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Vertebrates Evolution
Phylum Chordata
• Vertebrates are a subphylum
of the phylum Chordata
• This lecture will build up to
vertebrates and mammals by
moving through the Chordata
Phylum, from the most
inclusive traits and simpliest
organisms to the to most
specific traits and complex
organisms
Phylum
Chordata
• This phylum
includes
– All vertebrates
– Urochordata
(tunicates)
– Cephalochordata
(lancelets)
– Myxini (hagfish)
Characteristics of Chordates
Many appear only during embryonic
development
1. Notochord - Chordates named for
this structure; a long flexible rod
that appears during embryonic
development (some adults retain
it)
• Provides skeletal support
• Most adults retain only a
remnant of this
• In humans it becomes the
gelatinous disks between our
vertebrae
Characteristics of Chordates
Many appear only during embryonic
development
2. A dorsal, hollow nerve cord - forms
from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a
hollow tube; develops into the central
nervous system
Characteristics of Chordates
Many appear only during embryonic
development
3. Pharyngeal clefts -
grooves that
separate a series of
pouches along the
sides of the pharynx.
• Usually develop into slits that
allow water to enter and exit the
mouth without going through the
digestive tract
• Become gill slits in fish or
become part of the ear in
terrestrial animals
Characteristics of Chordates
Many appear only during embryonic
development
4. A muscular tail posterior to the anus
Many adults lose this during embryonic
development
Invertebrate Chordates
• 2 subphyla -
Urochordata
(tunicates) and
Cephalochordata
(lancelets)
• Think of these 2
groups as simpler
versions of
vertebrates
• Tunicates - most primitive; like
other chordates during larval
stage, lose chordate traits as
adults
Craniates
• Chordates that have a
head
• Most ancient of these
are the hagfish
• Hagfish are marine,
bottom dwelling
scavengers
• No vertebrae
• Do have a skull made
of cartilage
Vertebrates
• Craniates with a backbone
• Evolved during the Cambrian when
some Craniates developed
• more complex nervous systems
• more complex skeletons
• more extensive skull
• backbone composed of vertebrae that
encloses the spinal cord
Vertebrates
• Lampreys are the oldest
line of vertebrates
• Marine or freshwater
• Cartilage pipe surrounds
the notochord
• No jaws - have a rasping
mouth that bores holes in
the sides of fish - live on
the blood of their host
Gnathostomes
• Vertebrates with
jaws
– Evolved from the
pharyngeal slits
– 2 major classes:
• Class
Chondrichtyes
• Class
Osteichthyes
Gnathostomes - Class
Chrondrichythyans
• Sharks, rays, and their relatives
• Flexible endoskeletons made of
cartilage
• Streamlined bodies
• Will sink if they stop swimming
because they are denser than
water
• Have changed little over 300
million years of evolution
Shark Reproduction
• Eggs fertilized internally
• Some are oviparous - lay
eggs that hatch outside the
body
• Some are ovoviviparous -
fertilized eggs stay in body,
hatch in uterus
• Some are viviparous - baby
develops inside the uterus
and gets nutrients there
Horn shark
egg case
Gnathostomes - Class
Osteichthyes
• The bony fishes
• Most numerous of all the
vertebrate groups
• 2 main classes
– The ray-finned fish
– The lobe fin fish
• Includes lungfish - freshwater, air
gulpers
• Have an ossified (bony)
endoskeleton
• Covered in scales
• Have a swim bladder - air sac
that controls buoyancy
Most fish ray finned
Tetrapods -
Gnathostomes
with limbs & feet
• Evolution of limbs and
feet from fins ~ 360
mya
• Loss of gill slits
• Fusion of pelvic bones
to backbone
• All of these adaptations
lost or altered in
various groups of
tetrapods
Tetrapods - Class Amphibia
• Includes salamanders, frogs, and caecilians
• Still closely tied to water
• Rely on skin for gas exchange with environment
• Not all have legs
• Some have an aquatic larval stage with a terrestrial adult
life
• Eggs do not have a shell
• External fertilization
• Complex social behavior
Tetrapods -
Amniotes
• Tetrapods with a
terrestrial
adapted, amniotic
egg
• Consists of
mammals and
reptiles (including
birds)
Tetrapods - Amniotes
• Evolution of the amniotic egg very important for life on land
– Shell retains water
– Now animals can live away from water
– Amniotic eggs have an extramembryonic membrane that functions in
gas exchange, waste disposal, and transport of nutrients to embryo
Tetrapods - Reptiles
• Have scales that contain
keratin
– No longer breath through skin
like amphibians
• Get oxygen through lungs
• Lay eggs on land
• Internal fertilization
• Most are ectothermic -
control body temp with
behavior, not metabolism
Tetrapods - Reptiles
• Extinct reptiles include:
– Dinosaurs (land dwelling)
– Pterosaurs (flying)
– Plesiosaurs (marine)
• Modern reptiles include:
– Turtles
– Tuataras
– Lizards
– Snakes
– Alligators
– Crocodiles
tuatara
brown basilisk
Giant Galapagos
Tetrapods - Birds
• Lay amniotic eggs (like reptiles)
• Have keratin containing scales on
their legs (like reptiles)
• Endotherms - maintain a warm
internal body temp
• 4-chambered heart
• High metabolism
• Larger brains than reptiles
Tetrapods - Birds
• Most have bodies
adapted for flights
– Light, hollow bones
– Relatively few organs
– Wings
– Feathers
Amniotes -
Mammals
• Amniotes that have hair
and produce milk from
mammary glands
• Endothermic
• Most born, not hatched
• All have internal
fertilization
• Large brains
• Teeth
Mammals
• 3 groups:
– Monotremes - egg laying, have
hair, produce milk, playpuses,
spiny anteaters
– Marsupials - give birth to embryo,
completes development in a pouch
while nursing, wombats,
kangaroos, Tasmanian devils
– Placental mammals (eutherians) -
longer pregnancy, deer, mice,
tigers, primates
Mammals - primates
• All have
– hands & feet that grasp
– Large brains
– Short jaws
– Forward-looking eyes
– Flat nails
– Well-developed parental care
– Complex social behavior
Mammals - primates
• 3 subgroups
– Lemurs, lorisese,
pottos
– Tarsiers
– Anthropoids
(monkeys, apes,
humans) lemurs
tarsier
ape
Mammals - humans
• Increase brain volume
• Shorter jaw
• Less of a size difference between the
sexes
• Different family structures
Jane Goodall
Diane Fossey
Quick Check
For each new clade,
list the primary feature
that separates it from
the clade before it.
Here are the primary features that separate each new clade:- Craniates: Have a head- Vertebrates: Have a backbone - Gnathostomes: Have jaws- Tetrapods: Have limbs and feet- Amniotes: Have an amniotic egg- Mammals: Produce milk and have hair

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Here are the primary features that separate each new clade:- Craniates: Have a head- Vertebrates: Have a backbone - Gnathostomes: Have jaws- Tetrapods: Have limbs and feet- Amniotes: Have an amniotic egg- Mammals: Produce milk and have hair

  • 2. Phylum Chordata • Vertebrates are a subphylum of the phylum Chordata • This lecture will build up to vertebrates and mammals by moving through the Chordata Phylum, from the most inclusive traits and simpliest organisms to the to most specific traits and complex organisms
  • 3. Phylum Chordata • This phylum includes – All vertebrates – Urochordata (tunicates) – Cephalochordata (lancelets) – Myxini (hagfish)
  • 4. Characteristics of Chordates Many appear only during embryonic development 1. Notochord - Chordates named for this structure; a long flexible rod that appears during embryonic development (some adults retain it) • Provides skeletal support • Most adults retain only a remnant of this • In humans it becomes the gelatinous disks between our vertebrae
  • 5. Characteristics of Chordates Many appear only during embryonic development 2. A dorsal, hollow nerve cord - forms from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a hollow tube; develops into the central nervous system
  • 6. Characteristics of Chordates Many appear only during embryonic development 3. Pharyngeal clefts - grooves that separate a series of pouches along the sides of the pharynx. • Usually develop into slits that allow water to enter and exit the mouth without going through the digestive tract • Become gill slits in fish or become part of the ear in terrestrial animals
  • 7. Characteristics of Chordates Many appear only during embryonic development 4. A muscular tail posterior to the anus Many adults lose this during embryonic development
  • 8. Invertebrate Chordates • 2 subphyla - Urochordata (tunicates) and Cephalochordata (lancelets) • Think of these 2 groups as simpler versions of vertebrates • Tunicates - most primitive; like other chordates during larval stage, lose chordate traits as adults
  • 9. Craniates • Chordates that have a head • Most ancient of these are the hagfish • Hagfish are marine, bottom dwelling scavengers • No vertebrae • Do have a skull made of cartilage
  • 10. Vertebrates • Craniates with a backbone • Evolved during the Cambrian when some Craniates developed • more complex nervous systems • more complex skeletons • more extensive skull • backbone composed of vertebrae that encloses the spinal cord
  • 11. Vertebrates • Lampreys are the oldest line of vertebrates • Marine or freshwater • Cartilage pipe surrounds the notochord • No jaws - have a rasping mouth that bores holes in the sides of fish - live on the blood of their host
  • 12. Gnathostomes • Vertebrates with jaws – Evolved from the pharyngeal slits – 2 major classes: • Class Chondrichtyes • Class Osteichthyes
  • 13. Gnathostomes - Class Chrondrichythyans • Sharks, rays, and their relatives • Flexible endoskeletons made of cartilage • Streamlined bodies • Will sink if they stop swimming because they are denser than water • Have changed little over 300 million years of evolution
  • 14. Shark Reproduction • Eggs fertilized internally • Some are oviparous - lay eggs that hatch outside the body • Some are ovoviviparous - fertilized eggs stay in body, hatch in uterus • Some are viviparous - baby develops inside the uterus and gets nutrients there Horn shark egg case
  • 15. Gnathostomes - Class Osteichthyes • The bony fishes • Most numerous of all the vertebrate groups • 2 main classes – The ray-finned fish – The lobe fin fish • Includes lungfish - freshwater, air gulpers • Have an ossified (bony) endoskeleton • Covered in scales • Have a swim bladder - air sac that controls buoyancy Most fish ray finned
  • 16. Tetrapods - Gnathostomes with limbs & feet • Evolution of limbs and feet from fins ~ 360 mya • Loss of gill slits • Fusion of pelvic bones to backbone • All of these adaptations lost or altered in various groups of tetrapods
  • 17. Tetrapods - Class Amphibia • Includes salamanders, frogs, and caecilians • Still closely tied to water • Rely on skin for gas exchange with environment • Not all have legs • Some have an aquatic larval stage with a terrestrial adult life • Eggs do not have a shell • External fertilization • Complex social behavior
  • 18.
  • 19. Tetrapods - Amniotes • Tetrapods with a terrestrial adapted, amniotic egg • Consists of mammals and reptiles (including birds)
  • 20. Tetrapods - Amniotes • Evolution of the amniotic egg very important for life on land – Shell retains water – Now animals can live away from water – Amniotic eggs have an extramembryonic membrane that functions in gas exchange, waste disposal, and transport of nutrients to embryo
  • 21. Tetrapods - Reptiles • Have scales that contain keratin – No longer breath through skin like amphibians • Get oxygen through lungs • Lay eggs on land • Internal fertilization • Most are ectothermic - control body temp with behavior, not metabolism
  • 22. Tetrapods - Reptiles • Extinct reptiles include: – Dinosaurs (land dwelling) – Pterosaurs (flying) – Plesiosaurs (marine) • Modern reptiles include: – Turtles – Tuataras – Lizards – Snakes – Alligators – Crocodiles tuatara brown basilisk Giant Galapagos
  • 23. Tetrapods - Birds • Lay amniotic eggs (like reptiles) • Have keratin containing scales on their legs (like reptiles) • Endotherms - maintain a warm internal body temp • 4-chambered heart • High metabolism • Larger brains than reptiles
  • 24. Tetrapods - Birds • Most have bodies adapted for flights – Light, hollow bones – Relatively few organs – Wings – Feathers
  • 25. Amniotes - Mammals • Amniotes that have hair and produce milk from mammary glands • Endothermic • Most born, not hatched • All have internal fertilization • Large brains • Teeth
  • 26. Mammals • 3 groups: – Monotremes - egg laying, have hair, produce milk, playpuses, spiny anteaters – Marsupials - give birth to embryo, completes development in a pouch while nursing, wombats, kangaroos, Tasmanian devils – Placental mammals (eutherians) - longer pregnancy, deer, mice, tigers, primates
  • 27. Mammals - primates • All have – hands & feet that grasp – Large brains – Short jaws – Forward-looking eyes – Flat nails – Well-developed parental care – Complex social behavior
  • 28. Mammals - primates • 3 subgroups – Lemurs, lorisese, pottos – Tarsiers – Anthropoids (monkeys, apes, humans) lemurs tarsier ape
  • 29. Mammals - humans • Increase brain volume • Shorter jaw • Less of a size difference between the sexes • Different family structures Jane Goodall Diane Fossey
  • 30. Quick Check For each new clade, list the primary feature that separates it from the clade before it.