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TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
BTMU 1023
Lecture 7
TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION
Lesson outcome
At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to
• Understand Reasons to acquire technology
• Differentiate the two types of technology sources : internal
and external acquisition.
• Identify the advantages and the disadvantages of each
type.
• Learn about the variety of collaboration/alliance/network
types and the process of external acquisition.
2
ACQUISITION
• Acquisition relates to how the company obtain the technologies
needed for its business.
3
Reasons to
acquire
technology
Where to get
the
technology
Reasons to acquire technology
4
Develop
technological
capabilities
•Create new product
•Fill the capability
/technology gap
Competitive
environment
•Rapid technological
change
Increase efficiency
•Faster
•Cheaper
Types of technology acquisition
• Two types of acquisition
– Internal acquisition through internal R&D capability
– External acquisition through collaboration with external
partners or purchasing from external developers.
5
Internal Acquisition: R&D
• R&D is a set of processes for creating firms
technologies in-house
• Two main goals of R&D
– Doing research to generate new knowledge and
technical ideas aim at developing new and enhanced
product and manufacturing services and processes
– Developing activities where ides are transformed into
working prototypes and embodies into new product and
services
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Corporate
strategy
Technology
strategy
R&D
department
Portfolio of
project
Selection of
project
13
Internal Acquisition: R&d
R&D Processes
R&D PORTFOLIO
MANAGEMENT
NEW PRODUCT AND
SERVICE
DEVELOPMENT
NEW PROCESS
DEVELOPMENT
14
Selecting, prioritizing a set of projects
Projects can be clustered into groups
Complete process of bringing new product or
Service to the market
Newness of process
From mass production to mass customization
Portfolio Management
R&D Portfolio
Management
Optimizing
resources
Finding balance
Short term vs long
term
Risk vs return
Budget and
performance
15
New Product Development
• Capture and exploit the knowledge
generated by R&D activities
• Can be represented by the NPD FUNNEL
16
The New-Product Development Process
9
New-Product Strategy
New-Product Strategy
Idea Generation
Idea Generation
Idea Screening
Idea Screening
Business Analysis
Business Analysis
Development
Development
Test Marketing
Test Marketing
Commercialization
Commercialization
New Product
New Product
Copyright 2012 by CengageLearning Inc. All Rights Reserved
17
Categoriesof New Products
5
New-to-the-World
New Product Lines
Product Line Additions
Improvements or Revisions
Repositioned Products
Lower-Priced Products
Copyright 2012 by CengageLearning Inc. All RightsReserved
18
R&D PROCESSES (3)
• History of process development
– Craft Production
– Process Of Manufacturing Without The Aid Of
Tools
– Example Job Production – Making Canoe,
Pottery
19
New process development
New process development
20
Mass Production
• Manufacturing large quantity of standardized
products
• Example : Cars( Ford Motor), Coca Cola, Newsweek
( Magazine)
21
New process development
22
New process development
Mass customization
It is a the process in which the different departments of
the organization such as marketing or manufacturing
make the procedures flexible enough to made the end
products in a way that customer wants
Mass production + customization
“made to order”
Example : self serve design (shoes), self customization (
bicycle )
23
New process development
24
REASON BEHIND TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION
External Technology Acquisition
• Limited internal resources
• Time pressure
• Lack of Complementary assets
• Protecting image
• Diversification
• Supporting internal technologies
• Avoid development risks
25
External Technology Acquisition Processes
• Goal setting
• Finding technology suppliers
• Choosing acquisition method
• Contract preparation and negotiation
• Technology transfer
• Managing long term collaboration
26
Types Of External Technology
Acquisition(1)
1. COLLABORATION
Dimensions of collaboration
• Degree of control
• Duration of commitment
27
Categories of collaboration
• Purchasing/ arms-length transaction
– One off,
• Subcontracting/contracted-out R&D
– Firm uses the service of research organization to develop new
product/process
• Licensing
– License for the use of technology on a franchise basis
• Alliances
– Ad hoc, joint venture, consortium
• M&A
– Acquire and integrate a foreign entity in the company
Types Of External Technology
Acquisition(2)
28
Acquısıtıon Channels(1)
• Sponsoring university research
• External R&D centers
• Consultants
• Licensing agreements
• Vendors/ suppliers
• Acquiring machinery or the firm
29
Make Or Buy Or Collaborate Decision Depends
On
1) strength of the organization’s own
capabilities.
2) respective transaction and governance costs
– contract price, cost of information, monitoring
performance, committing specific assets, handling
complexity in reaching agreements
3) dynamic transaction costs
– costs of persuading, negotiating, coordinating, and
teaching outside suppliers
30
https://www.dhuautomotive.edu.my/
https://paultan.org/2019/09/24/proton-msias-
first-and-only-proper-oem-faisal-albar/
Expected resulting impacts of technology
acquisition
• productivity
• quality
• product development cycle
• labor-management relations
• accuracy of the information flows
• production costs
• flexibility (volume, machine, process,..)
• maintenance costs
• service performance
• sales
32
Open Innovation
33
Open Innovation incorporates external
knowledge into innovation management
A bridge between internal team and external
network.
Co creation
crowdsourcing
Create – share platform
Issues in collaboration network design:
• Aim
• Partners
• Duration
• Contract
• Management
• Investment / Re-engineering
• Division of labour
• Strategy
34
How To Decide On The Type Of Network For
Collaboration?
• The objective of the collaboration
• The content of the collaboration
• The typology of partners involved
35
1. What are the advantages of internal and external
acquisition?
2. What are the disadvantages of internal and external
acquisition?
3. What are the major types of collaboration/network used for
external acquisition?
36
Discussion questions
References
1. Cetindamar, D., Phaal, R., & Probert, D.
(2016). Technology management: activities and
tools. Macmillan International Higher Education.
2. Other sources from the internet
37

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LECTURE 7: TM activity: Technology Acquisition

  • 1. 1 TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT BTMU 1023 Lecture 7 TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION
  • 2. Lesson outcome At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to • Understand Reasons to acquire technology • Differentiate the two types of technology sources : internal and external acquisition. • Identify the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. • Learn about the variety of collaboration/alliance/network types and the process of external acquisition. 2
  • 3. ACQUISITION • Acquisition relates to how the company obtain the technologies needed for its business. 3 Reasons to acquire technology Where to get the technology
  • 4. Reasons to acquire technology 4 Develop technological capabilities •Create new product •Fill the capability /technology gap Competitive environment •Rapid technological change Increase efficiency •Faster •Cheaper
  • 5. Types of technology acquisition • Two types of acquisition – Internal acquisition through internal R&D capability – External acquisition through collaboration with external partners or purchasing from external developers. 5
  • 6. Internal Acquisition: R&D • R&D is a set of processes for creating firms technologies in-house • Two main goals of R&D – Doing research to generate new knowledge and technical ideas aim at developing new and enhanced product and manufacturing services and processes – Developing activities where ides are transformed into working prototypes and embodies into new product and services 6
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  • 14. R&D Processes R&D PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT NEW PRODUCT AND SERVICE DEVELOPMENT NEW PROCESS DEVELOPMENT 14 Selecting, prioritizing a set of projects Projects can be clustered into groups Complete process of bringing new product or Service to the market Newness of process From mass production to mass customization
  • 15. Portfolio Management R&D Portfolio Management Optimizing resources Finding balance Short term vs long term Risk vs return Budget and performance 15
  • 16. New Product Development • Capture and exploit the knowledge generated by R&D activities • Can be represented by the NPD FUNNEL 16
  • 17. The New-Product Development Process 9 New-Product Strategy New-Product Strategy Idea Generation Idea Generation Idea Screening Idea Screening Business Analysis Business Analysis Development Development Test Marketing Test Marketing Commercialization Commercialization New Product New Product Copyright 2012 by CengageLearning Inc. All Rights Reserved 17
  • 18. Categoriesof New Products 5 New-to-the-World New Product Lines Product Line Additions Improvements or Revisions Repositioned Products Lower-Priced Products Copyright 2012 by CengageLearning Inc. All RightsReserved 18
  • 19. R&D PROCESSES (3) • History of process development – Craft Production – Process Of Manufacturing Without The Aid Of Tools – Example Job Production – Making Canoe, Pottery 19 New process development
  • 21. Mass Production • Manufacturing large quantity of standardized products • Example : Cars( Ford Motor), Coca Cola, Newsweek ( Magazine) 21 New process development
  • 23. Mass customization It is a the process in which the different departments of the organization such as marketing or manufacturing make the procedures flexible enough to made the end products in a way that customer wants Mass production + customization “made to order” Example : self serve design (shoes), self customization ( bicycle ) 23 New process development
  • 24. 24
  • 25. REASON BEHIND TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION External Technology Acquisition • Limited internal resources • Time pressure • Lack of Complementary assets • Protecting image • Diversification • Supporting internal technologies • Avoid development risks 25
  • 26. External Technology Acquisition Processes • Goal setting • Finding technology suppliers • Choosing acquisition method • Contract preparation and negotiation • Technology transfer • Managing long term collaboration 26
  • 27. Types Of External Technology Acquisition(1) 1. COLLABORATION Dimensions of collaboration • Degree of control • Duration of commitment 27
  • 28. Categories of collaboration • Purchasing/ arms-length transaction – One off, • Subcontracting/contracted-out R&D – Firm uses the service of research organization to develop new product/process • Licensing – License for the use of technology on a franchise basis • Alliances – Ad hoc, joint venture, consortium • M&A – Acquire and integrate a foreign entity in the company Types Of External Technology Acquisition(2) 28
  • 29. Acquısıtıon Channels(1) • Sponsoring university research • External R&D centers • Consultants • Licensing agreements • Vendors/ suppliers • Acquiring machinery or the firm 29
  • 30. Make Or Buy Or Collaborate Decision Depends On 1) strength of the organization’s own capabilities. 2) respective transaction and governance costs – contract price, cost of information, monitoring performance, committing specific assets, handling complexity in reaching agreements 3) dynamic transaction costs – costs of persuading, negotiating, coordinating, and teaching outside suppliers 30
  • 32. Expected resulting impacts of technology acquisition • productivity • quality • product development cycle • labor-management relations • accuracy of the information flows • production costs • flexibility (volume, machine, process,..) • maintenance costs • service performance • sales 32
  • 33. Open Innovation 33 Open Innovation incorporates external knowledge into innovation management A bridge between internal team and external network. Co creation crowdsourcing Create – share platform
  • 34. Issues in collaboration network design: • Aim • Partners • Duration • Contract • Management • Investment / Re-engineering • Division of labour • Strategy 34
  • 35. How To Decide On The Type Of Network For Collaboration? • The objective of the collaboration • The content of the collaboration • The typology of partners involved 35
  • 36. 1. What are the advantages of internal and external acquisition? 2. What are the disadvantages of internal and external acquisition? 3. What are the major types of collaboration/network used for external acquisition? 36 Discussion questions
  • 37. References 1. Cetindamar, D., Phaal, R., & Probert, D. (2016). Technology management: activities and tools. Macmillan International Higher Education. 2. Other sources from the internet 37