SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Biofouling, Antifouling and Treatments
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Chittagong
Biofouling :
Bio means “Life” and Fouling comes
“Pollute”
Biofouling describes a wide range
of organisms attached to surfaces
immersed in the ocean which effect
the surface or substratum of any
objects.
Fouling phenomena are common
diverse, ranging from fouling of ship
hulls and marine infrastructures.
Biofouling Effects & Impacts
•Biofouling is the undesirable
accumulation of microorganisms, plants,
algae, and/or animals on wetted
structures.
•Marine and freshwater biofouling is one
of the major unsolved problems currently
affecting the shipping industry and
industrial aquatic processes.
•Marine biofouling commonly refers to
the adverse growth of marine organisms
on immersed artificial structures such as
ship hulls, jetty pilings, navigational
instruments, aquaculture net cages and
seawater in taking pipes.
Biofouling
How Biofouling occurs?
The establishment of the fouling community is composed of four stages (Fig. 1; Abarzua and
Jakubowski, 1995) and some of these stages can overlap or occur in parallel.
Figure 1.Process of fouling: The 4 main stages of marine biofouling (NERC News 1995)
Biofouling is not as simple a process as it sounds. Organisms do not usually simply suck onto
a substrate like a suction cup. The complex process often begins with the production of
a ”Bioflim”.
Formation of biofouling
Formation of Microfouling
• In the aquatic environment, any submerged solid surface gets coated by a complex layer,
initially consisting of an organic conditioning film.
• Formation of this film is immediately followed by an accumulation of microorganisms (eg.
bacteria, fungi, diatoms, and other micro-organisms) and the secretion at their cell surface of
extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS) during attachment, colonization, and
population growth.
• A biofilm is a film made of bacteria, such as Thiobacilli or other microorganisms, that forms
on a material when conditions are right. (Gehrke, T; Sand, W. 2003).
Bacteria Growth Spread
•Nutrient availability is an important factor;
•Bacteria are not the only organisms that can create this initial site of
attachment diatoms, seaweed, and their secretions are also culprits.
Formation of macrofouling
• A macrofouling community consisting of either 'soft fouling' or
'hard fouling’ may develop and overgrow the microfouling.
• Soft fouling comprises algae and invertebrates, such as soft
corals, sponges, anemones, tunicates and hydroids.
• Hard fouling comprises invertebrates such as barnacles,
mussels and tubeworms, bryazons and seaweeds.
Biofouling Agents
Biofouling processes
Effects of biofouling
• Both micro- and macrofouling in the world’s oceans cause huge material and economic
losses in maintenance of mariculture facilities, shipping facilities, vessels, and seawater
pipelines (Wahl, 1997; Clare, 1998;Fusetani, 2004; Yebra et al., 2004).
• Biofouling increases weight and frictional resistance of the ship, thus affecting its
hydrodynamics, speed and maneuverability (Rolland and DeSimone 2003).
• Biofouling is everywhere. Parts of a ship other than the hull are affected as well: heat
exchangers, water-cooling pipes, propellers, even the ballast water. (Brizzolara, RA. 2002).
• biofouling on ship hulls is a powerful way of spreading species to new parts of the world
oceans leading to bioinvasion, which is now recognised as a major threat to biodiversity
(Anil et al., 2002).
Biofouling
Biofouling
formation
and
remedial
measures
Remedial measures of Biofouling
• Physical method
• Chemical method
• Biological method
Physical method
• The simplest method for treatment of fouling is simply to remove by
mechanical cleaning eg, by treatment of the fouled surface with high-pressure
water jets (Granhag et al., 2004).
• scraping
Disadvantages
• Costly
• Time consuming
• Less effective
• Not easily applicable to everywhere
Chemical method
• TBT(Tributyltin)
• Copper
• UV irritation
• Chlorination
• Titanium alloys
• Silicone elastomers
DISADVANTAGES
• Evidence of adverse effects of TBT prompted
the International Marine Organization to call
for a ban on the application of TBT based
antifouling paints from 2003 and the
presence of such paints on the surface of
ships from the year 2008.
• some want to eliminate copper-based
coatings, claiming they are responsible for
the same negative effects as TBT.
• These are not organism specific.
Biological method
• There may be no greater way to fight nature than
with nature itself.
• The disadvantages of physical and chemical methods
we need the help of natural source for producing
ecofriendly antifouling compounds.
• Several kinds of natural antifouling agents that
inhibit growth of fouling orgonisms have been
isolated from marine organisms like bacteria
(Holrnstrom et al., 1996), marine algae (Abarzua et al., 1999, de Nys et
al., 1996, Eng-Wilmot et al., 1979, Gross et al., 1991, Hellio et al., 2002, Ishida 2000,
Murakami et al.)
Ship & Structure Corrosion
Ship corrosion is a major hazard for the
industry. The deterioration of these
structures causes higher maintenance
costs, early system failures, or an overall
shortened service life.
Corrosion is a natural process which as
a result, reduces metallic elements back
to their original state. All metals have
different levels of risk for example gold
is the least corrosive while magnesium
is the most corrosive.
Galvanic corrosion is the most common form of corrosion and therefore the most dangerous. This occurs
when two or more metals are in contact with each other, while submerged in an electrolyte solution like saltwater.
As a result, the more reactive metal begins to deteriorate at a faster pace which is never a good sign in regards to
personal safety. Physical signs of corrosion are flaking and blistering of paint and eventually lead to pitting of the
metal.
Therefore, Crevice corrosion involves the interaction of one metal part with two
connected environments such as a tight, confined space, where elements like oxygen are
limited. In conclusion, depending on the environments involved, pitting or cracking may
occur, causing some serious damage
Flow-accelerated corrosion this type of ship corrosion occurs from the constant flow of
water against a metals surface which can be particularly harmful and may rapidly
breakdown a vessels protected layers.
When a metal is affected by corrosion, an oxide layer is formed which in turn protects a
metals lower layers from further harm. Removing oxidation begins when salt water flows
over this layer.
conclusion
• Bio fouling remedial measures move towards nontoxic antifoulants.
• Marine lives such as corals, sponges, marine plants, and dolphins, etc.,
prevent the surface of their bodies with antifouling substances without
causing serious environmental problems.
• Therefore, these substances may be expected to be used, as new
environmental friendly antifouling agents, especially those having highly
anesthetic, repellent, and settlement inhibitory properties, etc., without
showing biocidal properties, are desirable.
Thank you All
Save Our Environment form Your Home

More Related Content

What's hot

Petroleum microbiology
Petroleum microbiologyPetroleum microbiology
Petroleum microbiology
ANJALI VASHISHTHA
 
Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons
Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbonsBiodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons
Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons
Hamza Shiekh
 
Bioremediation
BioremediationBioremediation
Bioremediation
Manisha Sirohi
 
Aeromicrobiology
AeromicrobiologyAeromicrobiology
Aeromicrobiology
zakiakhatoon2
 
Biological indicators and accumulators
Biological  indicators  and accumulatorsBiological  indicators  and accumulators
Biological indicators and accumulators
SureshKumar Pandian
 
Bioindicators
BioindicatorsBioindicators
Bioindicators
Ruchi
 
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobioticsMicrobial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
Shruthi Krishnaswamy
 
Single Cell Protein - Slideshare PPT
Single Cell Protein - Slideshare PPTSingle Cell Protein - Slideshare PPT
Single Cell Protein - Slideshare PPT
Priyabrata Karmakar
 
Bioremediation
BioremediationBioremediation
Bioremediation
vanitha gopal
 
Bioleaching
Bioleaching Bioleaching
Bioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptx
Bioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptxBioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptx
Bioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptx
DharshinipriyaJanaki
 
Bioremediation.
Bioremediation.Bioremediation.
Bioremediation.
Hemanth Muckatira
 
AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY
AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY
AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY
benazeer fathima
 
Environmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds
Environmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compoundsEnvironmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds
Environmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds
Tejaswini Petkar
 
Fouling organisms
Fouling organismsFouling organisms
Fouling organisms
R.k. InhellFishcos
 
Microbial leaching
Microbial leachingMicrobial leaching
Microbial leaching
Bhagyashree Srivastava
 
Single cell protein
Single cell proteinSingle cell protein
Single cell protein
Firdous Ansari
 
Photobioreactor
PhotobioreactorPhotobioreactor
Photobioreactor
archana gautam
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
gaurav raja
 
Growth kinetics
Growth kineticsGrowth kinetics
Growth kinetics
Jayashree Sethuraman
 

What's hot (20)

Petroleum microbiology
Petroleum microbiologyPetroleum microbiology
Petroleum microbiology
 
Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons
Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbonsBiodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons
Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons
 
Bioremediation
BioremediationBioremediation
Bioremediation
 
Aeromicrobiology
AeromicrobiologyAeromicrobiology
Aeromicrobiology
 
Biological indicators and accumulators
Biological  indicators  and accumulatorsBiological  indicators  and accumulators
Biological indicators and accumulators
 
Bioindicators
BioindicatorsBioindicators
Bioindicators
 
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobioticsMicrobial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
 
Single Cell Protein - Slideshare PPT
Single Cell Protein - Slideshare PPTSingle Cell Protein - Slideshare PPT
Single Cell Protein - Slideshare PPT
 
Bioremediation
BioremediationBioremediation
Bioremediation
 
Bioleaching
Bioleaching Bioleaching
Bioleaching
 
Bioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptx
Bioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptxBioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptx
Bioremediation -Bioaugmentation and types .pptx
 
Bioremediation.
Bioremediation.Bioremediation.
Bioremediation.
 
AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY
AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY
AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY
 
Environmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds
Environmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compoundsEnvironmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds
Environmental Microbiology: Microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds
 
Fouling organisms
Fouling organismsFouling organisms
Fouling organisms
 
Microbial leaching
Microbial leachingMicrobial leaching
Microbial leaching
 
Single cell protein
Single cell proteinSingle cell protein
Single cell protein
 
Photobioreactor
PhotobioreactorPhotobioreactor
Photobioreactor
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
 
Growth kinetics
Growth kineticsGrowth kinetics
Growth kinetics
 

Similar to Biofouling

Introduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptx
Introduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptxIntroduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptx
Introduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptx
University of Chittagong
 
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019
GeraldoRossoniSisqui
 
coastline shoreline .pptx
coastline shoreline .pptxcoastline shoreline .pptx
coastline shoreline .pptx
BalachShahwani
 
BIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptx
BIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptxBIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptx
BIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptx
AdigeAnthony
 
Analysis of Marine Pollution using IOT
Analysis of Marine Pollution using IOTAnalysis of Marine Pollution using IOT
Analysis of Marine Pollution using IOT
IRJET Journal
 
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosionMicrobiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
koshykanjirapallikaran
 
Biofilm Formation asignment
Biofilm Formation asignmentBiofilm Formation asignment
Biofilm Formation asignment
punjab university
 
Navigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docx
Navigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docxNavigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docx
Navigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docx
Shelton05
 
MARINE POLLUTION pollution presentation
MARINE POLLUTION pollution presentationMARINE POLLUTION pollution presentation
MARINE POLLUTION pollution presentation
Dibyajyoti Sarma
 
Marine pollution
Marine pollution  Marine pollution
Marine pollution
Neelam suwal
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Anti fouling Coatings
Anti fouling CoatingsAnti fouling Coatings
Anti fouling Coatings
Raja Manojkumar
 
Marine pollution
Marine pollutionMarine pollution
Marine pollution
Pramoda Raj
 
Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...
Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...
Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...
Christer Fjeld
 
Heavy Metal Soil Contamination Analysis
Heavy Metal Soil Contamination AnalysisHeavy Metal Soil Contamination Analysis
Heavy Metal Soil Contamination Analysis
Kenneth Rosales
 
Marine Waste.docx
Marine Waste.docxMarine Waste.docx
Marine Waste.docx
SweetzelManalo4
 
Ballast water :impact and management
Ballast water :impact and managementBallast water :impact and management
Ballast water :impact and management
Kosala Handapangoda
 
Toxic pollutants
Toxic pollutantsToxic pollutants
Toxic pollutants
TanvirHridoy1
 
Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...
Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...
Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...
Crimsonpublishers-Oceanography
 
Coral bleaching
Coral bleachingCoral bleaching
Coral bleaching
Hafiz Zulkifili
 

Similar to Biofouling (20)

Introduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptx
Introduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptxIntroduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptx
Introduction of Environment Technology & Marine Environmental Biotechnology.pptx
 
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) 2019
 
coastline shoreline .pptx
coastline shoreline .pptxcoastline shoreline .pptx
coastline shoreline .pptx
 
BIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptx
BIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptxBIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptx
BIOLOGICAL_INDUCED_CORROSION.pptx
 
Analysis of Marine Pollution using IOT
Analysis of Marine Pollution using IOTAnalysis of Marine Pollution using IOT
Analysis of Marine Pollution using IOT
 
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosionMicrobiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (mic) or biological corrosion
 
Biofilm Formation asignment
Biofilm Formation asignmentBiofilm Formation asignment
Biofilm Formation asignment
 
Navigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docx
Navigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docxNavigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docx
Navigating the Seas of Biofouling Strategies for Effective Management.docx
 
MARINE POLLUTION pollution presentation
MARINE POLLUTION pollution presentationMARINE POLLUTION pollution presentation
MARINE POLLUTION pollution presentation
 
Marine pollution
Marine pollution  Marine pollution
Marine pollution
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Anti fouling Coatings
Anti fouling CoatingsAnti fouling Coatings
Anti fouling Coatings
 
Marine pollution
Marine pollutionMarine pollution
Marine pollution
 
Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...
Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...
Current knowledge on microbial induced problems and biofouling in lubrication...
 
Heavy Metal Soil Contamination Analysis
Heavy Metal Soil Contamination AnalysisHeavy Metal Soil Contamination Analysis
Heavy Metal Soil Contamination Analysis
 
Marine Waste.docx
Marine Waste.docxMarine Waste.docx
Marine Waste.docx
 
Ballast water :impact and management
Ballast water :impact and managementBallast water :impact and management
Ballast water :impact and management
 
Toxic pollutants
Toxic pollutantsToxic pollutants
Toxic pollutants
 
Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...
Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...
Crimson Publishers-A Conceptual Approach towards Utilization of Technological...
 
Coral bleaching
Coral bleachingCoral bleaching
Coral bleaching
 

Recently uploaded

Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...
Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...
Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...
CrimsonpublishersEAES
 
Sustainable AI
Sustainable AI  Sustainable AI
Sustainable AI
Dr. Salem Baidas
 
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
harshitkulshrestha02
 
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
45unexpected
 
apis trigona biroi palawan native beekeeping
apis trigona biroi palawan native beekeepingapis trigona biroi palawan native beekeeping
apis trigona biroi palawan native beekeeping
KeithMikkelson2
 
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
janvikumar4133
 
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptxDesertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
jasmeekdhillon
 
Biological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent Adsorbent
Biological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent AdsorbentBiological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent Adsorbent
Biological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent Adsorbent
Dr. Salem Baidas
 
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
janvikumar4133
 
Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water
Arsenic Removal from Contaminated WaterArsenic Removal from Contaminated Water
Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water
Dr. Salem Baidas
 
Plastic Waste
Plastic Waste Plastic Waste
Plastic Waste
Dr. Salem Baidas
 
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
khloe sexy girl
 
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
shannenchiww
 
Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...
Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...
Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...
girl escorts service
 
Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
kinni singh$A17
 
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
solankikamal004
 
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
rhiannateal
 
Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
janvikumar4133
 
Physicochemical Properties of Water chemistry
Physicochemical Properties of Water chemistryPhysicochemical Properties of Water chemistry
Physicochemical Properties of Water chemistry
ShriNRPrasad
 
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
nitikag840
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...
Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...
Contribution of Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring at Regio...
 
Sustainable AI
Sustainable AI  Sustainable AI
Sustainable AI
 
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
 
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
 
apis trigona biroi palawan native beekeeping
apis trigona biroi palawan native beekeepingapis trigona biroi palawan native beekeeping
apis trigona biroi palawan native beekeeping
 
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptxDesertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
 
Biological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent Adsorbent
Biological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent AdsorbentBiological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent Adsorbent
Biological Removal of Perchlorate Contamination from Spent Adsorbent
 
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water
Arsenic Removal from Contaminated WaterArsenic Removal from Contaminated Water
Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water
 
Plastic Waste
Plastic Waste Plastic Waste
Plastic Waste
 
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9967584737 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
 
Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...
Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...
Mumbai Girls Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦9833363713🫦 List For Friendship Girls Ser...
 
Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Verified Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
 
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
 
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Top Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
Physicochemical Properties of Water chemistry
Physicochemical Properties of Water chemistryPhysicochemical Properties of Water chemistry
Physicochemical Properties of Water chemistry
 
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 

Biofouling

  • 1. Biofouling, Antifouling and Treatments Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Chittagong
  • 2. Biofouling : Bio means “Life” and Fouling comes “Pollute” Biofouling describes a wide range of organisms attached to surfaces immersed in the ocean which effect the surface or substratum of any objects. Fouling phenomena are common diverse, ranging from fouling of ship hulls and marine infrastructures.
  • 4. •Biofouling is the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, and/or animals on wetted structures. •Marine and freshwater biofouling is one of the major unsolved problems currently affecting the shipping industry and industrial aquatic processes. •Marine biofouling commonly refers to the adverse growth of marine organisms on immersed artificial structures such as ship hulls, jetty pilings, navigational instruments, aquaculture net cages and seawater in taking pipes. Biofouling
  • 5. How Biofouling occurs? The establishment of the fouling community is composed of four stages (Fig. 1; Abarzua and Jakubowski, 1995) and some of these stages can overlap or occur in parallel. Figure 1.Process of fouling: The 4 main stages of marine biofouling (NERC News 1995)
  • 6. Biofouling is not as simple a process as it sounds. Organisms do not usually simply suck onto a substrate like a suction cup. The complex process often begins with the production of a ”Bioflim”. Formation of biofouling Formation of Microfouling • In the aquatic environment, any submerged solid surface gets coated by a complex layer, initially consisting of an organic conditioning film. • Formation of this film is immediately followed by an accumulation of microorganisms (eg. bacteria, fungi, diatoms, and other micro-organisms) and the secretion at their cell surface of extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS) during attachment, colonization, and population growth. • A biofilm is a film made of bacteria, such as Thiobacilli or other microorganisms, that forms on a material when conditions are right. (Gehrke, T; Sand, W. 2003).
  • 7. Bacteria Growth Spread •Nutrient availability is an important factor; •Bacteria are not the only organisms that can create this initial site of attachment diatoms, seaweed, and their secretions are also culprits. Formation of macrofouling • A macrofouling community consisting of either 'soft fouling' or 'hard fouling’ may develop and overgrow the microfouling. • Soft fouling comprises algae and invertebrates, such as soft corals, sponges, anemones, tunicates and hydroids. • Hard fouling comprises invertebrates such as barnacles, mussels and tubeworms, bryazons and seaweeds.
  • 10. Effects of biofouling • Both micro- and macrofouling in the world’s oceans cause huge material and economic losses in maintenance of mariculture facilities, shipping facilities, vessels, and seawater pipelines (Wahl, 1997; Clare, 1998;Fusetani, 2004; Yebra et al., 2004). • Biofouling increases weight and frictional resistance of the ship, thus affecting its hydrodynamics, speed and maneuverability (Rolland and DeSimone 2003). • Biofouling is everywhere. Parts of a ship other than the hull are affected as well: heat exchangers, water-cooling pipes, propellers, even the ballast water. (Brizzolara, RA. 2002). • biofouling on ship hulls is a powerful way of spreading species to new parts of the world oceans leading to bioinvasion, which is now recognised as a major threat to biodiversity (Anil et al., 2002).
  • 13. Remedial measures of Biofouling • Physical method • Chemical method • Biological method Physical method • The simplest method for treatment of fouling is simply to remove by mechanical cleaning eg, by treatment of the fouled surface with high-pressure water jets (Granhag et al., 2004). • scraping
  • 14. Disadvantages • Costly • Time consuming • Less effective • Not easily applicable to everywhere
  • 15. Chemical method • TBT(Tributyltin) • Copper • UV irritation • Chlorination • Titanium alloys • Silicone elastomers
  • 16. DISADVANTAGES • Evidence of adverse effects of TBT prompted the International Marine Organization to call for a ban on the application of TBT based antifouling paints from 2003 and the presence of such paints on the surface of ships from the year 2008. • some want to eliminate copper-based coatings, claiming they are responsible for the same negative effects as TBT. • These are not organism specific.
  • 17. Biological method • There may be no greater way to fight nature than with nature itself. • The disadvantages of physical and chemical methods we need the help of natural source for producing ecofriendly antifouling compounds. • Several kinds of natural antifouling agents that inhibit growth of fouling orgonisms have been isolated from marine organisms like bacteria (Holrnstrom et al., 1996), marine algae (Abarzua et al., 1999, de Nys et al., 1996, Eng-Wilmot et al., 1979, Gross et al., 1991, Hellio et al., 2002, Ishida 2000, Murakami et al.)
  • 18. Ship & Structure Corrosion Ship corrosion is a major hazard for the industry. The deterioration of these structures causes higher maintenance costs, early system failures, or an overall shortened service life. Corrosion is a natural process which as a result, reduces metallic elements back to their original state. All metals have different levels of risk for example gold is the least corrosive while magnesium is the most corrosive.
  • 19. Galvanic corrosion is the most common form of corrosion and therefore the most dangerous. This occurs when two or more metals are in contact with each other, while submerged in an electrolyte solution like saltwater. As a result, the more reactive metal begins to deteriorate at a faster pace which is never a good sign in regards to personal safety. Physical signs of corrosion are flaking and blistering of paint and eventually lead to pitting of the metal. Therefore, Crevice corrosion involves the interaction of one metal part with two connected environments such as a tight, confined space, where elements like oxygen are limited. In conclusion, depending on the environments involved, pitting or cracking may occur, causing some serious damage Flow-accelerated corrosion this type of ship corrosion occurs from the constant flow of water against a metals surface which can be particularly harmful and may rapidly breakdown a vessels protected layers. When a metal is affected by corrosion, an oxide layer is formed which in turn protects a metals lower layers from further harm. Removing oxidation begins when salt water flows over this layer.
  • 20. conclusion • Bio fouling remedial measures move towards nontoxic antifoulants. • Marine lives such as corals, sponges, marine plants, and dolphins, etc., prevent the surface of their bodies with antifouling substances without causing serious environmental problems. • Therefore, these substances may be expected to be used, as new environmental friendly antifouling agents, especially those having highly anesthetic, repellent, and settlement inhibitory properties, etc., without showing biocidal properties, are desirable.
  • 21. Thank you All Save Our Environment form Your Home