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Sources of energy


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This is a presentation I made for a physics project. It mostly relates to geothermal energy but also has information on other sources

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Sources of energy

  2. 2. It is clearly stated, global oil supply can’t meet global oil demand forever.• It is estimated that all oil reserves of the earth will run dry by the mid 21st century.• Since oil is the lifeblood of the world, it running dry could permanently impair the world as we know it. Not to mentions its environmental impact• This is why cleaner and more renewable sources of energy are being created to hopefully fuel the world when oil runs out.
  3. 3. DIFFERENT SOURCESBiomassHydroelectricWindNuclearSolarGeothermal
  4. 4. BIOMASS Biomass defines any decomposing biological matter which can be broken down and its stored energy be used. This is becoming increasingly popular. When bio matter breaks down, it releases CO2 and CH4 ( methane). At landfills (where it decomposes) pipes are inserted into the rotting matter and the methane is piped of to be used as a fuel as it is a hydrocarbon.
  5. 5. HYDROELECTRIC Hydroelectric power utilizes the kinetic energy of water falling from high distances. This is usually from reservoirs or dams and sometimes from large waterfalls. The water has lots of force which moves a turbine at very high speeds. This turbine moves a generator ( which works according to faraday’s principle ) which produces electricity. It is a very clean source of power which is catching on very well all around the world.
  6. 6. WIND Wind power utilizes the wind all around us. This mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. Tall windmills are placed in windy areas and contain 3 – 4 blades. The curved surface of the blade causes it to turn when wind strikes it. The mechanical energy created by the turn is converted to electrical energy by a generator. The windmill is a very clean source of power but is usually inefficient and expensive.
  7. 7. NUCLEAR Nuclear energy relies on the intense amount of energy produced when unstable isotopes collide with each other. The isotope used is Uranium 235 which is an abundant mineral on earth. When these atoms collide a lot of heat is produced which is used to turn water into high pressure steam. This steam turns a turbine which turns a generator which produces electricity. Nuclear energy is very popular but creates a harmful byproduct which can’t be disposed.
  8. 8. SOLAR Solar energy relies solely on the sun. Electricity is produced by photons (light particles) hitting the surface of the Photovoltaic Cell. This creates a stream of electrons, producing electricity. This technology is becoming more popular but is still too expensive with high production and maintenance costs and is very inefficient. Another method requires focusing the suns heat onto a boiler which produces steam which runs a turbine which turns a generator which produces electricity.
  10. 10. WHAT CREATES ELECTRICITY The majority of the electricity we use today is created by using some source of heat to boil water which turns a turbine which turns a generator producing electricity. The turning of the turbinecauses a copper wire coveredrotor to turn between permanentmagnets. This induces a chargeIn them which is removed aselectricity. The means of producing electricityIs usually the same. It is only theMedium which produces heat that isdifferent.
  11. 11. GEO-EARTH THERMAL-HEAT Where does the Earth get its heat :o 70% comes from the decay of radioactive material with long half lives that are within the Earth.o Some energy is residual from the Earth formation.o The rest of the energy comes from meteorite impacts. Sources :o Hot water reservoirso Natural steam reservoirso Geopressured reservoirso Normal geothermal gradiento Hot dry rocko Molten magma
  12. 12.  Electricity production :o Dry Steam Plants ; They use hot steam directly from the earth to power a generator. They were the first Geothermal power source to be used.o Flash Steam Plants ; These are the most common form as they are more efficient. High pressure water is drawn up pipes and is kept in low pressure areas. This produces steam which powers a generator.o Binary Cycle Plants ; The draws up moderately hot water which is passed over another liquid with a lower boiling point like Butane. The other liquid turns into pressurized steam powering a generator.o Hot Dry Rocks ; This uses the same method as shown above but there are two pipes, one carrying cold water down and one bringing steam up. The steam is created by the heat from the rocks.
  13. 13. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE Positive :o Minerals like Zinc and Silica can be extracted from this water.o These plants can be online 100% of the time while others can’t.o Most of these processes have no gaseous emission at all compared to coal and oil plants.o These plants produce more than 4 times the energy they use.o Very easy to set up and can be set up anywhere unlike oil and coal plants Negativeo The drawn up water can salinate the soil which stops plants from growingo If too much water is drawn up it can lead to a pressure differential which can lead to volcanic activity.o The holes can release H2S from below the earth which can be fatal if too much is inhaled.o It can cause noise pollution.
  14. 14. OTHER USES ……. It can be used to heat living areas in cold countries as opposed to heating oil. It can also heat green houses allowing frigid countries to grow tropical fruits and vegetables. This is commonly used in Iceland. Geothermally heated greenhouses in Iceland
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