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Artificial emotional intelligence
Giles Colborne


                            http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/54164255/   1
I hope I’m not I’m a
bad person.
But sometimes I think
bad thoughts.




       I want to
       punch that website
       in the face

                            2
This guy acts out
those bad thoughts.
He’s a bit scary.




               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtTUsOKjWyQ




                                                            3
Something about
computers brings out
the worst in us. We
shout at our laptops
and throw our remote
controls on the
ground.




                       4
In response, some
interaction designers
act like Nurse Ratched
in One Flew Over the
Cuckoo’s Nest. They see
emotion as the enemy.

But I think that
misunderstands the
importance of
emotions.




                          5
AI pioneer Marvin
Minsky sees emotions as
‘ways to think’. Emotions
tune the machinery of
the brain.

Even a ‘negative’ emotion
like anger is useful. It
gives us the energy to
address a threat and
sends out social signals
that warn others we’d
better get our way.




                            6
People without emotions
are less effective
thinkers. Antonio
Damasio describes one
patient, Elliot, with
above average IQ but
frontal lobe damage that
means his emotions are
impaired making him a
kind of Mr Spock.




                           When faced with a
                           ‘rational’ task like
                           scheduling an
                           appointment, he
                           endlessly weighs and
                           compares choices. He
                           doesn’t feel boredom,
                           frustration or
                           embarrassment. He takes
                           for ever. Emotions are
                           vital to decision making.



                                                       7
Why do we like to watch
horror movies? Because
they help us extend our
emotional range and
understand our
emotions.

Emotions are important
to people. They’re linked
to our strongest
memories and the most
meaningful events in our
lives.
                            What if we accept there
So we’re right to reject    will be ups and downs in
the Nurse Ratched view      the relationship between
that we should eliminate    humans and computers?
emotion.
                            What if we try to give our
                            designs the emotional
                            intelligence to ride those
                            waves?



                                                         8
Marvin Minsky wants to
create artificial
emotional intelligence by
building an artificial
brain. Awesome!

But that’s a few decades
away. Meanwhile, I have
a website to design.

So are there ways I can
cheat?




                            9
Back to this guy. The
word that describes him
is ‘postal’.

So maybe we can learn
how to deal with this
situation by talking to
some experts.




                          10
These folks train
negotiators to deal with
crisis situations. Maybe




                     FBI
they can help us.




                           11
Behavioural Change Stairway Model

 They use this model to get through
 hostage negotiations. It recognises
 that if you want to get to ‘behaviour                         behaviour
 change’ you need to start with
 ‘listening’ and ‘empathy’.
                                                                change
                                                   influence

                                         rapport

                          empathy

         active
       listening




                                                                           12
Clearly his computer isn’t
listening to him.

When interfaces don’t
listen we get angry.




                             13
It looks like you’re
giving a presentation

  Get help with
  giving the
  presentation

  Just give the
  presentation
  without help.

  Don’t show this tip
 Clippy has all the elements that we’re
 supposed to include in emotional design. He’s
  again
 informal yet direct. He’s cute looking.

 I’ve always thought there was a lot of good
 thinking behind him. But people hated him.
 Why? Because he’s so bad at listening.

                                                 14
My hero Clifford Nass
redesigned Clippy very
simply to listen and
empathise.

When Clippy offered
advice, he would ask ‘was
that useful?’. If people
said ‘no’ Clippy would say
‘that really ticks me off.
Let’s tell the folks at
Microsoft I need to be
reprogrammed.’ and
Clippy would encourage
them to write in and vent
their dissatisfaction.

And it worked: users




                             Clifford Nass

                                             15
When you watch this
video, you notice that
there are lots of signs
that things are going
wrong. Our guy begins by
giving the screen a hard
stare. Then he seems to
swear. He slaps the
keyboard. And then he
really starts to lose it.

A more sophisticated
computer might have
picked up on those
warning signs and saved
itself a beating.




                            16
In Affective Computing,
Rosalind Pickard suggests
that computers could use
input from many sensors
(facial recognition, audio
input and so on) and
pattern matching to
detect users’ emotions.

She recognises this is
complex (even people
occasionally misread
emotions). We’re a few
years away from this.

But Clifford Nass shows
us that listening can be as
simple as saying ‘how am
I doing?’.




                              17
The FBI knows there’s a right way to
                        empathise. Don’t say ‘I know how you
                        feel’. It’s too easy for other person to say
                        ‘Oh no you don’t’.


Wrong:                  Instead, show you care and create
                        opportunities for dialogue. You don’t need
                        sophisticated technology for this. In fact,
‘I know how you feel’   it’s been around since the 1960s.




Right:
‘I’ve never been in your situation
before, but I imagine you must be
feeling very depressed and lonely’


                                                                       18
Eliza is a computer ‘therapist’ that asks
        users how they feel and uses pattern
        matching to respond and draw them out.
ELIZA
        It’s crude, but good enough to pass a basic
        Turing test - some people think Eliza’s
        answers come from a real person.
                                                      19
FBI negotiators know they
                                 need to project the right
Be positive, upbeat              personality.


Reassure hostage-taker that      Now imagine if you hooked
                                 up Eliza’s pattern matching
                                 to an online database and
things will work out well        gave it an upbeat
                                 personality with a bit of
                                 edge to it.


Be credible                      That sounds familiar...


Show you understand their
reasons but don’t be too eager
to please


                                                               20
Siri is an evolution of Eliza’s
pattern matching approach
but with better jokes.

That creates a personality
and a basis for empathy.




                                  21
Clifford Nass ran an
experiment where he gave
participants blue wrist bands
and asked them to complete
tasks a computer.

For half the participants he
put ablue border on the
computer screen and said
‘you and the computer arethe
blue team’. For the other half,
he gave the computer a green
borderand said ‘you’re the
blue guy working on the
green computer’.

When the colours matched,
people tried harder and
thought the computer was
smarter.

Building rapport doesn’t
require complex technology.
Just good psychology.



                                  22
Excellent. We’re half way up
 the FBI’s behavioural
 change model and we’ve not
 had to build an artificial
 brain.




Listen, empathise, build rapport




                                   23
The FBI has a lot to tell us
about how to handle
emotions that arise from
situation.

But sometimes conflict
arises from personality
differences.




                               24
For managing relationships,
this book was
recommended to me.

I love it because it centres
on a simple model. (Which
we can use when we’re
designing interactions.)




                               25
You have to understand
                                Task focus
people’s disposition
(passive - aggressive) and
motivation (task -
relationship).




   Passive                                        Aggressive




                             Relationship focus
                                                               26
In the centre is the ‘normal zone’. At the
                                             Task focus
edges of the graph are extreme types
who can be difficult to get along with.


                      Whiner                                      Tank




   Passive                                                                  Aggressive




                   Yes person                             Think they know it all




                                        Relationship focus
                                                                                         27
What I find normal and acceptable will
                                            Task focus
be different from what you find normal
and acceptable.

Everyone is someone’s difficult person.
                     Whiner                                      Tank
We need to tune our behaviour and
responses to get the best out of those
conflicts.




   Passive                                                                 Aggressive




                   Yes person                            Think they know it all




                                         Relationship focus
                                                                                        28
And the secret to that is understanding
                                          Task focus
the intention that drives those
personality types.


                  Get it right                            Get it done




   Passive                                                              Aggressive




                   Get along                           Get appreciated




                                     Relationship focus
                                                                                     29
Maja Mataric has built socially assistive
               robots that coach stroke victims
               through their physiotherapy.

               She tried tuning the coaching to each
               patient’s personality. The robots would
               tell extroverts ‘Come on, try harder’.
               But introverts would be told ‘I know it’s
               hard, but it’s for your own good’.

               And... it worked! Patients preferred the
               robots that were tuned to their
               personality and tried harder for them.




Maja Mataric

                                                           30
If you need to be appreciated, you’ll like
the fact that TripAdvisor tells you when
people have read your reviews.

If you’re a ‘get it done’ kind of person,
you might feel this was unnecessary and
spammy.




                                             31
And if you’re the kind of person
who needs to get along, you’d
appreciate this error message that
says ‘It’s my fault’. (Personally, I
find it rather craven.)




                                       32
You don’t need to give your users a
personality test before they start. You
could learn their personality in the
same way that Pandora learns your
taste in music.




                                          33
And you might even be able to pick
up information about users’
personality from specialist services.




                                        34
Task focus    So instead of designing fixed
                                          patterns of behaviour, maybe we
                                          should design flexible patterns
                                          that adjust to users’ disposition.


          Get it right                        Get it done




Passive                                                         Aggressive




          Get along                       Get appreciated




                         Relationship focus
                                                                               35
Behavioural Change Stairway Model

  And we’ve seen how a model
  like this can help us think about                         behaviour
  listening, empathising and
  building rapport, rather than                              change
  rushing towards outcomes.                     influence

                                      rapport

                         empathy

        active
      listening




                                                                        36
A lot of the discussion of emotional
design today centres around ideas of
‘brand’. And on old-fashioned, static,
monolithic brands.

But I hope I’ve shown you that we can do
much more.

We can create a flow of emotions and
more dynamic, adaptable personalities
for our designs.

We’re designing responsive web layouts,
why not responsive interaction rules?




                                           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coca_Cola_ad_ca._1943_IMG_3744.JPG   37
If we put some emotional intelligence into the
interactions we design, we can disarm conflict,
create richer, more memorable experiences,
and improve performance for our users.

The future may bring us better ways of reading
emotions.

But the tools we need to get started are
already in our hands.

Let’s use them.



                                                  http://www.instructables.com/files/orig/F4U/KUUR/FGVL6H7X/F4UKUURFGVL6H7X.jpg   38
What are emotions and how           Still the go-to text on using emotions    Applying the triune brain model    How law enforcement agencies
could we create them in a           in computing.                             to the problem of creating         negotiate in highly charged,
machine?                                                                      emotionally resonant designs.      criminal situations.




A guide to recognising                A refutation of the idea that          Original research into how people   Applying theories of story to
emotionally charged relationships     emotions have no place in higher       make ‘gut’ decisions.               interaction design
and to getting the best from          thought.
them.




                                                                                                                                                 39

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Artificial emotional intelligence - Giles Colborne

  • 1. Artificial emotional intelligence Giles Colborne http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/54164255/ 1
  • 2. I hope I’m not I’m a bad person. But sometimes I think bad thoughts. I want to punch that website in the face 2
  • 3. This guy acts out those bad thoughts. He’s a bit scary. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtTUsOKjWyQ 3
  • 4. Something about computers brings out the worst in us. We shout at our laptops and throw our remote controls on the ground. 4
  • 5. In response, some interaction designers act like Nurse Ratched in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. They see emotion as the enemy. But I think that misunderstands the importance of emotions. 5
  • 6. AI pioneer Marvin Minsky sees emotions as ‘ways to think’. Emotions tune the machinery of the brain. Even a ‘negative’ emotion like anger is useful. It gives us the energy to address a threat and sends out social signals that warn others we’d better get our way. 6
  • 7. People without emotions are less effective thinkers. Antonio Damasio describes one patient, Elliot, with above average IQ but frontal lobe damage that means his emotions are impaired making him a kind of Mr Spock. When faced with a ‘rational’ task like scheduling an appointment, he endlessly weighs and compares choices. He doesn’t feel boredom, frustration or embarrassment. He takes for ever. Emotions are vital to decision making. 7
  • 8. Why do we like to watch horror movies? Because they help us extend our emotional range and understand our emotions. Emotions are important to people. They’re linked to our strongest memories and the most meaningful events in our lives. What if we accept there So we’re right to reject will be ups and downs in the Nurse Ratched view the relationship between that we should eliminate humans and computers? emotion. What if we try to give our designs the emotional intelligence to ride those waves? 8
  • 9. Marvin Minsky wants to create artificial emotional intelligence by building an artificial brain. Awesome! But that’s a few decades away. Meanwhile, I have a website to design. So are there ways I can cheat? 9
  • 10. Back to this guy. The word that describes him is ‘postal’. So maybe we can learn how to deal with this situation by talking to some experts. 10
  • 11. These folks train negotiators to deal with crisis situations. Maybe FBI they can help us. 11
  • 12. Behavioural Change Stairway Model They use this model to get through hostage negotiations. It recognises that if you want to get to ‘behaviour behaviour change’ you need to start with ‘listening’ and ‘empathy’. change influence rapport empathy active listening 12
  • 13. Clearly his computer isn’t listening to him. When interfaces don’t listen we get angry. 13
  • 14. It looks like you’re giving a presentation Get help with giving the presentation Just give the presentation without help. Don’t show this tip Clippy has all the elements that we’re supposed to include in emotional design. He’s again informal yet direct. He’s cute looking. I’ve always thought there was a lot of good thinking behind him. But people hated him. Why? Because he’s so bad at listening. 14
  • 15. My hero Clifford Nass redesigned Clippy very simply to listen and empathise. When Clippy offered advice, he would ask ‘was that useful?’. If people said ‘no’ Clippy would say ‘that really ticks me off. Let’s tell the folks at Microsoft I need to be reprogrammed.’ and Clippy would encourage them to write in and vent their dissatisfaction. And it worked: users Clifford Nass 15
  • 16. When you watch this video, you notice that there are lots of signs that things are going wrong. Our guy begins by giving the screen a hard stare. Then he seems to swear. He slaps the keyboard. And then he really starts to lose it. A more sophisticated computer might have picked up on those warning signs and saved itself a beating. 16
  • 17. In Affective Computing, Rosalind Pickard suggests that computers could use input from many sensors (facial recognition, audio input and so on) and pattern matching to detect users’ emotions. She recognises this is complex (even people occasionally misread emotions). We’re a few years away from this. But Clifford Nass shows us that listening can be as simple as saying ‘how am I doing?’. 17
  • 18. The FBI knows there’s a right way to empathise. Don’t say ‘I know how you feel’. It’s too easy for other person to say ‘Oh no you don’t’. Wrong: Instead, show you care and create opportunities for dialogue. You don’t need sophisticated technology for this. In fact, ‘I know how you feel’ it’s been around since the 1960s. Right: ‘I’ve never been in your situation before, but I imagine you must be feeling very depressed and lonely’ 18
  • 19. Eliza is a computer ‘therapist’ that asks users how they feel and uses pattern matching to respond and draw them out. ELIZA It’s crude, but good enough to pass a basic Turing test - some people think Eliza’s answers come from a real person. 19
  • 20. FBI negotiators know they need to project the right Be positive, upbeat personality. Reassure hostage-taker that Now imagine if you hooked up Eliza’s pattern matching to an online database and things will work out well gave it an upbeat personality with a bit of edge to it. Be credible That sounds familiar... Show you understand their reasons but don’t be too eager to please 20
  • 21. Siri is an evolution of Eliza’s pattern matching approach but with better jokes. That creates a personality and a basis for empathy. 21
  • 22. Clifford Nass ran an experiment where he gave participants blue wrist bands and asked them to complete tasks a computer. For half the participants he put ablue border on the computer screen and said ‘you and the computer arethe blue team’. For the other half, he gave the computer a green borderand said ‘you’re the blue guy working on the green computer’. When the colours matched, people tried harder and thought the computer was smarter. Building rapport doesn’t require complex technology. Just good psychology. 22
  • 23. Excellent. We’re half way up the FBI’s behavioural change model and we’ve not had to build an artificial brain. Listen, empathise, build rapport 23
  • 24. The FBI has a lot to tell us about how to handle emotions that arise from situation. But sometimes conflict arises from personality differences. 24
  • 25. For managing relationships, this book was recommended to me. I love it because it centres on a simple model. (Which we can use when we’re designing interactions.) 25
  • 26. You have to understand Task focus people’s disposition (passive - aggressive) and motivation (task - relationship). Passive Aggressive Relationship focus 26
  • 27. In the centre is the ‘normal zone’. At the Task focus edges of the graph are extreme types who can be difficult to get along with. Whiner Tank Passive Aggressive Yes person Think they know it all Relationship focus 27
  • 28. What I find normal and acceptable will Task focus be different from what you find normal and acceptable. Everyone is someone’s difficult person. Whiner Tank We need to tune our behaviour and responses to get the best out of those conflicts. Passive Aggressive Yes person Think they know it all Relationship focus 28
  • 29. And the secret to that is understanding Task focus the intention that drives those personality types. Get it right Get it done Passive Aggressive Get along Get appreciated Relationship focus 29
  • 30. Maja Mataric has built socially assistive robots that coach stroke victims through their physiotherapy. She tried tuning the coaching to each patient’s personality. The robots would tell extroverts ‘Come on, try harder’. But introverts would be told ‘I know it’s hard, but it’s for your own good’. And... it worked! Patients preferred the robots that were tuned to their personality and tried harder for them. Maja Mataric 30
  • 31. If you need to be appreciated, you’ll like the fact that TripAdvisor tells you when people have read your reviews. If you’re a ‘get it done’ kind of person, you might feel this was unnecessary and spammy. 31
  • 32. And if you’re the kind of person who needs to get along, you’d appreciate this error message that says ‘It’s my fault’. (Personally, I find it rather craven.) 32
  • 33. You don’t need to give your users a personality test before they start. You could learn their personality in the same way that Pandora learns your taste in music. 33
  • 34. And you might even be able to pick up information about users’ personality from specialist services. 34
  • 35. Task focus So instead of designing fixed patterns of behaviour, maybe we should design flexible patterns that adjust to users’ disposition. Get it right Get it done Passive Aggressive Get along Get appreciated Relationship focus 35
  • 36. Behavioural Change Stairway Model And we’ve seen how a model like this can help us think about behaviour listening, empathising and building rapport, rather than change rushing towards outcomes. influence rapport empathy active listening 36
  • 37. A lot of the discussion of emotional design today centres around ideas of ‘brand’. And on old-fashioned, static, monolithic brands. But I hope I’ve shown you that we can do much more. We can create a flow of emotions and more dynamic, adaptable personalities for our designs. We’re designing responsive web layouts, why not responsive interaction rules? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coca_Cola_ad_ca._1943_IMG_3744.JPG 37
  • 38. If we put some emotional intelligence into the interactions we design, we can disarm conflict, create richer, more memorable experiences, and improve performance for our users. The future may bring us better ways of reading emotions. But the tools we need to get started are already in our hands. Let’s use them. http://www.instructables.com/files/orig/F4U/KUUR/FGVL6H7X/F4UKUURFGVL6H7X.jpg 38
  • 39. What are emotions and how Still the go-to text on using emotions Applying the triune brain model How law enforcement agencies could we create them in a in computing. to the problem of creating negotiate in highly charged, machine? emotionally resonant designs. criminal situations. A guide to recognising A refutation of the idea that Original research into how people Applying theories of story to emotionally charged relationships emotions have no place in higher make ‘gut’ decisions. interaction design and to getting the best from thought. them. 39