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A TRAINING REPORT
ON
Construction of viaduct, roof portal and finishing work for
automatic walkway/ travelators at Dhaula Kuan and Rajouri
Garden interchange Stations of line -7 of Phase-III Delhi
MRTS
Submitted by
Keshav Sharma
Under the Guidance of
MR. RITESH ANAND
AEN/2A
DHAULA KUAN
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
Training Period
MAY-JUNE, 2018
1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am extremely thankful to the management of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
(DMRC) for giving me this golden opportunity to explore the theoretical
knowledge in the practical field. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my
training mentor “Mr. Ritesh Anand” for providing me relentless support and
encouragement during my training period.
With deep regards and respect, I express my indebtedness to “Mr. Saleem
Ahmed”,Chief Project Manager(2A), DMRC, for giving me this opportunity
and for his constant monitoring.
I would also like to thank “Mr. S.N.Jha”, Project Manager(2A), DMRC, for
giving me this opportunity and be my guide
Finally, I would like to thank to all executive and non-executive staff of Delhi
Metro Rail Corporation for their kind and heartiest cooperation as and when I
sought for.
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement 2
Certificate 3
Table of contents 4
1. Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Projects
1.2.1 Completed projects
1.2.2 Ongoing projects
1.3 About CC-95
2. Methodology
2.1 Surveying works
2.2 Geological investigation
2.3 Tender
2.4 Utility identification and diversion
2.5 Materials and machines
2.5.1 Concrete
2.5.2 Reinforcement
2.5.3 Machines
2.6 Foundations
2.6.1 Shallow foundation
2.6.2 Pile foundation
2.6.3 Pile Cap
2.7 Pier & Pier Cap
2.8 Segments
2.9 Launching of segments
2.9.1 Launching Girder
2.9.2 Span erection
2.9.3 Prestressing
2.10 Finishing Works
3. Conclusion
4
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
For implementation and subsequent operation of Delhi MRTS (Mass Rapid
Transit System), a company under the name DELHI METRO RAIL
CORPORATION was registered on 03/05/95 under the Companies Act,
1956. DMRC has equal equity participation from GOI and GNCTD.
1.2 Projects
1.2.1 Present Network (Completed project)
Line 1 (Dilshad Garden – Rithala) – Red Line
Line 2 (HUDA City Centre – Samaypur Badli) – Yellow Line
Line 3 (Dwarka Sector 21 – Noida City Centre) – Blue Line
Line 4 (Yamuna Bank – Vaishali) – Blue Line
Line 5 (Inderlok – Mundka) – Green Line
Line 6 (Kashmere Gate – Escorts Mujesar) – Violet Line
Airport Metro Express Line
Line 7 (Majlis Park – Duragbhai Deshmukh South Campus Section) – Pink
Line
Line 8 (Botanical Garden – Janakpuri West) – Magenta Line
1.2.2 Ongoing Project (PHASE III PROJECTS)
Durgabhai Deshmukh South Campus – Shiv Vihar
Dwarka – Najafgarh
Mundka – Bahadurgarh
Dilshad Garden – Ghaziabad Bus Adda
Extension of Metro to Ballabhgarh
Extension of Metro from Noida 32 – Noida 62
5
1.3 About CC-95
Project Title: Contract CC-95: Construction of viaduct, roof portal and
finishing work for automatic walkway/ travelators at Dhaula Kuan and
Rajouri Garden interchange Stations of line -7 of Phase-III Delhi MRTS.”
Client-DMRC
Contractor- M/s Metcon India Reality and Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd.
Awarded Project cost-₹55.07 Crore
Scope of Project-1.6km
6
On site pictures
Viaduct connecting DHAULA KUAN AIRPORT METRO STATION
with DURGABAI DESHMUKH SOUTH CAMPUS METRO STATION
7
METHODOLOGY
2.1 Surveying works
The alignment of the viaduct is decided by the top management by consulting
various factors and using different technologies like Total Station, DGPS Network
Survey, Chainage making,etc.
2.2 Geological Investigation
The site undergoes geological investigation before the tender is set out to
understand the ground conditions. Proper boring and testing of soil and stone
samples is done.
2.3 Tender
A tender is an agreement having lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or
more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations
between them. The elements of a contract are “offer and “acceptance” by
“Competent persons” having legal capacity who exchanges “consideration” to
create “mutuality of obligation”.
Tender Documents consists of the following sections:
(i) Notice Inviting Tender(NIT)
It includes the key details that a bidder must know before buying the
tender document, for example total cost of work, cost of tender
document, schedule of tender process, etc. It is a formal invitation for all
the eligible bidders to buy the tender documents for the subject work in
case they qualify the minimum eligibility requirements. The requirements
are specified into Work Experience and Financial Standing.
(ii) Instruction To Tenderers(ITT)
These are the basic guidelines provided to the bidders which the bidders
are required to descriptively study before reading any further documents
as they deal briefly with the taxation policy of DMRC, documents
submitted by the bidder along with the technical proposal, amount of
EMD required, etc.
8
(iii) Technical Specifications
This volume deals with the technical requirements and specifications of
the work and descriptively specifies the codes, standards, processes,
listed suppliers, etc. corresponding to this work.
(iv) General Conditions of Contract(GCC)
This volume is the most important and guiding documents of any
contract agreement since it deals with all the issues that have been faced
in the past during the contracts or that are foreseen and also presents a
redressal plan for each of these. This volume of contract is common for
all the tenderer and cannot be changed without the permission of the
competent authority. It includes:
Definitions
Staff and Labor
Design
Quality control
Time management
Contract price and payment
Termination and foreclosure
Risk and responsibility, etc.
(v) Conditions of contract on Safety, Health and environmental
issues(SHE)
This volume deals with the Safety, Health and environmental rules setup
by DMRC to be followed at the site. SHE plan is time to time updated
with innovation.
2.4 Utility identification & diversion works
Prior to the commencement of construction work, site will be investigated for any
public utilities such as water pipelines, sewer lines, electrical and telecom cables,
etc. Such utilities’ routes are diverted after consulting with the respected
authorities. A set of procedures are used:
(i) Traffic is diverted with the help of the traffic police and according to the
prescribed plan
(ii) Public is notified of any shutdown of utilites
9
(iii) Barricading along the site
(iv) Use of neon, reflectors and caution signs if work is done during night,etc.
2.5 Materials and machines
A lot of materials are used at the construction site but the two most widely used are
concrete and steel.
2.5.1 Concrete
Concrete mix design is done for different structures as per the codes and standards
provided by agencies like MOST, CPWD, etc. Testing of both fresh and hardened
concrete is done as per standards.
For fresh concrete, slump cone test, V B consistometer, checking for bleeding and
segregation are performed. For hardened concrete, 60 cubes and cylinders are
designed and compressive strength tests are performed. The mix used for the
different structures are listed below as:
M35-Pile
M40-Pile cap
M40-Pier
10
M50-Girder (Simply supported)
2.5.2 Reinforcement
TMT Steel bars are used for reinforcement are used. The reinforcement used
should be clean of any debris and dust. Bar bending and cutting machines are made
available at the site itself to ease out the works.
Bars are stacked diameter wise and it is to be ensured that mismatching with other
rods is avoided. 10 mm, 12mm, 25mm, 28mm and 32mm rods are used for
reinforcement including chairs. 30 gage stirrups are used.
2.5.3 Machines
The machines that are generally used are:
(i) Rebar cutting machine
11
(ii) Rebar bending machine
(iii) Man lift
12
(iv) Drilling machines
(v) Cranes
(vi) Trailers
2.6 Foundation
2.6.1 Shallow Foundation
In this type of foundation, the building load is transferred to the earth very near the
surface, rather than to the subsurface layer. These foundations are installed at
locations where the soil is not too much intense. Excavators, rock splitters,
compressor, vibrator, etc. are used.
2.6.2 Pile Foundation
Pile is a relatively small diameter shaft, which is either driven or installed into the
ground by suitable means usually driven in groups.
It is further classified into end-bearing and friction piles.
In CC-95, End bearing driven piles are used with the help of chemical like
bentonite and EPDM. Generally piles of 1m dia are used. Following are some of its
specifications:
Concrete-M35
13
Coarse aggregate size should not exceed 20mm
Slump-150 to 175mm for cast in-situ piles
Minimum cement content shouldn’t be less than 400kg/m3
The items of work are:
(i) Boring/drilling including provision of temporary casing
(ii) Supplying, fabrication and placement of all reinforcing bars
(iii) Casting of concrete piles as per specification.
(iv) Load testing of piles
Boring/excavation for pile
The equipment for pile installation is listed below as:
(i) Hydraulic rotary drilling rig
(ii) Batching plant of min. 30 cm3
/hr capacity
(iii) Transit mixers 4 to 6 cm3
capacity
(iv) Tippers for muck disposal
(v) Water tank
(vi) Bentonite tank
(vii) Tremmie pipes of minimum 200 mm dia and steel hopper/funnel for
concreting
(viii) Crane
(ix) Rebar cutting and bending machine
(x) Trailer/truck
14
(xi) Power generator of suitable capacity
The procedure of the pile installation is as follows:
(i) Formation of bore holes-before doing so any identified structure and
encroachments are removed
(ii) Control alignment-the verticality of the bore is checked and maintained
using plumb bob, spirit level and telescopic Kelly
(iii) Rotary drilling method-is used for boring with the rig aligned to the
impression
(iv) Final post bore cleaning-after measuring the depth of the bore using
sounding chain, the bore is cleaned with the muck being removed from it
(v) Method & testing of bentonite-bentonite is used which doesn’t allows
the bore to collapse. When it is used, flushing is done after lowering of
inserting reinforcement cage & tremmie before starting of concreting
with fresh bentonite slurry. However, the use of bentonite is reduced due
to environmental factors
(vi) Placement of reinforcement cage
(vii) Pile concreting-tremmie pipe method is used & continuous concreting is
done without interruption
(viii) Pile cut-off and extension-shoring is used
75 percent of the total piles shall be tested for dynamic integrity test and remaining
25 percent to be tested for sonic integrity test. These tests are performed as per the
codes and standards provided.
Footing bed being prepared for the pile
15
2.6.3 Pile Cap
It is a thick concrete mat that rest on group of piles which have been driven into
soft or unstable ground to provide suitable stable foundation. M40 concrete is used
for pile cap under CC-95.
2.7 Pier & Pier Cap
Pier: A pier is a raised structure typically supported by well-spaced piles. In
DMRC, piers are generally used to carry span, track and train load. They may be
provided with circular, rectangle or semi-circle cross-section depending on their
position and load-bearing requirements.
In CC-95, piers are designed to carry span and the machine plus people load. They
are rectangular in shape with mainly two sizes i.e., 1500mm * 1200mm and
1500mm * 1500mm. M40 concrete is used for the pier.
Pier with shuttering
16
Pier Cap: The upper or bearing part of the pier, made up of reinforced concrete
designed to ensure uniform load distribution.
In CC-95, pier cap having trapezoidal cross section were used. The dimensions are
as follows:
Width-2000mm to 2200mm
Length-7400mm (cantilever), 4600mm (simply supported)
Height-1200mm centre, 1070mm, 980mm and 520mm (on both sides)
10mm, 12mm, 20mm, 32mm TMT steel rods are used for reinforcement.
40mm, 50mm, 75mm cover are used.
Pier and Pier cap installed
The equipments used are as follows:
(i) Total station
(ii) Batching plant of 30cm3
/hr or 60cm3
/hr
(iii) Transit mixer
(iv) Air compressor
17
(v) Chisel
(vi) Crane
(vii) Welding machine
(viii) Electric vibrator
(ix) Needle
(x) Concrete as per drawing
The procedure of pier is as follows:
(i) Preparation and approval of BBS
(ii) Cutting and bending of bars
(iii) Transportation of bars
(iv) Unloading of reinforcement
(v) Marking of pier co-ordinates on foundation top
(vi) Starter concrete
(vii) Rebar tying in stages according to approved drawing
(viii) Insertion of drainage pipe
(ix) Formwork in stages
The procedure for pier cap is as follows:
(i) Cleaning of formwork and oiling
(ii) Check the presence and positioning of any inserts bearing in pier head
prior to concreting
(iii) Tie the reinforcement as per BBS
18
(iv) Place and fix forms
(v) Placing of concrete
(vi) Use of vibrator for compaction of concrete
(vii) Strip the side formwork
(viii) Wrap hessian cloth, keep moist, or curing compound
Reinforcement cage for the pier cap
2.8 Segments
Segments are precast single units of reinforced concrete which are combined
together and prestressed to form span joining two piers. These are made in
different sizes and shape depending according to the load being imposed.
The segments are casted at a casting yard. After providing the segment with the
required prestressing and shuttering, they are transported to the site and made
ready for launching.
19
2.9 Launching of segments
The segment is lifted with the help of the launching girder. The launching girder
holds and aligns the segments. The segments are then locked manually.
2.9.1 Launching girder
This is the biggest machine used at the site. It is used to lift and install the
segments. Its components are:
(i) Counter weight
(ii) Sliding wheel
(iii) Hangers
(iv) Hoist beam
(v) Steel frame
Launching girder has four supports on which it rests on viaduct:
(i) Front support
It comprises of a top beam, a pair of top vertical legs, a pair of telescopic
legs, a bottom beam and an anchor beam along with inserts. The load
from LG is transferred through top vertical legs to the telescopic legs
through pins. Telescopic legs bottom beam which is anchored to the pier
to the anchor beam. Hydraulic jacks are provided for vertical adjustments
of the legs. The front support is fixed at a distance of 2.5m from the rear
end of the LG.
(i) Middle support
It is seated on the pier head segment. During erection of the segments
most of the erection load is carried by the middle support. It consists of
knuckle bearing provided at the top of the support below which cradle
beams are provided.
Anchor bars provided at the cross beams are directly anchored with
segments. The holes provided in the segments for lifting itself will be
used for anchoring also. Jacks are provided below a pair of supporting
stool for vertical height adjustment.
(ii) Rear support
It is at par with that of the middle support. However due to less load
coming on the rear support, the number of side beams provided are lesser
than that of middle support. The rear support is placed on the completed
deck on running segment.
20
The rear support temporarily caries the load from LG when middle
support is shifted to the next span of LG hauling.
(iii) Rear trolley
It is located at the fixed distance of 4.4m from the rear end of the LG.
The Top beam is supported by inclined column members which in turn
are supported on a bottom beam which is connected to assembly, which
runs on the rail track already laid on the erected deck. Anchor bolts are
provided to anchors the trolley with the segment while erection. The hole
provided in the segment for lifting itself will be used for anchoring.
Assembling of Launching Girder
(i) Connect the long stroke push pull horizontal jacks to the front side of the
LG.
(ii) The front side of the launching arrangement shall be locked to the LG
using bolts & through the mono rails provided at the center at the bottom
flange.
(iii) The bolts in the rear side plate shall be removed and now open the jacks
to 1000mm stroke. The LG moves by 1000mm.
(iv) Fasten the bolts in the rear side plate and remove the bolts from the front
side plates. Bring back the jack in the original position.
(v) The stroke length of the horizontal jack can be reduced and the LG
movement shall be adjusted using the closely spaced bolts provided on
the rear side of the LG as the LG approaches the next pier.
2.9.2 Span erection
The segments casted in the casting yard are transported to the site with the help of
trucks/trailers. Then they are lifted and aligned with the help of LG.
Many precautions have to be taken while the lifting takes place. Auto launching
i.e., the movement of the front support of the LG to the pedestal of the next pillar is
done. It is a very tedious and time consuming process, as it only takes 6-7 hours to
move the front support to the next pier.
21
2.9.3 Prestressing
The segments are designed with prestressed concrete. Calibrated jacks, pumps,
tendons and grouting equipment are required. The procedure is as follows:
(i) Duct profiling in segments in casting yard- At the casting yard while
the segment is being casted, HDPE sheathing pipes are cut as per the
GFC drawings and are inserted in the segments with fixing of snchor
cones using suitable PVC or masking tapes. Rubber connectors are used
with the sheathing segments.
(ii) Segment erection-The segments are erected as per the detailed
specifications and orientation. Necessary care has to be taken so that the
glue doesn’t enter inside the ducts causing blockage.
(iii) Cable fabrication and Threading- Cable/thread of the correct size in
the correct number should be installed in the ducts. Before that the cables
should be checked of any coiling and should be made clean using cloth.
(iv) Stressing operation- The role of jacks comes here. Hanging arrangement
should be made for the jacks and only professional should be allowed to
handle the jacks. The jacks should be properly calibrated. The work
should be efficient following a particular procedure and calculations
22
(v) Grouting operation-Grouting shall be carried out as early as possible
but preferably within 2 weeks of stressing a tendon. Grouting should be
done in a fixed manner and it should be ensured that any unwanted
substances are cut off using abrasive cutter and ducts should be free from
oil. Grouting should be done until the grout falls out from the other side
of the duct to ensure no blockage between the duct
All this work should be according to the guidelines specified and high amount of
precautions should be followed.
2.10 Finishing works
The finishing work includes waterproofing, cleaning, covering up the ground,
polishing and beautification. This also includes the safety of the viaduct designed
and done in the presence of both the contactor and engineer (DMRC) along with
the safety experts. Before opening the viaduct to the public, the contractor shall
clear the site from the site and if there is something that the contractor hadn’t done,
they should do it within the Defect liability period
23
CONCLUSION
In my internship of one month, I got a lot of theoretical and practical knowledge. I
got to know the different procedures required for a civil project from paperwork to
finishing. I understood the roles of each and every person and the use of machines.
I also perceived that safety of individuals come first than anything else. Also, only
skilled professional should be allowed to handle machinery and construction site is
not a playground, each and every element is important. Through my internship
period, I was able to visualize the things that I read from the books and contracts
made available to me.
24

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Delhi metro internship Report (05.05.2018 04.06.2018)

  • 1. A TRAINING REPORT ON Construction of viaduct, roof portal and finishing work for automatic walkway/ travelators at Dhaula Kuan and Rajouri Garden interchange Stations of line -7 of Phase-III Delhi MRTS Submitted by Keshav Sharma Under the Guidance of MR. RITESH ANAND AEN/2A DHAULA KUAN Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Training Period MAY-JUNE, 2018 1
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely thankful to the management of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) for giving me this golden opportunity to explore the theoretical knowledge in the practical field. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my training mentor “Mr. Ritesh Anand” for providing me relentless support and encouragement during my training period. With deep regards and respect, I express my indebtedness to “Mr. Saleem Ahmed”,Chief Project Manager(2A), DMRC, for giving me this opportunity and for his constant monitoring. I would also like to thank “Mr. S.N.Jha”, Project Manager(2A), DMRC, for giving me this opportunity and be my guide Finally, I would like to thank to all executive and non-executive staff of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation for their kind and heartiest cooperation as and when I sought for. 2
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement 2 Certificate 3 Table of contents 4 1. Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Projects 1.2.1 Completed projects 1.2.2 Ongoing projects 1.3 About CC-95 2. Methodology 2.1 Surveying works 2.2 Geological investigation 2.3 Tender 2.4 Utility identification and diversion 2.5 Materials and machines 2.5.1 Concrete 2.5.2 Reinforcement 2.5.3 Machines 2.6 Foundations 2.6.1 Shallow foundation 2.6.2 Pile foundation 2.6.3 Pile Cap 2.7 Pier & Pier Cap 2.8 Segments 2.9 Launching of segments 2.9.1 Launching Girder 2.9.2 Span erection 2.9.3 Prestressing 2.10 Finishing Works 3. Conclusion 4
  • 4. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction For implementation and subsequent operation of Delhi MRTS (Mass Rapid Transit System), a company under the name DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION was registered on 03/05/95 under the Companies Act, 1956. DMRC has equal equity participation from GOI and GNCTD. 1.2 Projects 1.2.1 Present Network (Completed project) Line 1 (Dilshad Garden – Rithala) – Red Line Line 2 (HUDA City Centre – Samaypur Badli) – Yellow Line Line 3 (Dwarka Sector 21 – Noida City Centre) – Blue Line Line 4 (Yamuna Bank – Vaishali) – Blue Line Line 5 (Inderlok – Mundka) – Green Line Line 6 (Kashmere Gate – Escorts Mujesar) – Violet Line Airport Metro Express Line Line 7 (Majlis Park – Duragbhai Deshmukh South Campus Section) – Pink Line Line 8 (Botanical Garden – Janakpuri West) – Magenta Line 1.2.2 Ongoing Project (PHASE III PROJECTS) Durgabhai Deshmukh South Campus – Shiv Vihar Dwarka – Najafgarh Mundka – Bahadurgarh Dilshad Garden – Ghaziabad Bus Adda Extension of Metro to Ballabhgarh Extension of Metro from Noida 32 – Noida 62 5
  • 5. 1.3 About CC-95 Project Title: Contract CC-95: Construction of viaduct, roof portal and finishing work for automatic walkway/ travelators at Dhaula Kuan and Rajouri Garden interchange Stations of line -7 of Phase-III Delhi MRTS.” Client-DMRC Contractor- M/s Metcon India Reality and Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. Awarded Project cost-₹55.07 Crore Scope of Project-1.6km 6
  • 6. On site pictures Viaduct connecting DHAULA KUAN AIRPORT METRO STATION with DURGABAI DESHMUKH SOUTH CAMPUS METRO STATION 7
  • 7. METHODOLOGY 2.1 Surveying works The alignment of the viaduct is decided by the top management by consulting various factors and using different technologies like Total Station, DGPS Network Survey, Chainage making,etc. 2.2 Geological Investigation The site undergoes geological investigation before the tender is set out to understand the ground conditions. Proper boring and testing of soil and stone samples is done. 2.3 Tender A tender is an agreement having lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The elements of a contract are “offer and “acceptance” by “Competent persons” having legal capacity who exchanges “consideration” to create “mutuality of obligation”. Tender Documents consists of the following sections: (i) Notice Inviting Tender(NIT) It includes the key details that a bidder must know before buying the tender document, for example total cost of work, cost of tender document, schedule of tender process, etc. It is a formal invitation for all the eligible bidders to buy the tender documents for the subject work in case they qualify the minimum eligibility requirements. The requirements are specified into Work Experience and Financial Standing. (ii) Instruction To Tenderers(ITT) These are the basic guidelines provided to the bidders which the bidders are required to descriptively study before reading any further documents as they deal briefly with the taxation policy of DMRC, documents submitted by the bidder along with the technical proposal, amount of EMD required, etc. 8
  • 8. (iii) Technical Specifications This volume deals with the technical requirements and specifications of the work and descriptively specifies the codes, standards, processes, listed suppliers, etc. corresponding to this work. (iv) General Conditions of Contract(GCC) This volume is the most important and guiding documents of any contract agreement since it deals with all the issues that have been faced in the past during the contracts or that are foreseen and also presents a redressal plan for each of these. This volume of contract is common for all the tenderer and cannot be changed without the permission of the competent authority. It includes: Definitions Staff and Labor Design Quality control Time management Contract price and payment Termination and foreclosure Risk and responsibility, etc. (v) Conditions of contract on Safety, Health and environmental issues(SHE) This volume deals with the Safety, Health and environmental rules setup by DMRC to be followed at the site. SHE plan is time to time updated with innovation. 2.4 Utility identification & diversion works Prior to the commencement of construction work, site will be investigated for any public utilities such as water pipelines, sewer lines, electrical and telecom cables, etc. Such utilities’ routes are diverted after consulting with the respected authorities. A set of procedures are used: (i) Traffic is diverted with the help of the traffic police and according to the prescribed plan (ii) Public is notified of any shutdown of utilites 9
  • 9. (iii) Barricading along the site (iv) Use of neon, reflectors and caution signs if work is done during night,etc. 2.5 Materials and machines A lot of materials are used at the construction site but the two most widely used are concrete and steel. 2.5.1 Concrete Concrete mix design is done for different structures as per the codes and standards provided by agencies like MOST, CPWD, etc. Testing of both fresh and hardened concrete is done as per standards. For fresh concrete, slump cone test, V B consistometer, checking for bleeding and segregation are performed. For hardened concrete, 60 cubes and cylinders are designed and compressive strength tests are performed. The mix used for the different structures are listed below as: M35-Pile M40-Pile cap M40-Pier 10
  • 10. M50-Girder (Simply supported) 2.5.2 Reinforcement TMT Steel bars are used for reinforcement are used. The reinforcement used should be clean of any debris and dust. Bar bending and cutting machines are made available at the site itself to ease out the works. Bars are stacked diameter wise and it is to be ensured that mismatching with other rods is avoided. 10 mm, 12mm, 25mm, 28mm and 32mm rods are used for reinforcement including chairs. 30 gage stirrups are used. 2.5.3 Machines The machines that are generally used are: (i) Rebar cutting machine 11 (ii) Rebar bending machine
  • 12. (iv) Drilling machines (v) Cranes (vi) Trailers 2.6 Foundation 2.6.1 Shallow Foundation In this type of foundation, the building load is transferred to the earth very near the surface, rather than to the subsurface layer. These foundations are installed at locations where the soil is not too much intense. Excavators, rock splitters, compressor, vibrator, etc. are used. 2.6.2 Pile Foundation Pile is a relatively small diameter shaft, which is either driven or installed into the ground by suitable means usually driven in groups. It is further classified into end-bearing and friction piles. In CC-95, End bearing driven piles are used with the help of chemical like bentonite and EPDM. Generally piles of 1m dia are used. Following are some of its specifications: Concrete-M35 13
  • 13. Coarse aggregate size should not exceed 20mm Slump-150 to 175mm for cast in-situ piles Minimum cement content shouldn’t be less than 400kg/m3 The items of work are: (i) Boring/drilling including provision of temporary casing (ii) Supplying, fabrication and placement of all reinforcing bars (iii) Casting of concrete piles as per specification. (iv) Load testing of piles Boring/excavation for pile The equipment for pile installation is listed below as: (i) Hydraulic rotary drilling rig (ii) Batching plant of min. 30 cm3 /hr capacity (iii) Transit mixers 4 to 6 cm3 capacity (iv) Tippers for muck disposal (v) Water tank (vi) Bentonite tank (vii) Tremmie pipes of minimum 200 mm dia and steel hopper/funnel for concreting (viii) Crane (ix) Rebar cutting and bending machine (x) Trailer/truck 14
  • 14. (xi) Power generator of suitable capacity The procedure of the pile installation is as follows: (i) Formation of bore holes-before doing so any identified structure and encroachments are removed (ii) Control alignment-the verticality of the bore is checked and maintained using plumb bob, spirit level and telescopic Kelly (iii) Rotary drilling method-is used for boring with the rig aligned to the impression (iv) Final post bore cleaning-after measuring the depth of the bore using sounding chain, the bore is cleaned with the muck being removed from it (v) Method & testing of bentonite-bentonite is used which doesn’t allows the bore to collapse. When it is used, flushing is done after lowering of inserting reinforcement cage & tremmie before starting of concreting with fresh bentonite slurry. However, the use of bentonite is reduced due to environmental factors (vi) Placement of reinforcement cage (vii) Pile concreting-tremmie pipe method is used & continuous concreting is done without interruption (viii) Pile cut-off and extension-shoring is used 75 percent of the total piles shall be tested for dynamic integrity test and remaining 25 percent to be tested for sonic integrity test. These tests are performed as per the codes and standards provided. Footing bed being prepared for the pile 15
  • 15. 2.6.3 Pile Cap It is a thick concrete mat that rest on group of piles which have been driven into soft or unstable ground to provide suitable stable foundation. M40 concrete is used for pile cap under CC-95. 2.7 Pier & Pier Cap Pier: A pier is a raised structure typically supported by well-spaced piles. In DMRC, piers are generally used to carry span, track and train load. They may be provided with circular, rectangle or semi-circle cross-section depending on their position and load-bearing requirements. In CC-95, piers are designed to carry span and the machine plus people load. They are rectangular in shape with mainly two sizes i.e., 1500mm * 1200mm and 1500mm * 1500mm. M40 concrete is used for the pier. Pier with shuttering 16
  • 16. Pier Cap: The upper or bearing part of the pier, made up of reinforced concrete designed to ensure uniform load distribution. In CC-95, pier cap having trapezoidal cross section were used. The dimensions are as follows: Width-2000mm to 2200mm Length-7400mm (cantilever), 4600mm (simply supported) Height-1200mm centre, 1070mm, 980mm and 520mm (on both sides) 10mm, 12mm, 20mm, 32mm TMT steel rods are used for reinforcement. 40mm, 50mm, 75mm cover are used. Pier and Pier cap installed The equipments used are as follows: (i) Total station (ii) Batching plant of 30cm3 /hr or 60cm3 /hr (iii) Transit mixer (iv) Air compressor 17
  • 17. (v) Chisel (vi) Crane (vii) Welding machine (viii) Electric vibrator (ix) Needle (x) Concrete as per drawing The procedure of pier is as follows: (i) Preparation and approval of BBS (ii) Cutting and bending of bars (iii) Transportation of bars (iv) Unloading of reinforcement (v) Marking of pier co-ordinates on foundation top (vi) Starter concrete (vii) Rebar tying in stages according to approved drawing (viii) Insertion of drainage pipe (ix) Formwork in stages The procedure for pier cap is as follows: (i) Cleaning of formwork and oiling (ii) Check the presence and positioning of any inserts bearing in pier head prior to concreting (iii) Tie the reinforcement as per BBS 18
  • 18. (iv) Place and fix forms (v) Placing of concrete (vi) Use of vibrator for compaction of concrete (vii) Strip the side formwork (viii) Wrap hessian cloth, keep moist, or curing compound Reinforcement cage for the pier cap 2.8 Segments Segments are precast single units of reinforced concrete which are combined together and prestressed to form span joining two piers. These are made in different sizes and shape depending according to the load being imposed. The segments are casted at a casting yard. After providing the segment with the required prestressing and shuttering, they are transported to the site and made ready for launching. 19
  • 19. 2.9 Launching of segments The segment is lifted with the help of the launching girder. The launching girder holds and aligns the segments. The segments are then locked manually. 2.9.1 Launching girder This is the biggest machine used at the site. It is used to lift and install the segments. Its components are: (i) Counter weight (ii) Sliding wheel (iii) Hangers (iv) Hoist beam (v) Steel frame Launching girder has four supports on which it rests on viaduct: (i) Front support It comprises of a top beam, a pair of top vertical legs, a pair of telescopic legs, a bottom beam and an anchor beam along with inserts. The load from LG is transferred through top vertical legs to the telescopic legs through pins. Telescopic legs bottom beam which is anchored to the pier to the anchor beam. Hydraulic jacks are provided for vertical adjustments of the legs. The front support is fixed at a distance of 2.5m from the rear end of the LG. (i) Middle support It is seated on the pier head segment. During erection of the segments most of the erection load is carried by the middle support. It consists of knuckle bearing provided at the top of the support below which cradle beams are provided. Anchor bars provided at the cross beams are directly anchored with segments. The holes provided in the segments for lifting itself will be used for anchoring also. Jacks are provided below a pair of supporting stool for vertical height adjustment. (ii) Rear support It is at par with that of the middle support. However due to less load coming on the rear support, the number of side beams provided are lesser than that of middle support. The rear support is placed on the completed deck on running segment. 20
  • 20. The rear support temporarily caries the load from LG when middle support is shifted to the next span of LG hauling. (iii) Rear trolley It is located at the fixed distance of 4.4m from the rear end of the LG. The Top beam is supported by inclined column members which in turn are supported on a bottom beam which is connected to assembly, which runs on the rail track already laid on the erected deck. Anchor bolts are provided to anchors the trolley with the segment while erection. The hole provided in the segment for lifting itself will be used for anchoring. Assembling of Launching Girder (i) Connect the long stroke push pull horizontal jacks to the front side of the LG. (ii) The front side of the launching arrangement shall be locked to the LG using bolts & through the mono rails provided at the center at the bottom flange. (iii) The bolts in the rear side plate shall be removed and now open the jacks to 1000mm stroke. The LG moves by 1000mm. (iv) Fasten the bolts in the rear side plate and remove the bolts from the front side plates. Bring back the jack in the original position. (v) The stroke length of the horizontal jack can be reduced and the LG movement shall be adjusted using the closely spaced bolts provided on the rear side of the LG as the LG approaches the next pier. 2.9.2 Span erection The segments casted in the casting yard are transported to the site with the help of trucks/trailers. Then they are lifted and aligned with the help of LG. Many precautions have to be taken while the lifting takes place. Auto launching i.e., the movement of the front support of the LG to the pedestal of the next pillar is done. It is a very tedious and time consuming process, as it only takes 6-7 hours to move the front support to the next pier. 21
  • 21. 2.9.3 Prestressing The segments are designed with prestressed concrete. Calibrated jacks, pumps, tendons and grouting equipment are required. The procedure is as follows: (i) Duct profiling in segments in casting yard- At the casting yard while the segment is being casted, HDPE sheathing pipes are cut as per the GFC drawings and are inserted in the segments with fixing of snchor cones using suitable PVC or masking tapes. Rubber connectors are used with the sheathing segments. (ii) Segment erection-The segments are erected as per the detailed specifications and orientation. Necessary care has to be taken so that the glue doesn’t enter inside the ducts causing blockage. (iii) Cable fabrication and Threading- Cable/thread of the correct size in the correct number should be installed in the ducts. Before that the cables should be checked of any coiling and should be made clean using cloth. (iv) Stressing operation- The role of jacks comes here. Hanging arrangement should be made for the jacks and only professional should be allowed to handle the jacks. The jacks should be properly calibrated. The work should be efficient following a particular procedure and calculations 22
  • 22. (v) Grouting operation-Grouting shall be carried out as early as possible but preferably within 2 weeks of stressing a tendon. Grouting should be done in a fixed manner and it should be ensured that any unwanted substances are cut off using abrasive cutter and ducts should be free from oil. Grouting should be done until the grout falls out from the other side of the duct to ensure no blockage between the duct All this work should be according to the guidelines specified and high amount of precautions should be followed. 2.10 Finishing works The finishing work includes waterproofing, cleaning, covering up the ground, polishing and beautification. This also includes the safety of the viaduct designed and done in the presence of both the contactor and engineer (DMRC) along with the safety experts. Before opening the viaduct to the public, the contractor shall clear the site from the site and if there is something that the contractor hadn’t done, they should do it within the Defect liability period 23
  • 23. CONCLUSION In my internship of one month, I got a lot of theoretical and practical knowledge. I got to know the different procedures required for a civil project from paperwork to finishing. I understood the roles of each and every person and the use of machines. I also perceived that safety of individuals come first than anything else. Also, only skilled professional should be allowed to handle machinery and construction site is not a playground, each and every element is important. Through my internship period, I was able to visualize the things that I read from the books and contracts made available to me. 24