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The 5th Engineering International Conference (EIC 2016)
Feasibility of Piezoelectric Tiles Adoption:
A Case Study at
Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) Malaysia
BCChew, HSLoo, Izyan Adilah Bohari, Syaiful Rizal Hamid & Fatin Hafizah Sukri
Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM)
5th October 2016
Patra Jasa Hotel, Semaranng, Indonesia
Functions of an International Airport
• Aerodrome
• facilities for domestic/international flights
management
• roles for customs and passport control (cargo,
logistics, passengers)
• commercial outlets for food, products and
services
• First gate for international passengers
Larger Airport = Consume enormous energy 24/7 365 days
= create negative socioenvironmental implications
(low air quality, GHG emission, energy depletion)
Solar (the most popular choice)
We propose Piezoelectric
Solar Panels on
KLIA Terminal Rooftop
2014
Concept
Piezoelectric Tile
KLIA Terminal
(Main Entrance)
Our Research Objectives
• to examine the potential factors that will
foster piezoelectric tiles adoption as an
alternative energy source for KLIA, and
• to assess the possible strategies for KLIA in
speed up piezoelectric tiles adoption in the
airport terminals.
Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad (MAHB)
Data of MAHB
• an investment holding company
• one of the Malaysian government linked
companies
• operates and manages 39 airports in Malaysia
(5 international airports, 16 domestic airports and 18 short take-
off and landing STOLports
• 2 airports in India (Rajiv Gandhi International
Airport and Hyderabad Airport)
• 1 airport in Turkey (Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen
International Airport) (Annual Report, 2015).
 Signatory of the Aviation Industry Commitment to 2008
Action on Climate Change, to create a pathway to carbon
neutral growth and a carbon-free future.
 Memberships in the Airports Council International and
Airports Council International Asia Pacific Regional
Environmental Committee
 Environmental Strategy: reducing environmental impacts,
whilst balancing its operational requirements as a
commercial airport management company
 5 main areas MAHB is working on: reducing carbon
emissions, reducing energy usage, emphasising
renewable energy, encouraging recycling, reducing water
consumption (Sustainable Report, 2015)
Data of MAHB
Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)
Data of KLIA
• The largest international airports in Malaysia
• Operates since June 1998
• Capacity to handle 25 million passengers per
annum.
• In 2015, KLIA handled total 22.6 million of
passengers
• In 2015, KLIA is ranked as the 13th busiest
airport in the world (Airports Council International 2016)
Literature Review of
Technology Adoption
• Up to date, the topic of technology adoption is
still largely dominated by the sociological
model of Roger’s (1962) Innovation Adoption
Lifecycle.
Literature Review of
Technology Adoption
• What seems lacking is the technology
adoption which is angled from management
and the organisational perspective.
Definition of Technology Adoption
• Enos and Park (1998): adoption is the
sequence of decisions made determining how,
when, where, and with what consequences a
technology is to be employed.
• Hall and Khan (2002): technology adoption is
the choice to acquire and use a new invention
or innovation.
Under-researched area
• Rogers (2003): there is still relatively little
efforts has been devoted to analysing
innovation differences, that is in investigating
how the properties of innovations affect the
rate of adoption.
• Hall and Khan (2002) “What factors affect the
rates at which the technology adoption
occur?”
TEMIF (Chew, 2012)
• Technical, Environmental, Managerial,
Institutional and Financial factors
• It is a decision making model which assesses
factors that can be considered for technology
adoption.
• Taking in both internal (organisational) and
external (macro) factors that need to be
considered for technology adoption along the
decision making process.
TEMIF (Technical Factors)
Environmental Factors-Managerial Factors
Institutional Factors-Financial Factors
What are the Theoretical Problem of
Technology Adoption?
• Rosenberg (1972): in the history of diffusion, the overall
slowness and the wide variations in the rates of
acceptance.
• Hall and Khan (2002): diffusion is often characterised by
uncertainty and limited information.
• Dixit and Pindyck (1994): the adoption of new technology is
characterized by (a) uncertainty over future profit streams,
(b) irreversibility that creates at least some sunk costs, and
(c) the opportunity to delay.
• Hall and Khan (2002): an option value to waiting, that is,
adoption should be delayed until benefits are somewhat
above costs, thus providing another reason why diffusion
may be rather slow.
Research Methods
• 1st September 2014-30thJune 2016.
• The process started with the communication established between
the researchers and one of the General Managers at Malaysia
Airports Holding Berhad (MAHB)
• After 3 months, a call for technical proposal was answered and sent
to the General Manager for the company to review.
• After 3 months, we were invited to the MAHB main office located at
Sepang to present our research proposal.
• Since then, 5 series of focus group have been organised within 12
months. Data is accumulatively triangulated.
• Each of the focus group, small model of piezoelectric technology
designed by the researchers from Universiti Teknikal Malaysia
Melaka (UTeM) is presented. The additional information on poster
and videos are shared in order to guide the research process and
primary data collection.
Data Collection
• There are 2 categories of respondents.
• 8 senior managers where each of them was from different
departments + 6 technical professionals from different departments.
• A good blend that represented the snapshot of the organisation
particularly these departments would involve directly on the
suggestion of piezoelectric tiles adoption.
• They are experienced managers and knowledgeable technical who
are not only establish the organisation’s policies but also execute the
daily operations on business management or engineering.
• All of the group interview sessions were audio-recorded and then
transcribed carefully, reviewed by the respondents on the transcript
to construct a basis for reliable data analysis.
• All of their identities are anonymised with the representation of
Manager (to represent the senior managers) and Engineer (to
represent technical professionals).
Data Analysis
Yin (2009) Explanation Building
1. Devise a theoretical base proposition (TEMIF), which the researchers will seek
to test.
2. Undertake data collection through an initial case study in order to be able to
compare the findings from this in relation to this theoretically based proposition.
3. When necessary, amend the theoretically based proposition in the light of the
findings from the initial case study. Only the sub-factors are amended, while the
key factors of TEMIF were remained.
4. Undertake a further round of data collection in order to compare the findings
from this in relation to the revised proposition. This also justifies the need to
conduct subsequent focus group for data triangulation and verification.
5. Where necessary, further amend the revised proposition in the light of the
findings from the second case study.
6. Undertake further iterations of this process until a satisfactory explanation is
derived.
7. Meanwhile secondary data (company reports, websites, newsletters) were
used to triangulate the primary data to obtain more comprehensive information
and understanding of the responses.
Discussion and Analysis
• Technical Factors: Demand and Usage
-The respondents understand the technology, its benefits
-The airport energy consumption 10,000MWh per month.
45% is for cooling, 27% is for lighting.
-Aim to get Level 3 Optimisation certification
-KLIA has averagely 62,000 passengers moving at the
terminal daily (exclude employees, public)
-KLIA terminal building has 5 stories with total 142,200sq
meter
-KLIA 2 is a certified green building, KLIA is not,
• Technical Factors: Competitive advantages,
positive impacts or benefits
- Extend MAHB and SunEdison jointly launched
Malaysia's first airport solar power system at
KLIA in 2014
- Solar power system is expected to save the
airport about RM2.1million annually based on
its current energy costs
- Piezoelectric provides unique renewable
energy generation
• Technical Factors: Properties of the new technology
 piezoelectric system generates electric charges when it is
stressed and strained mechanically
 Negative charge is produced on the expanded side & positive
charge on the compressed side
 Clean, reliable and required less maintenance
 Material: Polymer composites, Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)
high resistance to depolarization, small dielectric loses in the
exposition of high electric fields, high electromechanical
coupling, high resistance to depolarization under high
mechanical stress and great deformation ability
 thickness mode vibration in the neighbourhood of 13 MHz and
a planar diatation mode at around 14 KHz
 the sheet is stretch to 500 microstrains quasistatically at a
frequency below 15 KHz, the electrical power that able to
collect is approximately 9 watts
 Connection: Series-Parallel Connection
Technical Factors: Technology Life Cycle
• The first commercial wave of the piezoelectric
application were launched into the market through
international media which captured the world
attention on this innovative and fun technology.
• 2008 piezoelectric is firstly adopted at London’s first
eco-disco. 2008 pedestrians walk on piezoelectric sheet
which generate electricity for the Christmas
illumination in Tokyo. 2008 Japan Railway East installed
the special piezoelectric sheet allowed commuters
walk on and generate electricity
• Piezoelectric technology adoption at KLIA: to gain its
early adopter status since the technology is still at the
phase of application launch.
Environmental Factors: Politics
1. National Renewable energy Policy and Action Plan 2009: to
enhance the utilisation of renewable energy sources to contribute
towards national electricity supply security and sustainable
socioeconomic development
2. Renewable Energy Act 2011: to provide the establishment and
implementation of a special tariff system to catalyse the
generation of renewable energy and to provide for related
matters
3. Solar energy gained its first political limelight since Malaysia has
its geographical advantage
4. Next, it is foreseeable biomass, hydro, full cell, wind and
piezoelectric would emerged from the renewable energy mix.
5. Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia: Agency to
administrate and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff
mechanism mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011
signifies the effort of the Malaysian Government in renewable
energy development and deployment.
• Environmental Factors: Economics
 KLIA Aeropolis developed through three major
clusters (a) air cargo and logistics, (b) business and
aviation parks, and (c) meetings, incentives,
conferences event and leisure places.
 Key projects for aviation focused at Aeropolis
i. Fixed base operators
ii. Maintenance, repair and operations
iii. Original equipment manufacturers
These economic initiatives will create approximately
40,000 jobs; as well as the tourism related initiatives
geared towards tourism receipts to RM79 billion in
2025 (Runway to Success, 2016).
-Piezoelectric could be adopted in these projects
• Environmental Factors: Social
 Runway to Success 2015 – 2020
aim to establish urban townships and communities around the airports in
order to create Aeropolis airport cities
 Sustainability Policy 2009
committed to achieve socioenvironmental sustainability in operating its
business
• 3000 acres of Aeropolis has been developed which centralised KLIA
(from the 10km X 10km land bank within the vicinity of KLIA).
The Aeropolis development is aligned to Malaysia’s development agenda
such as the National Logistics and Trade Facilitation Masterplan 2015-
2020 (provide strategic direction for the development of the logistics
industry to further improve its productivity and competitiveness)
National Aerospace Blueprint 2015–2030 (aims to become the aerospace
training and education destination in Southeast Asia by 2020 and the
aerospace manufacturing centre in the region by 2025)
Piezoelectric could be adopted in these projects
KLIA Aeropolis
• Environmental Factors: Technology
 Energy Management Unit of MAHB: to invest in
energy efficient and low carbon equipment and
infrastructure.
 piezoelectric could be taken as one of the
renewable energy mix in significant GHG
reduction piezoelectric could be taken as one of
the renewable energy mix in significant GHG
reduction
 Education: responsibility in combating climate
change and safeguards the environment.
 Giving the customer experiences as one of the
contributors in generating renewable energy
• Environmental Factors: Environment
 MAHB’s overall business planning, initiatives
and targets.
 Four focus areas of resource management:
energy, water, waste and carbon
 Strategic action plans are developed with the
aim to achieve the following outcomes:
(a) Cost savings
(b) Avoidance, reduction of carbon emissions
(c) To promote the airport as a green airport
company.
Managerial Factors: MAHB’s Sustainability Policy
• 1.Integrate sustainability as a consideration in all planning and
development decisions
• 2.Operate in a healthy, safe, secure and efficient manner.
• 3.Nurture the professional and personal growth of the people.
• 4.Develop and effectively implement an Environmental Action Plan
for all airports.
• 5.Rehabilitate the social, natural and economic environment to
improve the company’s global environmental performance.
• 6.Honour the company commitment to creating a pathway towards
carbon-neutral growth and aspire for a carbon-free future
• 7.Take a leadership role in sustainability initiatives
• 8.Promote local art, culture and heritage, and promote the use of
locally and sustainably sourced products, services and labour.
Institutional Factors
 new installation needs to be conducted in the
case of piezoelectric technology adoption.
 Employees need to be trained to operate the
new technology.
Strategy
Phase Activities
Phase I  50 energy harvesting tiles will be rented for a one year period.
 Energy statistics are recorded.
 Awareness will be held.
 KLIA Airport main entrance
Phase II  Purchase of the energy harvesting floor tiles.
 Total square footage and number of tiles will be determined by
given walking area.
 Major expenses: tile installation (tile and labor cost).
Phase III  Future expansion opportunities will be considered.
 Implementation of energy harvesting floor tiles in other spot of
terminals.
• Financial
• Financial
Expenses Phase I Cost
(Rental)
Phase II Cost
(Purchased)
Material RM 666.90 per tiles
RM33,345
RM 500 per tiles
RM 700,000
Installations RM 5,000 RM 30,000
Service Contract RM 10,000 RM 40,000
Awareness Events RM 5,000 RM 2,500
Total Cost RM 53,345 RM 782,500
• Based on the Phase 1 result,
50 tiles = 0.34 kW
= 340 W
Power produced by 1 LED bulb = 10 W
When comparison,
340 W / 10 W = 34 bulb
Power generates from 50 piezoelectric tiles able
to light up 34 bulb!
• Based on the Phase 2 result,
1400 tiles =7.07kW
= 7070 W
Power produced by 1 LED bulb = 10 W
When comparison,
7070 W / 10 W = 707 bulb
Power generates from 1400 piezoelectric tiles
able to light up 707 bulb!

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Adoption of Piezoelectric Tiles as an Alternative Energy Source: A Feasibility Study in KLIA 1, Malaysia

  • 1. The 5th Engineering International Conference (EIC 2016) Feasibility of Piezoelectric Tiles Adoption: A Case Study at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) Malaysia BCChew, HSLoo, Izyan Adilah Bohari, Syaiful Rizal Hamid & Fatin Hafizah Sukri Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) 5th October 2016 Patra Jasa Hotel, Semaranng, Indonesia
  • 2. Functions of an International Airport • Aerodrome • facilities for domestic/international flights management • roles for customs and passport control (cargo, logistics, passengers) • commercial outlets for food, products and services • First gate for international passengers
  • 3. Larger Airport = Consume enormous energy 24/7 365 days = create negative socioenvironmental implications (low air quality, GHG emission, energy depletion)
  • 4. Solar (the most popular choice)
  • 6. Solar Panels on KLIA Terminal Rooftop 2014 Concept Piezoelectric Tile KLIA Terminal (Main Entrance)
  • 7. Our Research Objectives • to examine the potential factors that will foster piezoelectric tiles adoption as an alternative energy source for KLIA, and • to assess the possible strategies for KLIA in speed up piezoelectric tiles adoption in the airport terminals.
  • 9. Data of MAHB • an investment holding company • one of the Malaysian government linked companies • operates and manages 39 airports in Malaysia (5 international airports, 16 domestic airports and 18 short take- off and landing STOLports • 2 airports in India (Rajiv Gandhi International Airport and Hyderabad Airport) • 1 airport in Turkey (Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen International Airport) (Annual Report, 2015).
  • 10.  Signatory of the Aviation Industry Commitment to 2008 Action on Climate Change, to create a pathway to carbon neutral growth and a carbon-free future.  Memberships in the Airports Council International and Airports Council International Asia Pacific Regional Environmental Committee  Environmental Strategy: reducing environmental impacts, whilst balancing its operational requirements as a commercial airport management company  5 main areas MAHB is working on: reducing carbon emissions, reducing energy usage, emphasising renewable energy, encouraging recycling, reducing water consumption (Sustainable Report, 2015) Data of MAHB
  • 11. Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)
  • 12. Data of KLIA • The largest international airports in Malaysia • Operates since June 1998 • Capacity to handle 25 million passengers per annum. • In 2015, KLIA handled total 22.6 million of passengers • In 2015, KLIA is ranked as the 13th busiest airport in the world (Airports Council International 2016)
  • 13. Literature Review of Technology Adoption • Up to date, the topic of technology adoption is still largely dominated by the sociological model of Roger’s (1962) Innovation Adoption Lifecycle.
  • 14. Literature Review of Technology Adoption • What seems lacking is the technology adoption which is angled from management and the organisational perspective.
  • 15. Definition of Technology Adoption • Enos and Park (1998): adoption is the sequence of decisions made determining how, when, where, and with what consequences a technology is to be employed. • Hall and Khan (2002): technology adoption is the choice to acquire and use a new invention or innovation.
  • 16. Under-researched area • Rogers (2003): there is still relatively little efforts has been devoted to analysing innovation differences, that is in investigating how the properties of innovations affect the rate of adoption. • Hall and Khan (2002) “What factors affect the rates at which the technology adoption occur?”
  • 17. TEMIF (Chew, 2012) • Technical, Environmental, Managerial, Institutional and Financial factors • It is a decision making model which assesses factors that can be considered for technology adoption. • Taking in both internal (organisational) and external (macro) factors that need to be considered for technology adoption along the decision making process.
  • 21. What are the Theoretical Problem of Technology Adoption? • Rosenberg (1972): in the history of diffusion, the overall slowness and the wide variations in the rates of acceptance. • Hall and Khan (2002): diffusion is often characterised by uncertainty and limited information. • Dixit and Pindyck (1994): the adoption of new technology is characterized by (a) uncertainty over future profit streams, (b) irreversibility that creates at least some sunk costs, and (c) the opportunity to delay. • Hall and Khan (2002): an option value to waiting, that is, adoption should be delayed until benefits are somewhat above costs, thus providing another reason why diffusion may be rather slow.
  • 22. Research Methods • 1st September 2014-30thJune 2016. • The process started with the communication established between the researchers and one of the General Managers at Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad (MAHB) • After 3 months, a call for technical proposal was answered and sent to the General Manager for the company to review. • After 3 months, we were invited to the MAHB main office located at Sepang to present our research proposal. • Since then, 5 series of focus group have been organised within 12 months. Data is accumulatively triangulated. • Each of the focus group, small model of piezoelectric technology designed by the researchers from Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) is presented. The additional information on poster and videos are shared in order to guide the research process and primary data collection.
  • 23. Data Collection • There are 2 categories of respondents. • 8 senior managers where each of them was from different departments + 6 technical professionals from different departments. • A good blend that represented the snapshot of the organisation particularly these departments would involve directly on the suggestion of piezoelectric tiles adoption. • They are experienced managers and knowledgeable technical who are not only establish the organisation’s policies but also execute the daily operations on business management or engineering. • All of the group interview sessions were audio-recorded and then transcribed carefully, reviewed by the respondents on the transcript to construct a basis for reliable data analysis. • All of their identities are anonymised with the representation of Manager (to represent the senior managers) and Engineer (to represent technical professionals).
  • 24. Data Analysis Yin (2009) Explanation Building 1. Devise a theoretical base proposition (TEMIF), which the researchers will seek to test. 2. Undertake data collection through an initial case study in order to be able to compare the findings from this in relation to this theoretically based proposition. 3. When necessary, amend the theoretically based proposition in the light of the findings from the initial case study. Only the sub-factors are amended, while the key factors of TEMIF were remained. 4. Undertake a further round of data collection in order to compare the findings from this in relation to the revised proposition. This also justifies the need to conduct subsequent focus group for data triangulation and verification. 5. Where necessary, further amend the revised proposition in the light of the findings from the second case study. 6. Undertake further iterations of this process until a satisfactory explanation is derived. 7. Meanwhile secondary data (company reports, websites, newsletters) were used to triangulate the primary data to obtain more comprehensive information and understanding of the responses.
  • 25. Discussion and Analysis • Technical Factors: Demand and Usage -The respondents understand the technology, its benefits -The airport energy consumption 10,000MWh per month. 45% is for cooling, 27% is for lighting. -Aim to get Level 3 Optimisation certification -KLIA has averagely 62,000 passengers moving at the terminal daily (exclude employees, public) -KLIA terminal building has 5 stories with total 142,200sq meter -KLIA 2 is a certified green building, KLIA is not,
  • 26. • Technical Factors: Competitive advantages, positive impacts or benefits - Extend MAHB and SunEdison jointly launched Malaysia's first airport solar power system at KLIA in 2014 - Solar power system is expected to save the airport about RM2.1million annually based on its current energy costs - Piezoelectric provides unique renewable energy generation
  • 27. • Technical Factors: Properties of the new technology  piezoelectric system generates electric charges when it is stressed and strained mechanically  Negative charge is produced on the expanded side & positive charge on the compressed side  Clean, reliable and required less maintenance  Material: Polymer composites, Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) high resistance to depolarization, small dielectric loses in the exposition of high electric fields, high electromechanical coupling, high resistance to depolarization under high mechanical stress and great deformation ability  thickness mode vibration in the neighbourhood of 13 MHz and a planar diatation mode at around 14 KHz  the sheet is stretch to 500 microstrains quasistatically at a frequency below 15 KHz, the electrical power that able to collect is approximately 9 watts  Connection: Series-Parallel Connection
  • 28. Technical Factors: Technology Life Cycle • The first commercial wave of the piezoelectric application were launched into the market through international media which captured the world attention on this innovative and fun technology. • 2008 piezoelectric is firstly adopted at London’s first eco-disco. 2008 pedestrians walk on piezoelectric sheet which generate electricity for the Christmas illumination in Tokyo. 2008 Japan Railway East installed the special piezoelectric sheet allowed commuters walk on and generate electricity • Piezoelectric technology adoption at KLIA: to gain its early adopter status since the technology is still at the phase of application launch.
  • 29. Environmental Factors: Politics 1. National Renewable energy Policy and Action Plan 2009: to enhance the utilisation of renewable energy sources to contribute towards national electricity supply security and sustainable socioeconomic development 2. Renewable Energy Act 2011: to provide the establishment and implementation of a special tariff system to catalyse the generation of renewable energy and to provide for related matters 3. Solar energy gained its first political limelight since Malaysia has its geographical advantage 4. Next, it is foreseeable biomass, hydro, full cell, wind and piezoelectric would emerged from the renewable energy mix. 5. Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia: Agency to administrate and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff mechanism mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011 signifies the effort of the Malaysian Government in renewable energy development and deployment.
  • 30. • Environmental Factors: Economics  KLIA Aeropolis developed through three major clusters (a) air cargo and logistics, (b) business and aviation parks, and (c) meetings, incentives, conferences event and leisure places.  Key projects for aviation focused at Aeropolis i. Fixed base operators ii. Maintenance, repair and operations iii. Original equipment manufacturers These economic initiatives will create approximately 40,000 jobs; as well as the tourism related initiatives geared towards tourism receipts to RM79 billion in 2025 (Runway to Success, 2016). -Piezoelectric could be adopted in these projects
  • 31. • Environmental Factors: Social  Runway to Success 2015 – 2020 aim to establish urban townships and communities around the airports in order to create Aeropolis airport cities  Sustainability Policy 2009 committed to achieve socioenvironmental sustainability in operating its business • 3000 acres of Aeropolis has been developed which centralised KLIA (from the 10km X 10km land bank within the vicinity of KLIA). The Aeropolis development is aligned to Malaysia’s development agenda such as the National Logistics and Trade Facilitation Masterplan 2015- 2020 (provide strategic direction for the development of the logistics industry to further improve its productivity and competitiveness) National Aerospace Blueprint 2015–2030 (aims to become the aerospace training and education destination in Southeast Asia by 2020 and the aerospace manufacturing centre in the region by 2025) Piezoelectric could be adopted in these projects
  • 33. • Environmental Factors: Technology  Energy Management Unit of MAHB: to invest in energy efficient and low carbon equipment and infrastructure.  piezoelectric could be taken as one of the renewable energy mix in significant GHG reduction piezoelectric could be taken as one of the renewable energy mix in significant GHG reduction  Education: responsibility in combating climate change and safeguards the environment.  Giving the customer experiences as one of the contributors in generating renewable energy
  • 34. • Environmental Factors: Environment  MAHB’s overall business planning, initiatives and targets.  Four focus areas of resource management: energy, water, waste and carbon  Strategic action plans are developed with the aim to achieve the following outcomes: (a) Cost savings (b) Avoidance, reduction of carbon emissions (c) To promote the airport as a green airport company.
  • 35. Managerial Factors: MAHB’s Sustainability Policy • 1.Integrate sustainability as a consideration in all planning and development decisions • 2.Operate in a healthy, safe, secure and efficient manner. • 3.Nurture the professional and personal growth of the people. • 4.Develop and effectively implement an Environmental Action Plan for all airports. • 5.Rehabilitate the social, natural and economic environment to improve the company’s global environmental performance. • 6.Honour the company commitment to creating a pathway towards carbon-neutral growth and aspire for a carbon-free future • 7.Take a leadership role in sustainability initiatives • 8.Promote local art, culture and heritage, and promote the use of locally and sustainably sourced products, services and labour.
  • 36. Institutional Factors  new installation needs to be conducted in the case of piezoelectric technology adoption.  Employees need to be trained to operate the new technology.
  • 37. Strategy Phase Activities Phase I  50 energy harvesting tiles will be rented for a one year period.  Energy statistics are recorded.  Awareness will be held.  KLIA Airport main entrance Phase II  Purchase of the energy harvesting floor tiles.  Total square footage and number of tiles will be determined by given walking area.  Major expenses: tile installation (tile and labor cost). Phase III  Future expansion opportunities will be considered.  Implementation of energy harvesting floor tiles in other spot of terminals.
  • 39. • Financial Expenses Phase I Cost (Rental) Phase II Cost (Purchased) Material RM 666.90 per tiles RM33,345 RM 500 per tiles RM 700,000 Installations RM 5,000 RM 30,000 Service Contract RM 10,000 RM 40,000 Awareness Events RM 5,000 RM 2,500 Total Cost RM 53,345 RM 782,500
  • 40. • Based on the Phase 1 result, 50 tiles = 0.34 kW = 340 W Power produced by 1 LED bulb = 10 W When comparison, 340 W / 10 W = 34 bulb Power generates from 50 piezoelectric tiles able to light up 34 bulb!
  • 41. • Based on the Phase 2 result, 1400 tiles =7.07kW = 7070 W Power produced by 1 LED bulb = 10 W When comparison, 7070 W / 10 W = 707 bulb Power generates from 1400 piezoelectric tiles able to light up 707 bulb!