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Eye Tracking and
Neuromarketing Primer
Quantitative to boost the qualitative


                                        Dan Berlin, MBA, MSHFID
Hi!
• Psychology and generally geeky background
• Graduated Bentley in 2008
• Two years at One to One Interactive
  ▫ Usability and neuromarketing studies
• Left this past summer to start my own consultancy

• dan@berlinconsulting.net
• Twitter: @banderlin
Agenda
• Eye Tracking
  ▫   Background
  ▫   Equipment
  ▫   Methods
  ▫   The great debate

• Neuromarketing
  ▫ Background
  ▫ The Players
  ▫ The debate continues

• War Stories

• Q&A
Eye Tracking – history
• Eye tracking has been around since the late 19th
  century
Eye Tracking – equipment
• Two main players:                     &

  ▫ Tobii
     Based in Sweden, offers the same equipment for
      scientific research, & has assistive technology products

  ▫ SMI
     Based in Germany, offers high-end & integrated
      equipment for scientific research
Eye Tracking – equipment




  1750           T60/120              T60 XL        X60/120             Tobii Glasses

• 1750 & X60: old technology is old            • You probably don’t need 120 Hz
• T60 & XL: depends on your needs              • Tobii studio and Axure wireframes
• Glasses: brand new                           do not play nicely together
     • depends on IR markers
     • only 30 Hz
     • small DVR
Eye Tracking – equipment




                      RED                            iView X HED


• RED
      • 60/120 Hz (also have 250 Hz model)   • Germaphobes: gotta clean that hat
      • Use a screen up to 300”
• iView X HED                                • Software advantage: moving AOIs &
      • Up to 200 Hz                         better statistical analysis
      • Uses a notebook or subcomputer
      • No IR markers
When is Eye Tracking Appropriate?
• The age old question…
• In usability studies
  ▫ NOT during think-aloud
     It is natural for a participant to look at the moderator
     And they will look at parts of the screen that they are talking about
  ▫ Does retrospective think-aloud alleviate this?
     It asks participants to remember what they were unconsciously
       thinking
     More likely: primacy and recency effects (Michael Summers, TrueAction)
  ▫ Allocate a few tasks to eye tracking where the user does not think-
    aloud
  ▫ Avoid bias: make up a story for the calibration
When is Eye Tracking Appropriate?
 • In benchmark studies
   ▫ Comparing user behavior to different design or interaction concepts
   ▫ No think-aloud, just explore the site
      Can be done with a static composition or a wireframe
      Compare, compare, compare – there are no benchmarks
   ▫ Use metrics to determine if participants are looking at areas of interest
      Not all AOIs are equal – some should be more important to the
        business
   ▫ Static pages: 10 to 20 second exposure
      Otherwise: the big red blob – they look everywhere



Eye Tracking is a tool, not a methodology!
Eye Tracking Output
• The typical outputs from eye tracking:
  ▫   Fixations & duration
  ▫   Time to 1st fixation
  ▫   Gaze plots & heat maps
  ▫   Areas of interest (AOIs)
  ▫   Pupil dilation
Eye Tracking Metrics
• Fixations vs. duration
  ▫ Basically, they are the same
      Both measure levels of active attention and cognition
  ▫ We will never know if an increased duration indicates confusion
    or interest
  ▫ Fixations per second is the traditional measure of active
    attention

• Gaze plots and heat maps
  ▫ Eye candy and not much else – but clients love them
  ▫ Bolster your eye candy with data!

• Pupil dilation
  ▫ Impossible to measure accurately – don’t use it
Ok, so how should I use eye tracking metrics?

• Use areas of interest to compare metrics
  ▫ How many fixations are in (un)important AOIs?
     Will determine if an important AOI needs more
      emphasis

  ▫ How do fixations in similar AOIs compare
    between different design treatments?
     Will determine which design better achieves
      business goals

  ▫ How long does it take participants to get to a
    particular AOI? (time to 1st fixation)
     You only have a few seconds to impress a user –
      are they looking at that which you want them to?
Participant Recruitment
• Make sure you ask about eye ailments
  ▫ Retina & cornea damage, eye cancer & tumors,
    macular degeneration, cataracts, conjunctivitis,
    and nystagmus
  ▫ Not necessarily problematic: amblyopia, glaucoma,
    and strabismus

• If possible, you want to use the data from everyone
  you bring in
   ▫ Add questions to your screener to ensure you can
     eye track your participants
The great eye tracking debate
• If a person looks at something, does that mean that he
  comprehends it?
  ▫ Maybe

• Does a long duration indicate confusion or interest?
  ▫ It depends

• Does eye tracking really help the usability cause?
  ▫ I think so

• Isn’t it all just crap?
  ▫ Not really – eye tracking gives us data to backup qualitative
    findings
Neuromarketing – background




• Modern neuromarketing is born            • Some current vendors measure EEG
  from fMRIs                                 instead
  ▫ Brain loci with oxygenated blood         ▫ Electrical activity on the scalp
  ▫ Perform a task or present a stimulus     ▫ Brain waves indicate what the person
    and watch where the blood goes             is experiencing
  ▫ Relies on knowledge about brain              Pleasure, anxiety, fight or flight, etc
    loci… and a large fMRI machine           ▫ Relies on interpretations of EEGs
Neuromarketing – the players
Company          Method              Location        Notes
NeuroFocus       EEG + GSR           Berkeley        • Owned by Nielsen
                                                     • Just proposed
                                                     “NeuroStandards” for
                                                     the field
EmSense          EEG                 San Francisco   • Developed own
                                                     headset
InnerScope       Biometrics          Boston          • Campbells label
Sands Research   EEG + Biometrics    El Paso         • Super Bowl study
OTOinsights      EEG + self report   Boston          • Uses Emotiv headset
Buyology         Consultant          NYC             • Think-tank



Neurosciencemarketingblog.com is a great source of information
Neuromarketing – studies
• Daimler-Chrysler fMRI study
  ▫ Attractive cars light up the facial recognition area of the brain
• Campbell’s Soup label


                                                               There is
                                                               no “buy”
                                                               button in
                                                               the brain!
Neuromarketing – the great debate
• Is neuromarketing ethical?

• How do we know the results are accurate?

• Show me the ROI!
War Stories
Creep Map
• 1 minute exposure

• These are the only
hotspots on the entire page

• When asked why this
design comp was given a low
rating, the response:
“because she’s fat”

• Oy vey
Q&A

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Eye tracking and neuromarketing primer

  • 1. Eye Tracking and Neuromarketing Primer Quantitative to boost the qualitative Dan Berlin, MBA, MSHFID
  • 2. Hi! • Psychology and generally geeky background • Graduated Bentley in 2008 • Two years at One to One Interactive ▫ Usability and neuromarketing studies • Left this past summer to start my own consultancy • dan@berlinconsulting.net • Twitter: @banderlin
  • 3. Agenda • Eye Tracking ▫ Background ▫ Equipment ▫ Methods ▫ The great debate • Neuromarketing ▫ Background ▫ The Players ▫ The debate continues • War Stories • Q&A
  • 4.
  • 5. Eye Tracking – history • Eye tracking has been around since the late 19th century
  • 6. Eye Tracking – equipment • Two main players: & ▫ Tobii  Based in Sweden, offers the same equipment for scientific research, & has assistive technology products ▫ SMI  Based in Germany, offers high-end & integrated equipment for scientific research
  • 7. Eye Tracking – equipment 1750 T60/120 T60 XL X60/120 Tobii Glasses • 1750 & X60: old technology is old • You probably don’t need 120 Hz • T60 & XL: depends on your needs • Tobii studio and Axure wireframes • Glasses: brand new do not play nicely together • depends on IR markers • only 30 Hz • small DVR
  • 8. Eye Tracking – equipment RED iView X HED • RED • 60/120 Hz (also have 250 Hz model) • Germaphobes: gotta clean that hat • Use a screen up to 300” • iView X HED • Software advantage: moving AOIs & • Up to 200 Hz better statistical analysis • Uses a notebook or subcomputer • No IR markers
  • 9. When is Eye Tracking Appropriate? • The age old question… • In usability studies ▫ NOT during think-aloud  It is natural for a participant to look at the moderator  And they will look at parts of the screen that they are talking about ▫ Does retrospective think-aloud alleviate this?  It asks participants to remember what they were unconsciously thinking  More likely: primacy and recency effects (Michael Summers, TrueAction) ▫ Allocate a few tasks to eye tracking where the user does not think- aloud ▫ Avoid bias: make up a story for the calibration
  • 10. When is Eye Tracking Appropriate? • In benchmark studies ▫ Comparing user behavior to different design or interaction concepts ▫ No think-aloud, just explore the site  Can be done with a static composition or a wireframe  Compare, compare, compare – there are no benchmarks ▫ Use metrics to determine if participants are looking at areas of interest  Not all AOIs are equal – some should be more important to the business ▫ Static pages: 10 to 20 second exposure  Otherwise: the big red blob – they look everywhere Eye Tracking is a tool, not a methodology!
  • 11. Eye Tracking Output • The typical outputs from eye tracking: ▫ Fixations & duration ▫ Time to 1st fixation ▫ Gaze plots & heat maps ▫ Areas of interest (AOIs) ▫ Pupil dilation
  • 12. Eye Tracking Metrics • Fixations vs. duration ▫ Basically, they are the same  Both measure levels of active attention and cognition ▫ We will never know if an increased duration indicates confusion or interest ▫ Fixations per second is the traditional measure of active attention • Gaze plots and heat maps ▫ Eye candy and not much else – but clients love them ▫ Bolster your eye candy with data! • Pupil dilation ▫ Impossible to measure accurately – don’t use it
  • 13. Ok, so how should I use eye tracking metrics? • Use areas of interest to compare metrics ▫ How many fixations are in (un)important AOIs?  Will determine if an important AOI needs more emphasis ▫ How do fixations in similar AOIs compare between different design treatments?  Will determine which design better achieves business goals ▫ How long does it take participants to get to a particular AOI? (time to 1st fixation)  You only have a few seconds to impress a user – are they looking at that which you want them to?
  • 14.
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  • 17. Participant Recruitment • Make sure you ask about eye ailments ▫ Retina & cornea damage, eye cancer & tumors, macular degeneration, cataracts, conjunctivitis, and nystagmus ▫ Not necessarily problematic: amblyopia, glaucoma, and strabismus • If possible, you want to use the data from everyone you bring in ▫ Add questions to your screener to ensure you can eye track your participants
  • 18. The great eye tracking debate • If a person looks at something, does that mean that he comprehends it? ▫ Maybe • Does a long duration indicate confusion or interest? ▫ It depends • Does eye tracking really help the usability cause? ▫ I think so • Isn’t it all just crap? ▫ Not really – eye tracking gives us data to backup qualitative findings
  • 19.
  • 20. Neuromarketing – background • Modern neuromarketing is born • Some current vendors measure EEG from fMRIs instead ▫ Brain loci with oxygenated blood ▫ Electrical activity on the scalp ▫ Perform a task or present a stimulus ▫ Brain waves indicate what the person and watch where the blood goes is experiencing ▫ Relies on knowledge about brain  Pleasure, anxiety, fight or flight, etc loci… and a large fMRI machine ▫ Relies on interpretations of EEGs
  • 21. Neuromarketing – the players Company Method Location Notes NeuroFocus EEG + GSR Berkeley • Owned by Nielsen • Just proposed “NeuroStandards” for the field EmSense EEG San Francisco • Developed own headset InnerScope Biometrics Boston • Campbells label Sands Research EEG + Biometrics El Paso • Super Bowl study OTOinsights EEG + self report Boston • Uses Emotiv headset Buyology Consultant NYC • Think-tank Neurosciencemarketingblog.com is a great source of information
  • 22. Neuromarketing – studies • Daimler-Chrysler fMRI study ▫ Attractive cars light up the facial recognition area of the brain • Campbell’s Soup label There is no “buy” button in the brain!
  • 23. Neuromarketing – the great debate • Is neuromarketing ethical? • How do we know the results are accurate? • Show me the ROI!
  • 25. Creep Map • 1 minute exposure • These are the only hotspots on the entire page • When asked why this design comp was given a low rating, the response: “because she’s fat” • Oy vey
  • 26. Q&A