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Augmented Reality
Prepared by:
Khyati Ganatra
(12CE082)
Topics discussed
 Augmented Reality
 Augmented Reality System
 How it Works
 Display techniques
 AR vs VR
 Technology
 Applications & Examples
Feb 4, Spring 2002 CS 7497 2
3
What is Augmented
Reality?
 A combination of a real
scene viewed by a user
and a virtual scene
generated by a computer
that augments the scene
with additional
information.
 An AR system adds
virtual computer-
generated objects,
audio and other
sense enhancements
to a real-world
enviornment in real
time.
4
5
What is the Goal of AR?
 To enhance a person’s performance
and perception of the world
 But, what is the ultimate goal????
6
The Ultimate Goal of AR
 Create a system such that a user
CANNOT tell the difference between
the real world and the virtual
augmentation of it.
7
Augmented Reality vs.
Virtual Reality
Augmented Reality
 System augments the
real world scene
 User maintains a
sense of presence in
real world
 Needs a mechanism
to combine virtual
and real worlds
Virtual Reality:
 Totally immersive
environment
 Visual senses are
under control of
system (sometimes
aural and
proprioceptive senses
too)
8
Miligram’s Reality-
Virtuality Continuum
Mixed Reality (MR)
Real
Environmen
t
Virtual
Environment
Augmented
Reality (AR)
Augmented
Virtuality (AV)
Miligram coined the term “Augmented Virtuality” to identify
systems which are mostly synthetic with some real world
imagery added such as texture mapping video onto virtual
objects.
This is how AR works
 Pick A Real World Scene
 Add your Virtual Objects in it.
 Delete Real World Objects
 Not Virtual Reality since
Environment Real.
9
DISPLAYDISPLAY
 Head-mounted
Display(HMD)
–  device paired to a
headset such as a
harness or helmet
 Eye Glasses
– eye wear that employs
cameras to intercept
the real world view and
re-display it's
augmented view
through the eye pieces
10
DISPLAY(cont..)DISPLAY(cont..)
 Contact Lenses
– Contain the elements for display
embedded into the lens including
integrated circuitry, LEDs and an
antenna for wireless
communication.
– Under development
 Virtual Retina Display
– a personal display device under
development .
–  a display is scanned directly onto
the retina of a viewer's eye.
11
DISPLAY(cont..)DISPLAY(cont..)
 Handheld
 a small display that fits in a user's hand.
 Portable
 Ubiquitous
 Physical constraints of the user having to hold the device
 Distorting effect
 Spatial
  makes use of digital projectors to display graphical
information.
  user is not required to carry equipment or wear the
display over their eyes.
 can be used by multiple people at the same time without
each having to wear a head-mounted display.
12
13
Display Technologies
 Monitor Based
 Head Mounted Displays:
– Video see-through
– Optical see-through
14
Monitor Based Augmented
Reality
 Simplest available
 Little feeling of being immersed in
environment
15
Optical see-through HMD
Feb 4, Spring 2002 CS 7497 16
Video see-through HMD
17
Video Composition
for Video see-through HMD
 Chroma-keying
– Used for special effects
– Background of computer graphics images is
set to a specific color
– Combining step replaces all colored areas
with corresponding parts from video
 Depth Information
– Combine real and virtual images by a pixel-
by-pixel depth comparison
18
Advantages of
Video see-through HMD
 Flexibility in composition strategies
 Wide field of view
 Real and virtual view delays can be
matched
19
Advantages of
Optical see-through HMD
 Simplicity
 Resolution
 No eye offset
20
Applications
 Medical
 Entertainment
 Military Training
 Engineering
Design
 Robotics and
Telerobotics
 Manufacturing,
Maintenance, and
Repair
 Consumer Design
 Hazard Detection
 Audio
Medical
21
Entertainment
22
Defence
23
Education
24
THANK YOU
25

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Augmented Reality ppt

  • 2. Topics discussed  Augmented Reality  Augmented Reality System  How it Works  Display techniques  AR vs VR  Technology  Applications & Examples Feb 4, Spring 2002 CS 7497 2
  • 3. 3 What is Augmented Reality?  A combination of a real scene viewed by a user and a virtual scene generated by a computer that augments the scene with additional information.
  • 4.  An AR system adds virtual computer- generated objects, audio and other sense enhancements to a real-world enviornment in real time. 4
  • 5. 5 What is the Goal of AR?  To enhance a person’s performance and perception of the world  But, what is the ultimate goal????
  • 6. 6 The Ultimate Goal of AR  Create a system such that a user CANNOT tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation of it.
  • 7. 7 Augmented Reality vs. Virtual Reality Augmented Reality  System augments the real world scene  User maintains a sense of presence in real world  Needs a mechanism to combine virtual and real worlds Virtual Reality:  Totally immersive environment  Visual senses are under control of system (sometimes aural and proprioceptive senses too)
  • 8. 8 Miligram’s Reality- Virtuality Continuum Mixed Reality (MR) Real Environmen t Virtual Environment Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented Virtuality (AV) Miligram coined the term “Augmented Virtuality” to identify systems which are mostly synthetic with some real world imagery added such as texture mapping video onto virtual objects.
  • 9. This is how AR works  Pick A Real World Scene  Add your Virtual Objects in it.  Delete Real World Objects  Not Virtual Reality since Environment Real. 9
  • 10. DISPLAYDISPLAY  Head-mounted Display(HMD) –  device paired to a headset such as a harness or helmet  Eye Glasses – eye wear that employs cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display it's augmented view through the eye pieces 10
  • 11. DISPLAY(cont..)DISPLAY(cont..)  Contact Lenses – Contain the elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication. – Under development  Virtual Retina Display – a personal display device under development . –  a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewer's eye. 11
  • 12. DISPLAY(cont..)DISPLAY(cont..)  Handheld  a small display that fits in a user's hand.  Portable  Ubiquitous  Physical constraints of the user having to hold the device  Distorting effect  Spatial   makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information.   user is not required to carry equipment or wear the display over their eyes.  can be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to wear a head-mounted display. 12
  • 13. 13 Display Technologies  Monitor Based  Head Mounted Displays: – Video see-through – Optical see-through
  • 14. 14 Monitor Based Augmented Reality  Simplest available  Little feeling of being immersed in environment
  • 16. Feb 4, Spring 2002 CS 7497 16 Video see-through HMD
  • 17. 17 Video Composition for Video see-through HMD  Chroma-keying – Used for special effects – Background of computer graphics images is set to a specific color – Combining step replaces all colored areas with corresponding parts from video  Depth Information – Combine real and virtual images by a pixel- by-pixel depth comparison
  • 18. 18 Advantages of Video see-through HMD  Flexibility in composition strategies  Wide field of view  Real and virtual view delays can be matched
  • 19. 19 Advantages of Optical see-through HMD  Simplicity  Resolution  No eye offset
  • 20. 20 Applications  Medical  Entertainment  Military Training  Engineering Design  Robotics and Telerobotics  Manufacturing, Maintenance, and Repair  Consumer Design  Hazard Detection  Audio

Editor's Notes

  1. Generates a composite view for the user.
  2. To the user of this system, it would appear that he is looking at a single scene. Show image a few slides back: Shows the merging and correct registration of pre-operative data and the patient’s head. Providing this view to a surgeon in the operating room would: Enhance the surgeon’s performance Possibly eliminate the need for any other calibration fixtures during the operation
  3. Computer generated virtual objects must be accurately registers with the real in all dimensions. Errors in registration prevent the real and virtual images from being seen as fused. Registration must be maintained while the user moves around in the virtual environment. Changes in registration can be distracting or physically disturbing.
  4. Augmented reality is closest to the real world because mainly a user is perceiving the real world with just a little computer generated data. This distinction will probably fade as technology improves.
  5. Sometimes referred to as “Windows on the World” or “Fish Tank VR” Other display technologies are used to increase the sense of presence.
  6. Works by placing optical combiners in front of the user’s eyes. Combiners are partially transmissive - so user can look directly through them and see the real world. Combiners are partially reflective - so user can also see virtual images bounced off the combiners from head-mounted monitors. Similar to Head-Up Displays (HUDs) commonly used in military aircraft. Can see through the display even if the power is turned off.
  7. Works by combining a closed-view HMD with one or two head-mounted video cameras Video cameras provide the user’s view of the real world. Video from cameras is combined with graphics images by the scene generator to blend the two worlds. Result is sent to the monitors in from on the user’s eyes in the closed-view HMD. User has no direct view of the real world. If power is off, the user is “blind.”
  8. Color selected cannot be used in the virtual object. Depth Information allows for occlusion.
  9. Flexibility in composition strategies Basic Problem with optical is the virtual objects do not completely obscure real- world objects because combiners allow light from both the virtual and real sources. Virtual objects appear ghost-like and semi-transparent, damaging the illusion of reality because occlusion is a strong depth cue. Video see-through is much more flexible about how it merges real and virtual - they are both in digitized form so compositors can do a pixel-by-pixel comparison. Produces more compelling environments. Wide Field of View Distortions in optical systems are a function of the radial distance away from the optical axis - the further you look away from the center of the view, the more distorted it gets. A digitized image taken through a distorted optical system can be undistorted by applying image processing techniques to unwarp the image. This requires significant amounts of computation - but this constraint will lessen as computers become faster. It is harder to build wide FOV displays with optical see-through constraints. Distortions of the user’s view of the real world could be corrected optically, but complex optics are expensive and make the HMD heavier. Real and Virtual delays can be matched Delay the video of the real world to match the delay in the virtual image stream. (can’t be done in optical because it gives the user a direct view of the real world.) Disadvantage: eliminating dynamic error comes at the cost of delaying both the real and virtual scenes - user sees everything lagging behind.
  10. Simplicity Optical has only 1 stream of video to worry about (the graphics images), while Video has separate streams for real and virtual images. Optical - real world is seen directly through combiners with a time delay of a few nanoseconds while both delays in video are in 10s of milliseconds. Optical HMDs with narrow field of view combiners offer views of the real world that are basically undistorted, while Video has distortion that must be compensated for. Resolution Video limits the resolution of what the user sees (both real and virtual) to the resolution of the display devices. Optical limits the virtual resolution to the resolution of the display devices but not the user’s view of the real world. No Eye Offset Video - user’s view of real world is provided by video cameras that are not necessarily located at exact positions of user’s eye - creating an offset between cameras and real eyes. Video problem can be avoided using mirrors to create a set of optical paths that mimic the direct path to the user’s eyes, however this adds complexity to the HMD design. Offset is not generally a problem for optical.