DEVIATIONS OF THE MIDLINE Anteriorly POSTERIOR CROSS BITE: Posteriorly OR
  • 29. Malrelation of the apical bases: Malrelation of the upper and lower apical bases is due to: a. Abnormal size; b. Abnormal shape; c. Abnormal relation to skull d. Abnormal relation to each other.
  • 30.
  • 31. VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION  ANGLE CLASSIFICATION  LISCHER’S MODIFICATION OF ANGLES CLASSIFICATION  SIMONS SYSTEM ACKERMANN AND PROFITT CLASSIFICATION  BALLARDS CLASSIFICATION
  • 32. ANGLE CLASSIFICATION It was introduced by Edward H. Angle (1889) • Based on the mesiodistal relationship of teeth, dental arches and jaws • Maxillary first molar is taken as the key of occlusion • Three classes
  • 33.
  • 34. Class I Class II Class II div 1 Class II div 2 Class II Subdivision Class III True Class III Pseudo Class III THREE CLASSES Class III Subdivision
  • 35. NORMAL LINE OF OCCLUSION
  • 36. Neutroclusion  Molar relationship  Canine relationship Line of occlusion: ALTERED in the max. & mand. Arches: • individual tooth irregularities (crowding/spacing/….) • Inter-arch problems (deep bite/open bite/ increased overjet/…)
  • 37. Angle Class ІІ malocclusion Canine relationship: - the distal incline of upper canine anterior to the mesial incline of lower first premolar Distoclusion Molar relationship: There are two divisions of class ІІ designated, division 1 and division 2
  • 38. Angle Class ІІ malocclusion division 1
  • 39. Angle Class ІІ malocclusion division 2
  • 40. Angle Class ІІ malocclusion division II Mandible is retruded and one or more maxillary incisors are retruded Class ІІ Division 2 :  Class II molar relation  Lingually tipped upper central incisors  Labially tipped lateral incisors  Normal muscle activity
  • 41. class I molar class ІІ molar Class ІІ malocclusion subdivision
  • 42. Angle Class III malocclusion True class III  Genetic in origin  Excessively large mandible  Smaller than normal maxilla  Retropositioned maxilla Class ІІІ malocclusion: 2 types - True class ІІІ malocclusion (Skeletal) - Pseudo class ІІІ (FALSE or postural) Pseudo class ІІІ  Forward movement of mandible during jaw closure Occlusal prematurities Premature loss of deciduous posteriors Enlarged adenoids
  • 43. Advantages of ANGLE classification • First comprehensive classification- most widely accepted • Simple • Easy to use • Most POPULAR • Easy to Communicate
  • 44. DEMERTIS OF ANGLE CLASSIFICATION  Considers malocculsion only in antroposterior plane not in transeverse/vertical  Considered 1st molar as fixed point – skull  Deciduous dentition  1st molar extracted  Doesn't distinguish between skeletal and dental malocclusion  Doesn’t highlight etiology  Individual tooth positions
  • 46. Neutroclusion : Angles class I malocclusion Distoclusion : Angles class II malocclsion Mesioclusion : Angles class III malocclsion Buccocclusion : Buccal placement of a tooth or a group of teeth Linguocclusion : lingual placement of a tooth or a group of a tooth or a group of teeth Supraocclusion : when a tooth or group of teeth have erupted beyound normal level Infraocclsion : when a tooth or group of teeth have not erupted to normal level Mesioversion : mesial to the normal position Distoversion : distal to the normal position Transversion : transposition of two teeth Axiversion : Abnormal axial inclination of a tooth Torsiversion : Rotation of a tooth around its long axis
  • 48.  It is craniometric classification  Based on abnormal deviations of dental arches from their normal position in relation to these 3 planes VERTICAL PLANE ANTERO-POSRTERIOR TRANSVERSE PLANE ‘ GNATHODYNAMOMETER ’
  • 49. FH PLANE This plane help to detect devotions in the VERTICAL DIRECTION
  • 50. ORBITAL PLANE  Perpendicular to the FHP  Simon’s law of canine- “this plane should pass through the distal third of the canine” This plane used to describe malocclusion in ANTERIO-POSTERIOR direction Protraction Retraction
  • 51. THIS plane passes at right angle to FHP MID SAGITTAL PLANE It classifies malocclusion according to TRANSVERSE DEVIATION from MSP CONTRACTION DISTRACTION
  • 53.
  • 54.  PROFILE : concave, straight, convex  LIPS : protrusive, normal, retrusive  INCISOR DISPLAY : Excessive, normal, Inadequate
  • 55. Involves assessment of alignment and symmetry of dental arch Classified as IDEAL / CROWDED / SPACED
  • 56.  The transverse skeletal and dental relationship is evaluated  Buccal and palatal crossbites are noted  CROSS BITE : unilateral / bilateral  Skeletal or Dental cross bite ?
  • 57.  Involves assessment of sagittal relationship  Angle’s Class- I / II / III  Differention between skeletal and dental malocclusion
  • 58.  Malocclusions in vertical plane are noted  Anterior or posterior open bite  Anterior deep bite  Posterior collapsed bite  Skeletal / Dental ??
  • 59. Two things particularly help this more thorough analysis: Esthetic line of occlusion. Rotational axes.
  • 60.  In modern analysis, another curved line characterizing the appearance of the dentition is important  Esthetic line of occlusion, follows the facial edges of the maxillary anterior and posterior teeth.
  • 61.  In addition to relationship in the transverse, antero- posterior and vertical planes of space used in traditional 3-D analysis, rotations around axes perpendicular to three planes also must be evaluated  It’s a useful way to evaluate the relationship of the teeth to the soft tissues that frame their display  Pitch  Roll  Yaw
  • 62.
  • 63. ROLL  Roll describes the vertical position of the teeth when this is different on the right & left sides.  It’s seen with lips relaxed and more clearly on smile, in both frontal and oblique views.
  • 64.  The vertical relationship of the teeth to the lips & cheeks can be conventionally described as up-down deviations around the antero-posterior axes.
  • 65.  The vertical relationship of the teeth to the lips & cheeks can be conventionally described as up-down deviations around the antero-posterior axes.
  • 66.  Rotation of the jaw or dentition to one side or the other, around a vertical axes, produces a skeletal or dental midline discrepancy.  Viewed as left-right deviations around the vertical axis.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71. MERITS • Explained complexities of malocclusion • All 3-Dimensional problems included • Patient profile included • Differention between skeletal and dental problems • Arch length problems are evaluated • Helps in complete diagnosis and treatment planning DEMERITS • Etiological considerations are not given • Based on static occlusion only
  • 73. A classification of malocclusion based on incisor As treatment is often primarily aimed at correcting this relationship Three CLASSES Class I incisor Class II incisor Class III incisor