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Intro to UX



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Intro to UX

  1. 1. Introduction to User Experience Research<br />Human Factors, Usability, and Neuromarketing<br />Prepared by:<br />Daniel Berlin – Experience Research Director<br />March 29, 2011<br />Endicott College<br />
  2. 2. Today’s Presentation<br />2<br /><ul><li>What the heck is a Human Factor?
  3. 3. How can you measure usability?
  4. 4. Usability Research
  5. 5. Eye Tracking
  6. 6. Neuromarketing – that’s right, we can read your mind
  7. 7. Biofeedback and Neurofeedback
  8. 8. Ok, but how does this affect me?</li></li></ul><li>Hi! I’m Dan Berlin<br />3<br /><ul><li>BA in psychology from Brandeis U.
  9. 9. MBA and MS in Human Factors in Information Design from Bentley U.
  10. 10. Seven years in technical support
  11. 11. Sat as a participant for a usability study for a product I was working on
  12. 12. Realized that user experience (UX) work is the perfect combination of computers and psychology
  13. 13. Quit my job and enrolled in Bentley’s two year full-time program
  14. 14. Two years at an interactive agency performing usability and neuromarketing research
  15. 15. Then did some freelance UX consulting for about a year
  16. 16. Am now an Experience Research Director at Mad*Pow</li></li></ul><li>What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />4<br />
  17. 17. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />Stand up<br />5<br />
  18. 18. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />Hop up and down a few times, then stop<br />6<br />
  19. 19. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />Lift one foot off of the floor<br />7<br />
  20. 20. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />Wait for it…<br />8<br />
  21. 21. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />Now hop up and down a few times on one foot*, then stop<br />9<br />*Please don’t hurt yourself, or others around you<br />
  22. 22. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />A little harder on one foot, eh?<br />10<br />
  23. 23. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />That’s a Human Factor<br />(you can sit down now)<br />11<br />
  24. 24. What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />12<br /><ul><li>Humans are good at some things, but not all
  25. 25. We are better walkers than we are swimmers
  26. 26. Can see better in the day then we can at night
  27. 27. Human Factors are what makes us tick: cognitively and physically
  28. 28. How we perceive, think, and move
  29. 29. UX practitioners apply knowledge of Human Factors when designing and evaluating software and websites
  30. 30. Ergonomics for the mind</li></li></ul><li>Find the red circle<br />13<br />
  31. 31. Find the red circle<br />14<br />
  32. 32. Find the red circle<br />15<br />
  33. 33. Don’t make me think<br />16<br />No thinking<br />Some thinking<br />Fuhgeddaboudit<br /><ul><li>An interaction is intuitive when the user does not have to think
  34. 34. We can guide them via visual and interaction design</li></li></ul><li>What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />17<br /><ul><li>To the right: elementary perceptual tasks
  35. 35. Good at: position, length, direction
  36. 36. Bad at: area (of a circle), volume, saturation
  37. 37. This is why you will see line or bar graphs to convey data
  38. 38. You will never (well, shouldn’t) see a graph that uses color saturation to convey data (i.e. using different shades of orange)</li></li></ul><li>What the heck is a Human Factor?<br />18<br />Gestalt Principles<br />Invariance<br /><ul><li>Designers build affordances into their work to take advantage of our strengths and to bolster our weaknesses
  39. 39. Term coined by James Gibson, a Gestalt psychologist</li></ul>Emergence<br />Reification<br />Multistability<br />
  40. 40. 19<br />Dark blue bar separates the navigation from the rest of the page.<br />The most important text on the page has the biggest font size.<br />Vertical lines divide the blue bar into buttons.<br />White space separates the news articles.<br />Alternating gray and white rows create separation.<br /><ul><li>We do not have to think about what these design elements mean – we just know</li></li></ul><li>How can you measure usability?<br />20<br />
  41. 41. How can you measure usability?<br />21<br /><ul><li>First off, what does ‘usability’ really mean?
  42. 42. ISO 9241: “The effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in particular environments.”
  43. 43. Effectiveness: Do people make mistakes?
  44. 44. Efficiency: Can they accomplish the task in a reasonable amount of time?
  45. 45. Satisfaction: Does the interaction drive people crazy?</li></li></ul><li>How can you measure usability?<br />22<br /><ul><li>Well… there is no way to accurately measure usability
  46. 46. But there are ways to understand users and learn how they expect to interact with an interface
  47. 47. Discovery interviews
  48. 48. Paper prototypes
  49. 49. Card sorting
  50. 50. Focus groups
  51. 51. And there are ways to learn how an existing interface performs
  52. 52. Usability studies
  53. 53. Expert/heuristic reviews
  54. 54. KLM/GOMS</li></li></ul><li>What is a usability study?<br />23<br /><ul><li>In a usability study, 5-15 participants are asked to perform tasks on an interface
  55. 55. A moderator sits next to the participant to observe and ask questions
  56. 56. Usability moderators are like computer psychologists
  57. 57. Instead of asking how people feel about their mothers, we ask about how they feel about the interactions
  58. 58. Yes, this is a ‘study’ but no, there are typically no numbers to crunch
  59. 59. We gather mostly qualitative data
  60. 60. Not cost-efficient to have enough participants to get statistical significance
  61. 61. 5-8 participants will catch a majority of the problems</li></li></ul><li>Eye Tracking<br />24<br /><ul><li>Eye tracking has been around since the late 19th century
  62. 62. Infrared light bounces off of your retina and back to sensors in the monitor/headset</li></ul>Today<br />Yesterday<br />
  63. 63. Eye Tracking<br />25<br />Heat Map<br />Gaze Plot<br /><ul><li># of fixations for all participants
  64. 64. Order of fixations for one participant</li></li></ul><li>Eye Tracking<br />26<br />
  65. 65. Eye Tracking<br />27<br />Areas of Interest<br /><ul><li>Break the page up into separate “areas of interest” or AOIs
  66. 66. Compare the fixation data between important areas and less important ones
  67. 67. If people are staring at the navigation, they may be having a hard time finding a link
  68. 68. Are people looking at the call to action?
  69. 69. Call to action = the link on the page that the business wants the users to click (the ‘buy’ button)</li></li></ul><li>Eye Tracking<br />28<br />Area 3<br />Area 4<br />Area 5<br />Area 6<br />Area 1<br />Area 2<br /><ul><li>Participants looked at “Area 1” almost two seconds longer in the second design</li></li></ul><li>Neuromarketing – that’s right, we can read your mind<br />29<br />
  70. 70. Neuromarketing – that’s right, we can right your mind<br />30<br /><ul><li>Okay, not really
  71. 71. But we have the technology to try</li></ul>fMRI<br />EEG/EMG<br />Blood oxygenation<br />Brain waves<br />
  72. 72. Neuromarketing – okay, we can’t read your mind…<br />31<br /><ul><li>Galvanic skin response, heart rate, breathing rate, and skin temperature can be measure to determine ‘fight or flight’ response
  73. 73. Is the participant calm and cool, or anxious?
  74. 74. These have been used for decades as a measure of internal state</li></ul>GSR mouse<br />Bioharness Output<br />Bioharness<br />
  75. 75. Neuromarketing –… but we can try<br />32<br /><ul><li>Daimler-Chrysler fMRI study
  76. 76. ‘Attractive’ cars light up the facial recognition area of the brain
  77. 77. Campbell’s Soup label</li></li></ul><li>Neuromarketing – there is no ‘buy’ button in the brain<br />33<br /><ul><li>Researchers won’t find an fMRI pattern or brain wave that will accurately predict if a person is going to buy something (or sign up for a newsletter, etc.)
  78. 78. What they will find are patterns that indicate favorable or negative responses to an interaction
  79. 79. We know as much about the brain as when doctors were using leeches, possibly less</li></li></ul><li>Okay, but how does this affect me?<br />34<br /><ul><li>You interact with interfaces all day long
  80. 80. Careers in user experience
  81. 81. Information architect
  82. 82. Usability specialist
  83. 83. Visual designer
  84. 84. Experience designer
  85. 85. Grad school
  86. 86. Bentley University – MS Human Factors
  87. 87. George Mason – MA Graphic Design
  88. 88. Tufts – MS Human Factors Engineering
  89. 89. U. of Maryland – MS Systems Engineering
  90. 90. U. of Michigan – MS Computer Science
  91. 91. Carnegie Mellon – MS Human Computer Interaction
  92. 92. Your future career WILL involve user experience
  93. 93. The product your company sells
  94. 94. How your company interacts with customers
  95. 95. How you collaborate with your coworkers</li></li></ul><li>Thank you!<br />35<br />