Bridges and Elevated Structures OPerations and Maintenanace Best Practices


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This presentation describes some ideas and issues related to operations and maintenance of bridges, elevated structures and flyovers.

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  • The World’s Second Largest Toll Plaza - 90 Readers, Melbourne City Link, Australia >250K (Free Flow Tolling Only) 32 Lanes, Delhi Gurgaon Km 24 Toll Plaza, India >150K 27 Lanes, Dartford River Crossing, United Kingdom >150K 26 Lanes, Sungai Besi Toll Plaza, Kuala Lumpur >140K 22 Lanes, Western Harbour Tunnel, Hong Kong >100K
  • Bridges and Elevated Structures OPerations and Maintenanace Best Practices

    1. 1. Delhi Gurgaon Expressway India’s largest Access-Controlled Expressway in an Urban Environment
    2. 2. Background… <ul><li>Part of the Golden Quadrilateral connecting Delhi & Mumbai and an important link between the NCT of Delhi and the industrial / residential town of Gurgaon, the section of NH-8 was and is one of the busiest corridors carrying more than 500,000 Vehicles per day </li></ul><ul><li>DPR Study initiated by M/s. RITES Ltd in June 1997 was submitted in June 2000 for section of NH-8 from Km 15.400 to Km 36.630 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However in order to make the project financially viable, stretch from Km 36.000 to Km 42.000 (already under 4-laning) was added in September 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final DPR was approved in October 2001 with a final Project Length of 27.70 Kms (Km 14.300 to Km 42.000) including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8-Laning of 22.33 Kms (Km 14.300 to Km 36.630) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-Laning of 5.37 Kms (Km 36.630 to Km 42.000) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. … Background <ul><li>Upgradation of a section of NH-8 from Km 14.300 (Delhi) to Km 42.000 (Gurgaon), a distance of 27.7 Kms including establishing vital links with Domestic & International Airports and with the Gurgaon CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Km 14.300-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Km 42.000 </li></ul>VIP Route Commuter’s Realm Tourist Paradise
    4. 4. Salient Features of the Development <ul><li>State-of-the-Art tolling technology, equipment & design </li></ul><ul><li>32-lanes at the Border (Km-24) Toll plaza, making it one of the world’s longest toll plaza </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic signal free access to Domestic & International Airports and Gurgaon CBD </li></ul><ul><li>World class commuter convenience in terms of toll payment and recharge options including Rapid Smart Tag adoption rates </li></ul><ul><li>24 x 7 x 365 deployment of high safety standards </li></ul><ul><li>All this leading to a memorable driving experience with low stoppage times </li></ul>
    5. 5. Enhancing Commuter Experience: Toll Operations… <ul><li>Total Lanes  60 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IGI Toll Plaza  6 Lanes (ADT >5,000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Km24 Toll Plaza  36 Lanes (ADT >1,90,000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Km42 Toll Plaza  18 Lanes (ADT >60,000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Tag Lanes  29 </li></ul><ul><li>Total tags sold  90,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Highest Traffic Density in India  >10,000 / hr in morning peak </li></ul><ul><li>Varied Mobile / Cash / Credit Card Payment & Re-charge options </li></ul><ul><li>Service times constantly improving over period with better driver discipline and driver awareness and training of staff </li></ul>
    6. 6. … Enhancing Commuter Experience: Safety… <ul><li>Bright lighting (1,470 lighting poles, average 40 lux brightness) </li></ul><ul><li>24 x 7 x 365 safety deployment with over 500 trained traffic marshals on ground </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time camera surveillance, lane segregation & round the clock patrolling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 motorbikes, 4 jeeps, 3 recovery vans, 2 ambulances, 3 recovery cranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 1400 cautionary and mandatory signage's and messaging </li></ul><ul><li>4 Subways & 4 pedestrian over bridges already constructed; 3 more under construction </li></ul><ul><li>Fencing all across the median; no trespassing </li></ul>
    8. 8. Benefits… <ul><li>Reduction in travel time and resulting travel cost between Delhi & Gurgaon </li></ul><ul><li>Easy and uninterrupted access to and from the International Airport, enhancing the security of VIPs traveling to and from airport </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in accident rates with enhancement in traffic comforts and travel speed </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in traffic congestion and risks of environmental hazards </li></ul><ul><li>The journey between Delhi & Gurgaon uninterrupted without any traffic signals at crossings </li></ul>
    9. 9. … Benefits <ul><li>Service roads catering to the local traffic without interfering with the long distance through traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to the local business establishments provided through service roads. </li></ul><ul><li>The improved road provides quick access for emergency vehicles (Ambulance, police etc.) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Challenges … <ul><li>Land Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to restricted corridor land acquisition was required at almost all major junction and Toll Plaza Locations belonging to private and/or government bodies such as, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defence Forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haryana Tourism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AAI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HUDA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IFFCO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Clearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree Cutting Permission from Delhi & Haryana Governments was big challenge and took lot of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearances required to set up various plants for construction work i.e. Hot Mix Plant, Crushers etc. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. … Challenges… <ul><li>Shifting of Utilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical Lines (LT/ HT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pipe lines 300mm to 1200mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Trunk Sewer lines in Haryana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Pipe Line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowing drains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OFC Ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting of Utilities Required interactions & co-ordination with various agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BSES / MES / HUDA / GAIL / IGL / Delhi MCD / DHVNL… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance / DoT / Airtel… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Traffic Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest challenge was to keep the traffic (  200,000 vehicles / day) moving during construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-ordination with Delhi & Haryana Traffic Police Departments for opening of each diversion </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. … Challenges… <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval of various designs at intersections required numerous interactions with various administrative authorities of the States of Delhi & Haryana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During interactions with such authorities certain improvements were suggested, which were found essential / inescapable, keeping in view the master plans of both the states, which led to various modifications to Design DPR prepared by RITES, these were issued as Change of Scope Notices / Order to the Concessionaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting Effect: 7 out of the 9 structures were altered such as, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 (1.8 Km) flyover at RTR Marg & Palam Junctions with up ramp access from Vasant Vihar & traffic signal free access to Domestic Airport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up-ramp for traffic from IGI Airport (International Terminal) to Delhi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interchange at Kapashera for access to Dwarka Phase – II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in Viaduct length of Flyovers at Udyog Vihar & IFFCO Junctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in span size and vertical Clearance at South City Junction… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. … Challenges: The Impact <ul><li>Procedural issues like seeking approvals / permissions from numerous agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land from AAI obtained only after the intervention of Cabinet Secretary, GoI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land for toll plazas at Km 24 & Km 42 after several rounds of discussions with State Government of Haryana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kapashera Interchange is yet to be approved by DDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of sewer line to be shifted by HUDA are yet to be finalized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change of Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in construction time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional structures also disturbed original construction plans, resource mobilization, arrangement for financing. etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional works also involved acquisition of additional land & shifting of yet more utilities </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Operators should ideally be involved from the design stage, keeping in mind the long-life nature of structures: this permits to define along with the Operator acceptable solutions for design improvement: e.g. optimized structure w.r.t. maintenance activities. Example: A40 – France … O&M practices: maintenance Innovative “X” structure to save structural costs shall be contemplated in the light of O&M requirements
    15. 15. <ul><li>Bridges and similar structures need specific attention: </li></ul><ul><li>Regular inspection & maintenance of structural elements needs to be done scrupulously </li></ul><ul><li>NPV of day-to-day tasks is far below the NPV of major repairs triggered by lack of maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>records need to be archived and analyzed </li></ul>… O&M practices: maintenance Too late to maintain, too late to repair…
    16. 16. … O&M practices: maintenance Specialized software for structures enable decision makers to plan, specify, archive inspections of structures e.g. EGIS (Fr) software “LAGO”
    17. 17. … O&M practices: maintenance The software permits to plan inspections, to classify defaults & to assess the evolutions of defaults, then to prioritize actions through various scenarios. EGIS (Fr) software “LAGO”
    18. 18. … O&M practices: maintenance Unlike other O&M activities, maintenance of bridges requires a continuous expert analysis of defects: some have no impact, others may hide critical developments… Are we able to classify, “read” & prioritize defaults ?
    19. 19. … O&M practices: maintenance Item Issue at stake / maintenance task Expansion joints Variations of temperature can adversly affect the structure  Regular cleaning Bearings Smooth movements are necessary:  Regular measurement; replacement; Steel structure <ul><li>Corrosion is not always visible </li></ul><ul><li>Drying systems (closed bridges) </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement and anti-corrosion treatment </li></ul><ul><li>@design stages: protected steel bars </li></ul>Dewatering of abutments <ul><li>The structure environment needs to properly handle massive rains </li></ul><ul><li>Planting and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Dewatering channels </li></ul>
    20. 20. … O&M practices: maintenance (cont.) O&M of bridges and structures requires specialized expertise & a long-term approach Item Issue at stake / maintenance task Pillars Concrete is not passive: cracks are normal  Evolution of cracks reveal the interior of concrete structures Etc.
    21. 21. … O&M practices: maintenance (cont.) Short span: no dilatation joint (bridge over Indian Railways) long span: dilatation joint (bridge over river – India)
    22. 22. … O&M practices: maintenance (cont.) <ul><li>Illustration (Indian context): the cleaning of expansion joints & checking of bearing are essential due to: </li></ul><ul><li>traffic </li></ul><ul><li>sand / dust </li></ul><ul><li>high variations of temperatures </li></ul>Accumulated sand on bridge abutment & bearings
    23. 23. … O&M practices: maintenance (cont.) <ul><li>Rules of Thumb: for bridges </li></ul><ul><li>inspect frequently </li></ul><ul><li>record, archive and analyze defaults / evolution </li></ul><ul><li>perform routine maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>take pro active maintenance steps </li></ul>
    24. 24. … O&M practices: Toll Bridges do not often provide space for toll plazas. Freeflow is particularly fit for purpose Free flow toll project CANADA Golden Ears
    25. 25. … O&M practices: Toll (cont.) By nature, bridges give access to “the other side”, thus can be tolled in one direction only Lisbon (PT) One way tolling of all bridges
    26. 26. … O&M practices: Traffic Management <ul><li>Bridges are critical elements of a network: </li></ul><ul><li>limited number of lanes </li></ul><ul><li>more frequent intervention for maintenance requires more lane closure </li></ul><ul><li>there is often no alternative route to bridges </li></ul><ul><li> Traffic management is critical </li></ul>
    27. 27. … O&M practices: example <ul><li>France A28 (O&M by EGIS): </li></ul><ul><li>highway is 2 x 2 lanes, but </li></ul><ul><li>the bridge is 2x1 lane </li></ul><ul><li> Thus a focused management of traffic </li></ul>A28 France
    28. 28. Thank You!