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A Major Project on
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by SugarBagasseAsh and Rice Husk
Ash
Submitted to
RAJIV GANDHI TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL (M.P)
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of
BACHELOR IN ENGINEERING
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
Submitted by
Shubham Bhargava
Under the Guidance of
Mr. Alok Rarotiya
Asst. Prof. (Civil Department)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
MEDI-CAPS ISTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PIGDAMBER RAU, INDORE-453331
MAY - 2019
Department of Civil Engineering
Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology
Indore (M.P)
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
2
RECOMMENDATION
It is recommended that the major project entitled "Comparative Study on Soil
Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash", submitted by Shubham
Bhargava may be accepted as the requirement for the award of bachelor degree in
Civil Engineering in year 2017-18.
Mr. Alok Rarotiya Dr. Rajeev Kumar
Assistant Professor Professorand Head
of Department
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
3
Department of Civil Engineering
Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology
Indore (M.P)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The most awaited moment of successful completion of an endeavor is always a
result of persons involved implicitly or explicitly in it. The successful completion
of the planning and research phases of our project is the result of dedicated efforts
put in by many people and this report would be incomplete without giving due
credits to them. This acknowledgment is but a token of gratitude in recognition of
their help in our endeavor.
We sincerely thank our project guide and project coordinator Mr. Alok Rarotiya
for providing us the solutions that always take us out from all the chaos. It had
been an honor and pleasure to work under him. Not just the technical knowledge
but a lot we have learnt from his calm and composed attitude for which we will
remain indebted to sir throughout our life. We would like to give our sincere
thanks to Dr. Rajiv Kumar Sir, HOD of Civil Engineering Department and all the
faculties from whom we have learnt a lot. Last but not the least, we would like to
thank our colleagues, friends and our parents who were a constant and willing
sourceof encouragement and inspiration for us throughout the project.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
4
Department of Civil Engineering
Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology
Indore (M.P)
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
This is to certify that the project entitled - "Comparative Study on Soil
Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash" submitted by Shubham
Bhargava has been carried out under my supervision in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor in Engineering in Civil
Engineering at Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology Indore and this work
has not been submitted elsewhere to the best of my knowledge.
Name of Student Guide
Shubham Bhargava Mr. Alok Rarotiya
Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology
Indore (M.P)
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
5
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled - "Comparative Study on Soil
Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash" submitted by Shubham
Bhargava has been examined and cross-checked for the partial fulfillment for the
award of degree by Rajeev Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P),
of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering at Medi-Caps Institute of Science
& Technology, Indore.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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INDEX
Contents Page No.
1. Abstract 8
2. Introduction
2.1. Soil Stabilization
2.2. Types OfSoil Stabilization
2.2.1. Mechanical Stabilization
2.2.2. Chemical Stabilization
2.3. Stabilization Methods
2.3.1. In-Situ Stabilization
2.3.2. Ex-Situ Stabilization
2.4. Scope And Objectives
10
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
3. Literature Review
3.1. Literature – 1
3.2. Literature – 2
3.3. Literature – 3
3.4. Literature – 4
3.5. Literature - 5
14
15
16
17
18
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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4. Soil Testing
4.1. Standard Proctor Test
4.2. Liquid Limit
4.3. Plastic Limit
4.4. California Bearing Ratio
19
20
25
28
30
5. Results 36
6. Advantages Of Sugar Bagasse Ash
And Rice Husk Ash
37
7. Disadvantages of Sugar Bagasse
Ash and Rice Husk Ash
38
8. Conclusion 39
9. Bibliography 40
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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Abstract
India has a total road network of about 4.7million kilometers. 53 percent of the total road
network is paved. The budgeted amount spent over roads is Rs.14, 90,925 Crore. The durability
and serviceability of pavements depend mainly on strength of sub grade, which can be enhanced
by ground improvement techniques. The field of ground improvement by the use of waste rice
husk ash for this purpose. India is one of the world's largest producers of rice. In India the soil
mostly present is Clay, in which the construction of sub grade is problematic. In recent times the
demands for sub grade materials has increased due to increased constructional activities in the
road sector and due to paucity of available nearby lands to allow excavate fill materials for
making sub grade. In this situation, a means to overcome this problem is to utilize the different
alternative generated waste materials, which cause not only environmental hazards and also the
depositional problems. Keeping this in view stabilization of weak soil in situ may be done with
suitable admixtures to save the construction cost considerably.
Also, due to the large production of agricultural wastes, the world is facing a serious problem of
its handling and disposal. The disposal of agricultural wastes has a potential negative impact on
the environment causing air pollution, water pollution and finally affecting the local ecosystems.
So it is mandatory to make these agricultural wastes eco- friendly. By using them as soil
stabilizers, these agricultural wastes improve the strength of soil and its characteristics without
causing any harm to the environment. The objective of this study is to upgrade soil as a
construction material using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Sugar Bagasse Ash (SBA) which is a
waste material. The cost of construction of stabilized road have been keeping financially high
due to the over dependency on the utilization of industrially manufactured soil improving
additives (cement, lime etc.). By using the agricultural waste the cost of construction will be
considerably reduced as well reducing the environmental hazards they cause.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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Silica produced from Rice Husk Ash and Sugar Bagasse Ash have investigated successfully as a
pozzolanic material in soil stabilization. Due to various construction development projects
undertaken all over the world there is a potential to use waste materials like Rice Husk and Sugar
Bagasse which create disposal problems. Rice husk waste is produced in large quantity in rice
husk mills and is disposed in open land. Therefore use of rice husk in foundation of buildings
and in road constructions to improve bearing capacity of soil and to reduce the area of open land
needed for its disposal and to preserve environment through resource conservation.
The performance of the soil-RHA and soil-SBA was investigated with respect to Standard
Proctor Test, Liquid Limit Test, Plastic Limit Test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test. The
results obtained, indicates a considerable decrease in the maximum dry density (MDD), an
increase in optimum moisture content (OMC) and a superficial improvement in the CBR with the
increase in the RHA and SBA content.
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Introduction
Black cotton soil causes many problems to road constructed on it. About 20% of the soil found in
India is expansive in nature. Roads on black cotton soils are known for bad condition. In rainy
season black cotton soil absorbs water heavily which results into swelling and softening of soil.
In addition to this it also loses its strength and becomes easily compressible.
According to Geo technology, soil improvement can either be by modification or by
stabilization, or by both. Soil modification is the process of addition of a modifier (cement, lime,
etc.) to the soil to change its index properties, while soil stabilization is the treatment of soils to
increase their strength and durability so that they are suitable for construction beyond their
original classification. In most of the situations, soils in natural state do not possess proper
geotechnical properties to be used as road service layers, foundation layers and as a construction
material. In order to make them useful and meet the requirements of geotechnical engineering
design, researchers have concentrated more on the use of cost effective materials that are
available locally from industrial and agricultural wastes in order to increase the properties of
deficient soils and also to reduce the cost of construction. Due to the large production of
agricultural wastes, the world is facing a serious problem of its handling and disposal. The
disposal of agricultural wastes has a potential negative impact on the environment causing air
pollution, water pollution and finally affecting the local ecosystems. Hence the secure disposition
of agricultural wastes has become a challenging task for engineers. The main aim of the study is
to investigate the use of Rice Husk Ash and Sugar Bagasse Ash which is an agricultural waste to
stabilize the weak sub grade soil. This hitherto have continued to impede the poor and
underdeveloped nations of the world from providing accessible roads to their rural inhabitants
who contribute to the major percentage of their population and are mostly, agriculturally
dependent. Thus by using the agricultural waste the cost of construction will be considerably
reduced as well reducing the environmental hazards they cause. It has been identified that
Portland cement, with respect to its chemistry, produces large amounts of CO2 for each ton of its
final product. Hence by replacing proportions of the Portland cement with a secondary
cementations material like RHA and SBA in soil stabilization will reduce the overall negative
environmental impact of the stabilization process.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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2.1 Soil Stabilization:
Soil stabilization is the process of improving its geotechnical properties of soil. Soil stabilization
involves the use of stabilizing agents (binder materials) in weak soils to improve its geotechnical
properties such as compressibility, strength, permeability and durability. The components of
stabilization technology include soils and or soil minerals and stabilizing agent or binders, soil
stabilization aims at improving soil strength and increasing resistance to softening by water
through bonding the soil particles together.
2.2 Types of SoilStabilization:
The Types can be achieved in two ways, namely:
2.2.1 Mechanicalstabilization
Under this category, soil stabilization can be achieved through physical process by altering the
physical nature of native soil particles by either induced vibration or compaction or by
incorporating other physical properties such as barriers and nailing. Mechanical stabilization is not
the main subject.
2.2.2 Chemical stabilization
Under this category, soil stabilization depends mainly on chemical reactions between
stabilizer (cementations material) and soil minerals (puzzolanic materials) to achieve the
desired effect. A chemical stabilization method is the fundamental of this review and,
therefore, throughout the rest of this report, the term soil stabilization will mean chemical
stabilization.
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2.3 Stabilization Methods:
The method can be achieved in two ways, namely:
2.3.1 In–Situ Stabilization
The method involves on site soil improvement by applying stabilizing agent without removing
the bulk soil. This technology offer benefit of improving soils for deep foundations, shallow
foundations and contaminated sites. Planning of the design mix involves the selection and
assessment of engineering properties of stabilized soil and improved ground. The purpose is to
determine the dimensions of improved ground on the basis of appropriate stability and settlement
analyses to satisfy the functional requirements of the supported structure (Keller Inc.). The
technology can be accomplished by injection into soils a cementations material such cement and
lime in dry or wet forms. The choice to either use dry or wet deep mixing methods depend
among other things; the in-situ soil conditions, in situ moisture contents, effectiveness of binders
to be used, and the nature of construction to be founded. Depending on the depth of treatment,
the in situ stabilization may be regarded as either deep mixing method or mass stabilization.
2.3.2 Ex-Situ Stabilization
The technology involves dislodging of the soils and or sediments from the original position and
moves to other place for the purpose of amendment. These can be encountered in dredging of
river channel and Ports. The main objectives of dredging can be either for amending the
contaminated sediments to reduce toxicity and mobility or to maintain or deepen navigation
channels for the safe passage of ships and boats. Offsite treatment of the sediment can be done in
confined disposal facilities (CDF) and then be used or disposed at designated site. Method of
removal, means of transportation, availability of treatment location, disposal site or demand for
reuse is key factors to consider when planning for ex-situ stabilization Treatment of sediments in
CDF falls under ex-situ mass stabilization method, which can be accomplished in several ways
depending on natural of sediments and water contents.
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2.4 Scope and Objectives:
This study was oriented towards improving the strength of soil by using locally available
agricultural wastes to reduce the construction cost. The different stabilizing agents are used Rice
Husk Ash (RHA) and Sugar Bagasse Ash (SBA). The present study was undertaken with the
following objectives:
 To explore the possibility of using rural waste materials like RHA and SBA, in soil
stabilization.
 To investigate the physical and engineering properties of natural soil and stabilized soil
by adding 7%, 9% and 11% of ash in soil.
 To analyze which is better option for stabilizing black cotton soil among Sugar Bagasse
Ash (SBA) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA).
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature - 1
Expansive Soil Stabilization Using Waste From Sugar Industry
C.Subhacini, M.Ranhitha, S.Dhanapal, K.Arun Prakash, K.Umashankar
Introduction:
In this research paper, soil stabilization is done by using agricultural waste i.e. sugarcane bagasse
ash. The aim of this research paper is to make economic and to maintain the environmental
balance for the ash disposal. Different percentages of sugar bagasse ash i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%,
and10% were used to stabilize the soil. The effect of adding sugar bagasse ash (with some
admixture like lime/cement) on the properties of black cotton soil was investigated by
conducting various tests like consistency limits, standard proctor and California bearing ratio
(CBR) test. And these test results are compared with the results of black cotton soil. After this
tests, following conclusions were made.
Conclusions:
 The use of baggase ash slightly improves the properties of expansive soil, therefore it can
be used as replacement in black cotton soil up to certain limits.
 The addition of 6% bagasse ash has shown satisfactorily result. The density increases and
also the OMC increases.
 There is also increment in CBR values and hence reduction in settlement.
 The UCS value also got increased.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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Literature – 2
Black Cotton Soil Stabilization Using Bagasse Ash And Lime
Amruta P. Kulkarni, Mithun. K. Sawant, Vaishnavi V. Battul, Mahesh S.
Shindepatil, Aavani P.
Introduction:
The aim of this journal or review is to enhance the engineering properties of black cotton soil by
use of Bagasse ash and lime as an admixture. In this study test results of various soil samples are
compared which includes normal black cotton soil sample and black cotton soil mixed with
varying percentages of Bagasse ash and lime. The various test performed on these samples are
liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, Differential free swell test, Standard Proctor
Compaction Test, optimum moisture content, maximum dry density and California Bearing
Ratio (CBR test). These tests were performed on normal BCS sample & soil containing Bagasse
and lime in varying percentage [BA: L (1:4), BA: L (2:3), BA: L (3; 2), BA: L (4:1)].
Conclusions:
 After stabilization of soil with mixture of Bagasse ash &lime there was remarkable
decrease in Plasticity index.
 In Differential Swell Test, after stabilization the swelling index witnessed remarkable
reduction i.e. swelling potential was reduced to considerable limits.
 From the test results, it was found that with increase in proportion of lime the Plasticity
index reduces whereas with increase in addition of Bagasse ash, Plasticity index
increases.
 It can be clearly seen that Plasticity index decreases with increase in lime percentage.
 From the test results and observations, the most suitable and best proportion for
stabilization of BCS was found to be 2:3 of Bagasse ash: Lime.
 When optimum ratio of Bagasse ash: Lime was used, CBR value shown remarkable
increase and the results obtained were excellent.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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Literature - 3
Stabilization Of Soil By Using Agricultural Waste
T. Kishore Kumar, C.H Shivarma, Surya Teja, U.J Santosh Kumar
Introduction:
In this literature review soil stabilization is done with the use of rice husk and sugarcane straw
ash as an admixture. The study is done by varying the percentage of rice husk used for improving
the properties of soil. In this literature review it is planned to add admixture at the dosage of 2%,
4%6%, 8% by the weight of soil and the engineering and index properties of soil is compared
with the properties of normal soil. The materials used in this literature review are lateritic soil,
rice husk, sugarcane straw ash. The various tests performed are liquid limit, plastic limit,
plasticity index, optimum moisture content and MDD. These various tests are performed on
normal soil and the soil containing rice husk and sugarcane straw ash.
Conclusion: -
 By comparing the normal soil with the rice husk soil and sugercane straw ash soil it is
found that the properties of soil is improved by the addition of both agricultural waste
 When rice husk is added by varying its percentage in the soil the liquid limit, plastic
limit, plasticity index, optimum moisture content increases by increasing the percentage
of rice husk. The best results are found when rice husk added by 6 % the weight of soil.
 When sugarcane straw ash is added by varying its percentage in the soil the liquid limit,
plastic limit, plasticity index, optimum moisture content and MDD increases by
increasing the percentage of sugarcane straw ash. The best results are found when
sugarcane straw ash is added 4% by the weight of soil.
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Literature - 4
Potential Of Rice Husk For Soil Stabilization
Divyateja Sarapu
Introduction:
In India, there is large production of agricultural waste every year. And hence their disposal
creates a negative impact on the environment. So there is need to make these agricultural waste
environment friendly. In this paper, Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is taken into account. The rice husk
ash is used as soil stabilizer, which upgrades the properties of soil. By using rice husk ash for
stabilization, the cost of construction as well as the environmental hazards is reduced. Rice husk
ash is a pozzolanic material as it contains about 85-90% of silica. So it can be used as soil
stabilizer. Adding different percentages of RHA in soil and various test like particle size
distribution made the samples, compaction, California Bearing Ratio, Atterberg limits and
unconfined compressive strength were carried out. Also the optimum moisture content and
maximum dry density are also determined and according to the values obtained, samples are
prepared and the results are compared with natural soil properties.
Conclusion:
 After the study, it was concluded that rice husk ash can be used for stabilizing soil. But if
it is used with lime or cement than it may give better result.
 When the soil is treated with rice husk ash, then there is gradual decrease in the
maximum dry density and a increase in the optimum moisture content.
 At 6% addition of rice husk, there is improvement in unsoaked as well as soaked CBR.
 At 6% addition of rice husk , peak values of UCS are obtained.
 Addition of rice husk also improves the plasticity index and the reduce the swelling
potential.
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Literature - 5
Soil Stabilization Using Rice Husk
Prof. Mahadev M, Dr. D L Venkatesh Babu, Sharmila H C
Introduction:
In this literature review soil stabilization is done by the use of rice husk ash (RHA). The paper
therefore takes the review of use of rice husk ash on the engineering and index properties of soil.
The various test performed on both normal soil and mixture of soil and rice husk ash. The effect
on the properties of soil is studied by varying the percentage of rice husk ash by the weight of
soil. The different percentages of rice husk ash are 10% 20 % and a small amount of additives is
also added such as lime and gypsum. The various tests, which are performed in this paper, are
Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content, California Bearing Ratio (soaked and
unsoaked).
Conclusion:
 Increasing the percentage of RHA give decrease in MDD.
 OMC is increased by increasing the percentage of RHA in soil.
 CBR test results are also positive for the soil containing RHA.
 For maximum improvement in soil strength stabilization using 10% RHA and 6 % of
cement is recommended for practical purpose.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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SOIL TESTING
After a comprehensive analysis of the research papers above we finalized and performed the
following tests with various variations and the comparative study has been presented:
 The Proctor test was performed for determining Optimum Moisture Content and
Maximum Dry Density
o 5 samples for plain soil
o 5 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11
%
o 5 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%
 Liquid Limit
o 4 samples for plain soil
o 4 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11
%
o 4 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%
 Plastic Limit
o 2 samples for plain soil
o 2 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11
%
o 2 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%
 California Bearing Ratio
o 1 samples for plain soil
o 1 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11
%
o 1 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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4.1 STANDARD PROCTOR TEST
Objective:
To determine optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of given soil.
Needand Scope:
Compaction is the process of densification of soil by reducing air voids. The degree of
compaction of a given soil is measured in terms of its dry density. The dry density is maximum
at the optimum water content. A curve is drawn between the water content and the dry density to
obtain the maximum dry density and the optimum water content.
Dry density of soil:
Where M = total mass of the soil, V= volume of soil, w= water content.
Equipment’s for Proctor’s Testfor Compactionof Soil:
 Compaction mould, capacity 1000ml.
 Rammer, mass 2.6 kg
 Detachable base plate
 Collar, 60mm high
 IS sieve, 4.75 mm
 Oven
 Desiccators
 Weighing balance, accuracy 1g
 Large mixing pan
 Straight edge
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 Spatula
 Graduated jar
 Mixing tools, spoons, trowels, etc.
Procedure:
 Take about 20kg of air-dried soil. Sieve it through 20mm and 4.7mm sieve.
 Calculate the percentage retained on 20mm sieve and 4.75mm sieve, and the percentage
passing 4.75mm sieve.
 If the percentage retained on 4.75mm sieve is greater than 20, use the large mould of
150mm diameter. If it is less than 20%, the standard mould of 100mm diameter can be
used. The following procedure is for the standard mould.
 Mix the soil retained on 4.75mm sieve and that passing 4.75mm sieve in proportions
determined in step (2) to obtain about 16 to 18 kg of soil specimen.
 Clean and dry the mould and the base plate. Grease them lightly.
 Weigh the mould with the base plate to the nearest 1 gram.
 Take about 16 – 18 kg of soil specimen. Add water to it to bring the water content to
about 4% if the soil is sandy and to about 8% if the soil is clayey.
 Keep the soil in an air-tight container for about 18 to 20 hours for maturing. Mix the soil
thoroughly. Divide the processed soil into 6 to 8 parts.
 Attach the collar to the mould. Place the mould on a solid base.
 Take about 2.5kg of the processed soil, and hence place it in the mould in 3 equal layers.
Take about one-third the quantity first, and compact it by giving 25 blows of the rammer.
The blows should be uniformly distributed over the surface of each layer.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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 The top surface of the first layer is scratched with spatula before placing the second layer.
The second layer should also be compacted by 25 blows of rammer. Likewise, place the
third layer and compact it.
 The amount of the soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mould ad leaving about 5
mm above the top of the mould to be struck off when the collar is removed.
 Remove the collar and trim off the excess soil projecting above the mould using a
straight edge.
 Clean the base plate and the mould from outside. Weigh it to the nearest gram.
 Remove the soil from the mould. The soil may also be ejected out.
 Take the soil samples for the water content determination from the top, middle and
bottom portions. Determine the water content.
 Add about 3% of the water to a fresh portion of the processed soil, and repeat the steps 10
to 14.
Result:
Optimum Moisture Content
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
At 7% At 9% At 11%
Sugar Bagasse Ash
Normal
Rice Husk Ash
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There is an increase of 23.18 % and 29.57 % in OMC by adding 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash
and Rice Husk Ash respectively.
Maximum Dry Density(KN/m3)
There is an decrease of 3.3 % and 1.96 %in MDD by adding 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and
Rice Husk Ash respectively.
Compaction Apparatus
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
At 7% At 9% At 11%
Sugar Bagasse Ash
Normal
Rice Husk Ash
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
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Greasing of the Standard Proctor mould
Weighing of sample
4.2 LIQUID LIMIT
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The liquid limit of a soil is the water content at which the soil behaves practically like a liquid,
but has small shear strength. It flows to close the groove in just 25 blows in Casagrande’s liquid
limit device.
As it is difficult to get exactly 25 blows in a test, 3 to 4 tests are conducted and the number of
blows (N) required in each test is determined. A semi-log plot is then drawn between log N and
the water content (w). The liquid limit is the water content corresponding to N=25, as obtained
from the plot.
Equipment for Liquid Limit Teston Soil:
 Casagrande’s liquid limit device
 Grooving tools of both standard and ASTM types
 Oven
 Evaporating dish or glass sheet
 Spatula
 425 micron IS sieve
 Weighing balance accuracy 0.01g.
 Wash bottle.
Procedure of Liquid Limit Teston Soil:
 Adjust the drop of the cup of the liquid limit device by releasing the two screws at the top
and by using the handle of the grooving tool or a gauge. The drop should be exactly 1 cm
at the point of contact on the base. Tighten the screw after adjustment.
 Take about 120g of the air-dried soil sample passing 425 micron IS sieve.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
26
 Mix the sample thoroughly with distilled water in an evaporating dish or a glass plate to
form a uniform paste. Mixing should be continued for about 15 to 30 min, till a uniform
mix is obtained.
 Keep the mix under humid conditions for obtaining uniform moisture distribution for
sufficient period. For some fat clays. This maturing time may be upto 24 hours.
 Take a portion of the matured paste and remix it thoroughly. Place it in the cup of the
device by a spatula and level it by a spatula or a straight edge to have a minimum depth
of the soil as 1cm at the point of the maximum thickness. The excess soil, if any should
be transferred to the evaporating dish.
 Cut a groove in the sample in the cup by using the appropriate tool. Draw the grooving
tool through the paste in the cup along the symmetrical axis, along the diameter through
the centre line of the cup. Hold the tool perpendicular to the cup.
 Turn the handle of the device at a rate of 2 revolutions per second. Count the number of
blows until the two halves of the soil specimen come in contact at the bottom of the
groove along a distance of 12mm due to flow and not by sliding.
 Collect a representative sample of the soil by moving spatula width-wise from one edge
to the other edge of the soil cake at right angles to the groove. This should include the
portion of the groove in which the soil flowed to close the groove.
 Remove the remaining soil from the cup. Mix it with the soil left in evaporating dish.
 Change the water content of the mix in the evaporating dish either by adding more water
if the water content is to be increased or by kneading the soil, if the water content is to be
decreased. In no case the dry soil should be added to reduce the water content.
 Repeat the steps 4 to 10 and determine the number of blows (N) and the water content in
each case.
 Draw the flow curve between log N and w, and determine the liquid limit corresponding
to N=2
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
27
Result:
Liquid Limit was found out for all the seven specimens. A fall of 8% and 5.9% in liquid limit is
observed by addinng 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively.
Sample after testing Performing Liquid Limit Test
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
At 7% At 9% At 11%
Sugar Bagasse Ash
Normal
Rice Husk Ash
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
28
4.3 PLASTIC LIMIT
The plastic limit of a soil is the water content of the soil below which it ceases to be plastic. It
begins to crumble when rolled into threads of 3mm diameter.
Equipment:
 Porcelain evaporating dish about 120mm diameter or a glass plate 450mm square and
10mm thick.
 Ground glass plate about 200mm x 150mm
 Metallic rod 3mm dia and 100mm long
 Oven
 Spatula or plate knife
 Moisture content can
Procedure:
 Take about 30g of air dried soil from a thoroughly mixed sample of the soil passing 425
sieve.
 Mix the soil with distilled water in an evaporating dish or on a glass plate o make it
plastic enough to shape into a small ball.
 Leave the plastic soil mass for some time for maturing. For some fat clay, this period may
be even upto 24 hours.
 Take about 8g of the plastic soil, and roll it with fingers on a glass plate. The rate of
rolling should be about 80 to 90 strokes per minute to form a thread of 3mm diameter
counting one stroke when the hand moves forward and backward to the starting point.
 If the diameter of the thread becomes less than 3mm without cracks, it shows that the
water content is more than plastic limit. Knead the soil to reduce the water content and
roll it again into thread. Repeat the process of alternate rolling and kneading until the
tread crumbles and the soil can no longer be rolled into thread.
 Note: If the crumbling occurs when the thread has a diameter slightly
greater than 3mm it may be taken as plastic limit, provided the soil had
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
29
been rolled into a thread of 3mm diameter immediately before kneading.
Do not attempt to produce failure exactly at 3mm diameter.
 Collect the pieces of the crumbled soil thread in a moisture content container.
 Repeat the procedure at least twice more with a fresh samples of plastic soil each time.
Result:
Plastic Limit was found out for all the seven specimens. A increase of 4.4% and 16.15% in liquid limit is
observed by adding 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively.
Performing Plastic Limit
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
At 7% At 9% At 11%
Sugar Bagasse Ash
Normal
Rice Husk Ash
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
30
4.4 CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST
Objective:
To determine the California bearing ratio by conducting a load penetration test in the laboratory.
Needand Scope:
The California bearing ratio test is penetration test meant for the evaluation of sub grade strength
of roads and pavements. The results obtained by these tests are used with the empirical curves to
determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This is the most widely used
method for the design of flexible pavement.
Equipment’s and Tools Required:
1. Cylindrical mould with inside dia 150 mm and height 175 mm, provided with a detachable
extension collar 50 mm height and a detachable perforated base plate 10 mm thick.
2. Spacer disc 148 mm in dia and 47.7 mm in height along with handle.
3. Metal rammers. Weight 2.6 kg with a drop of 310 mm (or) weight 4.89 kg a drop 450 mm.
4. Weights. One annular metal weight and several slotted weights weighing 2.5 kg each, 147 mm
in dia, with a central hole 53 mm in diameter.
5. Loading machine. With a capacity of at least 5000 kg and equipped with a movable head or
base that travels at a uniform rate of 1.25 mm/min. Complete with load indicating device.
6. Metal penetration piston 50 mm dia and minimum of 100 mm in length.
7. Two dial gauges reading to 0.01 mm.
8. Sieves. 4.75 mm and 20 mm I.S. Sieves.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
31
9. Miscellaneous apparatus, such as a mixing bowl, straight edge, scales soaking tank or pan,
drying oven, filter paper and containers.
Definition of C.B.R.:
It is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with standard circular piston
at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. to that required for the corresponding penetration of a standard
material.
C.B.R. = {Test load/Standard load} x 100
The following table gives the standard loads adopted for different penetrations for the standard
material with a C.B.R. value of 100%
Penetration of plunger (mm) Standard load (kg)
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
1370
2055
2630
3180
3600
Preparationof TestSpecimen:
Undisturbed specimen:
Attach the cutting edge to the mould and push it gently into the ground. Remove the soil from
the outside of the mould which is pushed in. When the mould is full of soil, remove it from
weighing the soil with the mould or by any field method near the spot. Then determine the
density.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
32
Remolded specimen:
Prepare the remolded specimen at Proctor’s maximum dry density. Maintain the specimen at
optimum moisture content or the field moisture as required. The material used should pass 20
mm I.S. sieve but it should be retained on 4.75 mm I.S. sieve. Prepare the specimen either by
dynamic compaction or by static compaction.
Dynamic Compaction:
 Take about 4.5 to 5.5 kg of soil and mix thoroughly with the required water.
 Fix the extension collar and the base plate to the mould. Insert the spacer disc over the
base. Place the filter paper on the top of the spacer disc.
 Compact the mix soil in the mould using either light compaction or heavy compaction.
For light compaction, compact the soil in 3 equal layers, each layer being given 55 blows
by the 2.6 kg rammer. For heavy compaction compact the soil in 5 layers, 56 blows to
each layer by the 4.89 kg rammer.
 Remove the collar and trim off soil.
 Turn the mould upside down and remove the base plate and the displacer disc.
 Weigh the mould with compacted soil and determine the bulk density and dry density.
 Put filter paper on the top of the compacted soil (collar side) and clamp the perforated
base plate on to it.
Static Compaction:
Calculate the weight of the wet soil at the required water content to give the desired density
when occupying the standard specimen volume in the mould from the expression.
W = {desired dry density / (1+w)} x V
Where W = Weight of the wet soil
W = desired water content
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
33
V = volume of the specimen in the mould = 2250 cm3 (as per the mould available in
laboratory)
 Take the weight W (calculated as above) of the mix soil and place it in the mould.
 Place a filter paper and the displacer disc on the top of soil.
 Keep the mould assembly in static loading frame and compact by pressing the displacer
disc till the level of disc reaches the top of the mould.
 Keep the load for some time and then release the load. Remove the displacer disc.
 The test may be conducted for both soaked as well as unsoaked conditions.
 If the sample is to be soaked, in both the case of compaction, put a filter paper on the top
of the soil and place the adjustable stem and perforated plate on the top of filter paper.
 Put annular weights to produce a surcharge equal to weight of base material and
pavement expected in actual construction. Each 2.5 kg weight is equivalent to 7 cm
construction. A minimum of two weights should be put.
 Immerse the mould assembly and weights in a tank of water and soak it for 96 hours.
Remove the mould from tank.
 Note the consolidation of the specimen.
Procedure for PenetrationTest:
 Place the mould assembly with the surcharge weights on the penetration test machine.
 Seat the penetration piston at the centre of the specimen with the smallest possible load,
but in no case in excess of 4 kg so that full contact of the piston on the sample is
established.
 Set the stress and strain dial gauge to read zero. Apply the load on the piston so that the
penetration rate is about 1.25 mm/min.
 Record the load readings at penetrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10 and
12.5 mm. Note the maximum load and corresponding penetration if it occurs for a
penetration less than 12.5 mm.
 Detach the mould from the loading equipment. Take about 20 to 50 g of soil
from the top 3 cm layer and determine the moisture content.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
34
Result :
The C.B.R. values are usually calculated for penetration of 2.5 mm and 5 mm. Generally the
C.B.R. value at 2.5 mm will be greater that at 5 mm and in such a case/the former shall be taken
as C.B.R. for design purpose. If C.B.R. for 5 mm exceeds that for 2.5 mm, the test should be
repeated. If identical results follow, the C.B.R. corresponding to 5 mm penetration should be
taken for design.
CBR was found out for all the seven specimens. A fall of 290% and 267% in CBR is observed by adding
7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
At 7% At 9% At 11%
Sugar Bagasse Ash
Normal
Rice Husk Ash
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
35
CBR testing machine
Hand Compaction Of Sample
Results
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
36
Plain Soil Sugar Baggesse Ash Rice Husk Ash
Percentage
Replaced
7 9 11 7 9 11
OMC 9.23 11.37 11.4 11.43 11.96 12.13 12.11
MDD 15.6 15.1 15 13.4 15.3 14.7 13.9
LL 37.8 34.77 34.36 34.17 35.54 34.9 34.76
PL 20.3 21.2 22.13 23.25 23.68 23.96 24.03
CBR 3.4 13.26 13.02 10.13 12.47 12.08 8.33
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
37
Advantages Of Sugar Baggese Ash And Rice
Husk Ash
 Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash decreases Liquid Limit of soil.
 Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash increases Plastic Limit of soil.
 The ash has high angle of internal friction which results in more stability.
 Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash increases California Bearing Ratio
content of soil.
 Use of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash for soil stabilisation help in reducing the
burden of disposing Sugar Bagasse and Rice Husk.
 Sugar Bagasse and Rice Husk is a waste that is being utilised to its maximum when used
for soil stabilisation.
 Selling of Sugar Bagasse provide a extra income to small juice vendor.
 Selling of Rice Husk for soil stabilisation help small in earning small extra money as it is
waste to them.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
38
Disadvantages Of Sugar Baggese Ash And Rice
Husk Ash
 Sugar Baggese and Rice Husk is burnt for conversion to ash that result in the loss of heat
energy.
 Sugar Baggese and Rice Husk is burnt which contributes to air pollution.
 Transportation of Sugar Baggese and Rice Husk from place of production to place of its
utilisation is expensive.
 Due to lack of cohesiveness of ash there might be problem in construction like erosion
and shearing where heavy rolling is done.
 Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash increases Optimum Moisture Content
of soil.
 Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash decreases Maximum Dry Density of
soil.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
39
Conclusion
 Treatment of black cotton soil with Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash showed a
gradual decrease in Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and increase in Optimum Moisture
Content (OMC).
 Improved value of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) was observed at 7% addition Sugar
Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash as compared to natural black cotton soil.
 There is significant improvement in plasticity index of the black cotton soil.
 Reduction in overall cost of construction by the use of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice
Husk Ash in black cotton soil.
Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash
40
Bibliography
 internationaljournalofresearch.org
 iaeme.com
 ijettjournal.org
 ijirt.org
 irjet.net
 jerad.org
 ijceronline.com
 journalofenvironmentalresearchanddevelopment
 conferenceworld.in
 IS:2720 (Part 16):1987-Methods of test for soils: Part 16 Laboratory determination of
CBR (second revision)
 IS 2720(Part 5):1985-Methods of test for soils: Part 5 Determination of liquid and plastic
limit (second revision)
 IS 2720(Part 7):1980-Methods of test for soils: Part 7 Determination of water content-
dry density relation using light compaction (second revision)
 IS:1498-1970-Classification and identification of soils for general engineering purposes
(first revision)

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Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash

  • 1. A Major Project on Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by SugarBagasseAsh and Rice Husk Ash Submitted to RAJIV GANDHI TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL (M.P) In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of BACHELOR IN ENGINEERING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Submitted by Shubham Bhargava Under the Guidance of Mr. Alok Rarotiya Asst. Prof. (Civil Department) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MEDI-CAPS ISTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PIGDAMBER RAU, INDORE-453331 MAY - 2019 Department of Civil Engineering Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology Indore (M.P)
  • 2. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 2 RECOMMENDATION It is recommended that the major project entitled "Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash", submitted by Shubham Bhargava may be accepted as the requirement for the award of bachelor degree in Civil Engineering in year 2017-18. Mr. Alok Rarotiya Dr. Rajeev Kumar Assistant Professor Professorand Head of Department
  • 3. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 3 Department of Civil Engineering Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology Indore (M.P) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The most awaited moment of successful completion of an endeavor is always a result of persons involved implicitly or explicitly in it. The successful completion of the planning and research phases of our project is the result of dedicated efforts put in by many people and this report would be incomplete without giving due credits to them. This acknowledgment is but a token of gratitude in recognition of their help in our endeavor. We sincerely thank our project guide and project coordinator Mr. Alok Rarotiya for providing us the solutions that always take us out from all the chaos. It had been an honor and pleasure to work under him. Not just the technical knowledge but a lot we have learnt from his calm and composed attitude for which we will remain indebted to sir throughout our life. We would like to give our sincere thanks to Dr. Rajiv Kumar Sir, HOD of Civil Engineering Department and all the faculties from whom we have learnt a lot. Last but not the least, we would like to thank our colleagues, friends and our parents who were a constant and willing sourceof encouragement and inspiration for us throughout the project.
  • 4. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 4 Department of Civil Engineering Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology Indore (M.P) CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL This is to certify that the project entitled - "Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash" submitted by Shubham Bhargava has been carried out under my supervision in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor in Engineering in Civil Engineering at Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology Indore and this work has not been submitted elsewhere to the best of my knowledge. Name of Student Guide Shubham Bhargava Mr. Alok Rarotiya Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology Indore (M.P)
  • 5. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 5 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project report entitled - "Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash" submitted by Shubham Bhargava has been examined and cross-checked for the partial fulfillment for the award of degree by Rajeev Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P), of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering at Medi-Caps Institute of Science & Technology, Indore.
  • 6. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 6 INDEX Contents Page No. 1. Abstract 8 2. Introduction 2.1. Soil Stabilization 2.2. Types OfSoil Stabilization 2.2.1. Mechanical Stabilization 2.2.2. Chemical Stabilization 2.3. Stabilization Methods 2.3.1. In-Situ Stabilization 2.3.2. Ex-Situ Stabilization 2.4. Scope And Objectives 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 3. Literature Review 3.1. Literature – 1 3.2. Literature – 2 3.3. Literature – 3 3.4. Literature – 4 3.5. Literature - 5 14 15 16 17 18
  • 7. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 7 4. Soil Testing 4.1. Standard Proctor Test 4.2. Liquid Limit 4.3. Plastic Limit 4.4. California Bearing Ratio 19 20 25 28 30 5. Results 36 6. Advantages Of Sugar Bagasse Ash And Rice Husk Ash 37 7. Disadvantages of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 38 8. Conclusion 39 9. Bibliography 40
  • 8. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 8 Abstract India has a total road network of about 4.7million kilometers. 53 percent of the total road network is paved. The budgeted amount spent over roads is Rs.14, 90,925 Crore. The durability and serviceability of pavements depend mainly on strength of sub grade, which can be enhanced by ground improvement techniques. The field of ground improvement by the use of waste rice husk ash for this purpose. India is one of the world's largest producers of rice. In India the soil mostly present is Clay, in which the construction of sub grade is problematic. In recent times the demands for sub grade materials has increased due to increased constructional activities in the road sector and due to paucity of available nearby lands to allow excavate fill materials for making sub grade. In this situation, a means to overcome this problem is to utilize the different alternative generated waste materials, which cause not only environmental hazards and also the depositional problems. Keeping this in view stabilization of weak soil in situ may be done with suitable admixtures to save the construction cost considerably. Also, due to the large production of agricultural wastes, the world is facing a serious problem of its handling and disposal. The disposal of agricultural wastes has a potential negative impact on the environment causing air pollution, water pollution and finally affecting the local ecosystems. So it is mandatory to make these agricultural wastes eco- friendly. By using them as soil stabilizers, these agricultural wastes improve the strength of soil and its characteristics without causing any harm to the environment. The objective of this study is to upgrade soil as a construction material using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Sugar Bagasse Ash (SBA) which is a waste material. The cost of construction of stabilized road have been keeping financially high due to the over dependency on the utilization of industrially manufactured soil improving additives (cement, lime etc.). By using the agricultural waste the cost of construction will be considerably reduced as well reducing the environmental hazards they cause.
  • 9. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 9 Silica produced from Rice Husk Ash and Sugar Bagasse Ash have investigated successfully as a pozzolanic material in soil stabilization. Due to various construction development projects undertaken all over the world there is a potential to use waste materials like Rice Husk and Sugar Bagasse which create disposal problems. Rice husk waste is produced in large quantity in rice husk mills and is disposed in open land. Therefore use of rice husk in foundation of buildings and in road constructions to improve bearing capacity of soil and to reduce the area of open land needed for its disposal and to preserve environment through resource conservation. The performance of the soil-RHA and soil-SBA was investigated with respect to Standard Proctor Test, Liquid Limit Test, Plastic Limit Test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test. The results obtained, indicates a considerable decrease in the maximum dry density (MDD), an increase in optimum moisture content (OMC) and a superficial improvement in the CBR with the increase in the RHA and SBA content.
  • 10. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 10 Introduction Black cotton soil causes many problems to road constructed on it. About 20% of the soil found in India is expansive in nature. Roads on black cotton soils are known for bad condition. In rainy season black cotton soil absorbs water heavily which results into swelling and softening of soil. In addition to this it also loses its strength and becomes easily compressible. According to Geo technology, soil improvement can either be by modification or by stabilization, or by both. Soil modification is the process of addition of a modifier (cement, lime, etc.) to the soil to change its index properties, while soil stabilization is the treatment of soils to increase their strength and durability so that they are suitable for construction beyond their original classification. In most of the situations, soils in natural state do not possess proper geotechnical properties to be used as road service layers, foundation layers and as a construction material. In order to make them useful and meet the requirements of geotechnical engineering design, researchers have concentrated more on the use of cost effective materials that are available locally from industrial and agricultural wastes in order to increase the properties of deficient soils and also to reduce the cost of construction. Due to the large production of agricultural wastes, the world is facing a serious problem of its handling and disposal. The disposal of agricultural wastes has a potential negative impact on the environment causing air pollution, water pollution and finally affecting the local ecosystems. Hence the secure disposition of agricultural wastes has become a challenging task for engineers. The main aim of the study is to investigate the use of Rice Husk Ash and Sugar Bagasse Ash which is an agricultural waste to stabilize the weak sub grade soil. This hitherto have continued to impede the poor and underdeveloped nations of the world from providing accessible roads to their rural inhabitants who contribute to the major percentage of their population and are mostly, agriculturally dependent. Thus by using the agricultural waste the cost of construction will be considerably reduced as well reducing the environmental hazards they cause. It has been identified that Portland cement, with respect to its chemistry, produces large amounts of CO2 for each ton of its final product. Hence by replacing proportions of the Portland cement with a secondary cementations material like RHA and SBA in soil stabilization will reduce the overall negative environmental impact of the stabilization process.
  • 11. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 11 2.1 Soil Stabilization: Soil stabilization is the process of improving its geotechnical properties of soil. Soil stabilization involves the use of stabilizing agents (binder materials) in weak soils to improve its geotechnical properties such as compressibility, strength, permeability and durability. The components of stabilization technology include soils and or soil minerals and stabilizing agent or binders, soil stabilization aims at improving soil strength and increasing resistance to softening by water through bonding the soil particles together. 2.2 Types of SoilStabilization: The Types can be achieved in two ways, namely: 2.2.1 Mechanicalstabilization Under this category, soil stabilization can be achieved through physical process by altering the physical nature of native soil particles by either induced vibration or compaction or by incorporating other physical properties such as barriers and nailing. Mechanical stabilization is not the main subject. 2.2.2 Chemical stabilization Under this category, soil stabilization depends mainly on chemical reactions between stabilizer (cementations material) and soil minerals (puzzolanic materials) to achieve the desired effect. A chemical stabilization method is the fundamental of this review and, therefore, throughout the rest of this report, the term soil stabilization will mean chemical stabilization.
  • 12. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 12 2.3 Stabilization Methods: The method can be achieved in two ways, namely: 2.3.1 In–Situ Stabilization The method involves on site soil improvement by applying stabilizing agent without removing the bulk soil. This technology offer benefit of improving soils for deep foundations, shallow foundations and contaminated sites. Planning of the design mix involves the selection and assessment of engineering properties of stabilized soil and improved ground. The purpose is to determine the dimensions of improved ground on the basis of appropriate stability and settlement analyses to satisfy the functional requirements of the supported structure (Keller Inc.). The technology can be accomplished by injection into soils a cementations material such cement and lime in dry or wet forms. The choice to either use dry or wet deep mixing methods depend among other things; the in-situ soil conditions, in situ moisture contents, effectiveness of binders to be used, and the nature of construction to be founded. Depending on the depth of treatment, the in situ stabilization may be regarded as either deep mixing method or mass stabilization. 2.3.2 Ex-Situ Stabilization The technology involves dislodging of the soils and or sediments from the original position and moves to other place for the purpose of amendment. These can be encountered in dredging of river channel and Ports. The main objectives of dredging can be either for amending the contaminated sediments to reduce toxicity and mobility or to maintain or deepen navigation channels for the safe passage of ships and boats. Offsite treatment of the sediment can be done in confined disposal facilities (CDF) and then be used or disposed at designated site. Method of removal, means of transportation, availability of treatment location, disposal site or demand for reuse is key factors to consider when planning for ex-situ stabilization Treatment of sediments in CDF falls under ex-situ mass stabilization method, which can be accomplished in several ways depending on natural of sediments and water contents.
  • 13. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 13 2.4 Scope and Objectives: This study was oriented towards improving the strength of soil by using locally available agricultural wastes to reduce the construction cost. The different stabilizing agents are used Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Sugar Bagasse Ash (SBA). The present study was undertaken with the following objectives:  To explore the possibility of using rural waste materials like RHA and SBA, in soil stabilization.  To investigate the physical and engineering properties of natural soil and stabilized soil by adding 7%, 9% and 11% of ash in soil.  To analyze which is better option for stabilizing black cotton soil among Sugar Bagasse Ash (SBA) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA).
  • 14. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 14 LITERATURE REVIEW Literature - 1 Expansive Soil Stabilization Using Waste From Sugar Industry C.Subhacini, M.Ranhitha, S.Dhanapal, K.Arun Prakash, K.Umashankar Introduction: In this research paper, soil stabilization is done by using agricultural waste i.e. sugarcane bagasse ash. The aim of this research paper is to make economic and to maintain the environmental balance for the ash disposal. Different percentages of sugar bagasse ash i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and10% were used to stabilize the soil. The effect of adding sugar bagasse ash (with some admixture like lime/cement) on the properties of black cotton soil was investigated by conducting various tests like consistency limits, standard proctor and California bearing ratio (CBR) test. And these test results are compared with the results of black cotton soil. After this tests, following conclusions were made. Conclusions:  The use of baggase ash slightly improves the properties of expansive soil, therefore it can be used as replacement in black cotton soil up to certain limits.  The addition of 6% bagasse ash has shown satisfactorily result. The density increases and also the OMC increases.  There is also increment in CBR values and hence reduction in settlement.  The UCS value also got increased.
  • 15. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 15 Literature – 2 Black Cotton Soil Stabilization Using Bagasse Ash And Lime Amruta P. Kulkarni, Mithun. K. Sawant, Vaishnavi V. Battul, Mahesh S. Shindepatil, Aavani P. Introduction: The aim of this journal or review is to enhance the engineering properties of black cotton soil by use of Bagasse ash and lime as an admixture. In this study test results of various soil samples are compared which includes normal black cotton soil sample and black cotton soil mixed with varying percentages of Bagasse ash and lime. The various test performed on these samples are liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, Differential free swell test, Standard Proctor Compaction Test, optimum moisture content, maximum dry density and California Bearing Ratio (CBR test). These tests were performed on normal BCS sample & soil containing Bagasse and lime in varying percentage [BA: L (1:4), BA: L (2:3), BA: L (3; 2), BA: L (4:1)]. Conclusions:  After stabilization of soil with mixture of Bagasse ash &lime there was remarkable decrease in Plasticity index.  In Differential Swell Test, after stabilization the swelling index witnessed remarkable reduction i.e. swelling potential was reduced to considerable limits.  From the test results, it was found that with increase in proportion of lime the Plasticity index reduces whereas with increase in addition of Bagasse ash, Plasticity index increases.  It can be clearly seen that Plasticity index decreases with increase in lime percentage.  From the test results and observations, the most suitable and best proportion for stabilization of BCS was found to be 2:3 of Bagasse ash: Lime.  When optimum ratio of Bagasse ash: Lime was used, CBR value shown remarkable increase and the results obtained were excellent.
  • 16. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 16 Literature - 3 Stabilization Of Soil By Using Agricultural Waste T. Kishore Kumar, C.H Shivarma, Surya Teja, U.J Santosh Kumar Introduction: In this literature review soil stabilization is done with the use of rice husk and sugarcane straw ash as an admixture. The study is done by varying the percentage of rice husk used for improving the properties of soil. In this literature review it is planned to add admixture at the dosage of 2%, 4%6%, 8% by the weight of soil and the engineering and index properties of soil is compared with the properties of normal soil. The materials used in this literature review are lateritic soil, rice husk, sugarcane straw ash. The various tests performed are liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, optimum moisture content and MDD. These various tests are performed on normal soil and the soil containing rice husk and sugarcane straw ash. Conclusion: -  By comparing the normal soil with the rice husk soil and sugercane straw ash soil it is found that the properties of soil is improved by the addition of both agricultural waste  When rice husk is added by varying its percentage in the soil the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, optimum moisture content increases by increasing the percentage of rice husk. The best results are found when rice husk added by 6 % the weight of soil.  When sugarcane straw ash is added by varying its percentage in the soil the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, optimum moisture content and MDD increases by increasing the percentage of sugarcane straw ash. The best results are found when sugarcane straw ash is added 4% by the weight of soil.
  • 17. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 17 Literature - 4 Potential Of Rice Husk For Soil Stabilization Divyateja Sarapu Introduction: In India, there is large production of agricultural waste every year. And hence their disposal creates a negative impact on the environment. So there is need to make these agricultural waste environment friendly. In this paper, Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is taken into account. The rice husk ash is used as soil stabilizer, which upgrades the properties of soil. By using rice husk ash for stabilization, the cost of construction as well as the environmental hazards is reduced. Rice husk ash is a pozzolanic material as it contains about 85-90% of silica. So it can be used as soil stabilizer. Adding different percentages of RHA in soil and various test like particle size distribution made the samples, compaction, California Bearing Ratio, Atterberg limits and unconfined compressive strength were carried out. Also the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density are also determined and according to the values obtained, samples are prepared and the results are compared with natural soil properties. Conclusion:  After the study, it was concluded that rice husk ash can be used for stabilizing soil. But if it is used with lime or cement than it may give better result.  When the soil is treated with rice husk ash, then there is gradual decrease in the maximum dry density and a increase in the optimum moisture content.  At 6% addition of rice husk, there is improvement in unsoaked as well as soaked CBR.  At 6% addition of rice husk , peak values of UCS are obtained.  Addition of rice husk also improves the plasticity index and the reduce the swelling potential.
  • 18. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 18 Literature - 5 Soil Stabilization Using Rice Husk Prof. Mahadev M, Dr. D L Venkatesh Babu, Sharmila H C Introduction: In this literature review soil stabilization is done by the use of rice husk ash (RHA). The paper therefore takes the review of use of rice husk ash on the engineering and index properties of soil. The various test performed on both normal soil and mixture of soil and rice husk ash. The effect on the properties of soil is studied by varying the percentage of rice husk ash by the weight of soil. The different percentages of rice husk ash are 10% 20 % and a small amount of additives is also added such as lime and gypsum. The various tests, which are performed in this paper, are Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content, California Bearing Ratio (soaked and unsoaked). Conclusion:  Increasing the percentage of RHA give decrease in MDD.  OMC is increased by increasing the percentage of RHA in soil.  CBR test results are also positive for the soil containing RHA.  For maximum improvement in soil strength stabilization using 10% RHA and 6 % of cement is recommended for practical purpose.
  • 19. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 19 SOIL TESTING After a comprehensive analysis of the research papers above we finalized and performed the following tests with various variations and the comparative study has been presented:  The Proctor test was performed for determining Optimum Moisture Content and Maximum Dry Density o 5 samples for plain soil o 5 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11 % o 5 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%  Liquid Limit o 4 samples for plain soil o 4 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11 % o 4 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%  Plastic Limit o 2 samples for plain soil o 2 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11 % o 2 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%  California Bearing Ratio o 1 samples for plain soil o 1 samples each for Sugar Bagasse Ash and lime(2:3) replaced soil at 7, 9 and 11 % o 1 samples each for Rice Husk Ash and lime (2:3) replaced at 7,9 and 11%
  • 20. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 20 4.1 STANDARD PROCTOR TEST Objective: To determine optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of given soil. Needand Scope: Compaction is the process of densification of soil by reducing air voids. The degree of compaction of a given soil is measured in terms of its dry density. The dry density is maximum at the optimum water content. A curve is drawn between the water content and the dry density to obtain the maximum dry density and the optimum water content. Dry density of soil: Where M = total mass of the soil, V= volume of soil, w= water content. Equipment’s for Proctor’s Testfor Compactionof Soil:  Compaction mould, capacity 1000ml.  Rammer, mass 2.6 kg  Detachable base plate  Collar, 60mm high  IS sieve, 4.75 mm  Oven  Desiccators  Weighing balance, accuracy 1g  Large mixing pan  Straight edge
  • 21. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 21  Spatula  Graduated jar  Mixing tools, spoons, trowels, etc. Procedure:  Take about 20kg of air-dried soil. Sieve it through 20mm and 4.7mm sieve.  Calculate the percentage retained on 20mm sieve and 4.75mm sieve, and the percentage passing 4.75mm sieve.  If the percentage retained on 4.75mm sieve is greater than 20, use the large mould of 150mm diameter. If it is less than 20%, the standard mould of 100mm diameter can be used. The following procedure is for the standard mould.  Mix the soil retained on 4.75mm sieve and that passing 4.75mm sieve in proportions determined in step (2) to obtain about 16 to 18 kg of soil specimen.  Clean and dry the mould and the base plate. Grease them lightly.  Weigh the mould with the base plate to the nearest 1 gram.  Take about 16 – 18 kg of soil specimen. Add water to it to bring the water content to about 4% if the soil is sandy and to about 8% if the soil is clayey.  Keep the soil in an air-tight container for about 18 to 20 hours for maturing. Mix the soil thoroughly. Divide the processed soil into 6 to 8 parts.  Attach the collar to the mould. Place the mould on a solid base.  Take about 2.5kg of the processed soil, and hence place it in the mould in 3 equal layers. Take about one-third the quantity first, and compact it by giving 25 blows of the rammer. The blows should be uniformly distributed over the surface of each layer.
  • 22. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 22  The top surface of the first layer is scratched with spatula before placing the second layer. The second layer should also be compacted by 25 blows of rammer. Likewise, place the third layer and compact it.  The amount of the soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mould ad leaving about 5 mm above the top of the mould to be struck off when the collar is removed.  Remove the collar and trim off the excess soil projecting above the mould using a straight edge.  Clean the base plate and the mould from outside. Weigh it to the nearest gram.  Remove the soil from the mould. The soil may also be ejected out.  Take the soil samples for the water content determination from the top, middle and bottom portions. Determine the water content.  Add about 3% of the water to a fresh portion of the processed soil, and repeat the steps 10 to 14. Result: Optimum Moisture Content 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 At 7% At 9% At 11% Sugar Bagasse Ash Normal Rice Husk Ash
  • 23. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 23 There is an increase of 23.18 % and 29.57 % in OMC by adding 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively. Maximum Dry Density(KN/m3) There is an decrease of 3.3 % and 1.96 %in MDD by adding 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively. Compaction Apparatus 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 At 7% At 9% At 11% Sugar Bagasse Ash Normal Rice Husk Ash
  • 24. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 24 Greasing of the Standard Proctor mould Weighing of sample 4.2 LIQUID LIMIT
  • 25. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 25 The liquid limit of a soil is the water content at which the soil behaves practically like a liquid, but has small shear strength. It flows to close the groove in just 25 blows in Casagrande’s liquid limit device. As it is difficult to get exactly 25 blows in a test, 3 to 4 tests are conducted and the number of blows (N) required in each test is determined. A semi-log plot is then drawn between log N and the water content (w). The liquid limit is the water content corresponding to N=25, as obtained from the plot. Equipment for Liquid Limit Teston Soil:  Casagrande’s liquid limit device  Grooving tools of both standard and ASTM types  Oven  Evaporating dish or glass sheet  Spatula  425 micron IS sieve  Weighing balance accuracy 0.01g.  Wash bottle. Procedure of Liquid Limit Teston Soil:  Adjust the drop of the cup of the liquid limit device by releasing the two screws at the top and by using the handle of the grooving tool or a gauge. The drop should be exactly 1 cm at the point of contact on the base. Tighten the screw after adjustment.  Take about 120g of the air-dried soil sample passing 425 micron IS sieve.
  • 26. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 26  Mix the sample thoroughly with distilled water in an evaporating dish or a glass plate to form a uniform paste. Mixing should be continued for about 15 to 30 min, till a uniform mix is obtained.  Keep the mix under humid conditions for obtaining uniform moisture distribution for sufficient period. For some fat clays. This maturing time may be upto 24 hours.  Take a portion of the matured paste and remix it thoroughly. Place it in the cup of the device by a spatula and level it by a spatula or a straight edge to have a minimum depth of the soil as 1cm at the point of the maximum thickness. The excess soil, if any should be transferred to the evaporating dish.  Cut a groove in the sample in the cup by using the appropriate tool. Draw the grooving tool through the paste in the cup along the symmetrical axis, along the diameter through the centre line of the cup. Hold the tool perpendicular to the cup.  Turn the handle of the device at a rate of 2 revolutions per second. Count the number of blows until the two halves of the soil specimen come in contact at the bottom of the groove along a distance of 12mm due to flow and not by sliding.  Collect a representative sample of the soil by moving spatula width-wise from one edge to the other edge of the soil cake at right angles to the groove. This should include the portion of the groove in which the soil flowed to close the groove.  Remove the remaining soil from the cup. Mix it with the soil left in evaporating dish.  Change the water content of the mix in the evaporating dish either by adding more water if the water content is to be increased or by kneading the soil, if the water content is to be decreased. In no case the dry soil should be added to reduce the water content.  Repeat the steps 4 to 10 and determine the number of blows (N) and the water content in each case.  Draw the flow curve between log N and w, and determine the liquid limit corresponding to N=2
  • 27. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 27 Result: Liquid Limit was found out for all the seven specimens. A fall of 8% and 5.9% in liquid limit is observed by addinng 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively. Sample after testing Performing Liquid Limit Test 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 At 7% At 9% At 11% Sugar Bagasse Ash Normal Rice Husk Ash
  • 28. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 28 4.3 PLASTIC LIMIT The plastic limit of a soil is the water content of the soil below which it ceases to be plastic. It begins to crumble when rolled into threads of 3mm diameter. Equipment:  Porcelain evaporating dish about 120mm diameter or a glass plate 450mm square and 10mm thick.  Ground glass plate about 200mm x 150mm  Metallic rod 3mm dia and 100mm long  Oven  Spatula or plate knife  Moisture content can Procedure:  Take about 30g of air dried soil from a thoroughly mixed sample of the soil passing 425 sieve.  Mix the soil with distilled water in an evaporating dish or on a glass plate o make it plastic enough to shape into a small ball.  Leave the plastic soil mass for some time for maturing. For some fat clay, this period may be even upto 24 hours.  Take about 8g of the plastic soil, and roll it with fingers on a glass plate. The rate of rolling should be about 80 to 90 strokes per minute to form a thread of 3mm diameter counting one stroke when the hand moves forward and backward to the starting point.  If the diameter of the thread becomes less than 3mm without cracks, it shows that the water content is more than plastic limit. Knead the soil to reduce the water content and roll it again into thread. Repeat the process of alternate rolling and kneading until the tread crumbles and the soil can no longer be rolled into thread.  Note: If the crumbling occurs when the thread has a diameter slightly greater than 3mm it may be taken as plastic limit, provided the soil had
  • 29. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 29 been rolled into a thread of 3mm diameter immediately before kneading. Do not attempt to produce failure exactly at 3mm diameter.  Collect the pieces of the crumbled soil thread in a moisture content container.  Repeat the procedure at least twice more with a fresh samples of plastic soil each time. Result: Plastic Limit was found out for all the seven specimens. A increase of 4.4% and 16.15% in liquid limit is observed by adding 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively. Performing Plastic Limit 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 At 7% At 9% At 11% Sugar Bagasse Ash Normal Rice Husk Ash
  • 30. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 30 4.4 CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST Objective: To determine the California bearing ratio by conducting a load penetration test in the laboratory. Needand Scope: The California bearing ratio test is penetration test meant for the evaluation of sub grade strength of roads and pavements. The results obtained by these tests are used with the empirical curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement. Equipment’s and Tools Required: 1. Cylindrical mould with inside dia 150 mm and height 175 mm, provided with a detachable extension collar 50 mm height and a detachable perforated base plate 10 mm thick. 2. Spacer disc 148 mm in dia and 47.7 mm in height along with handle. 3. Metal rammers. Weight 2.6 kg with a drop of 310 mm (or) weight 4.89 kg a drop 450 mm. 4. Weights. One annular metal weight and several slotted weights weighing 2.5 kg each, 147 mm in dia, with a central hole 53 mm in diameter. 5. Loading machine. With a capacity of at least 5000 kg and equipped with a movable head or base that travels at a uniform rate of 1.25 mm/min. Complete with load indicating device. 6. Metal penetration piston 50 mm dia and minimum of 100 mm in length. 7. Two dial gauges reading to 0.01 mm. 8. Sieves. 4.75 mm and 20 mm I.S. Sieves.
  • 31. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 31 9. Miscellaneous apparatus, such as a mixing bowl, straight edge, scales soaking tank or pan, drying oven, filter paper and containers. Definition of C.B.R.: It is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with standard circular piston at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. to that required for the corresponding penetration of a standard material. C.B.R. = {Test load/Standard load} x 100 The following table gives the standard loads adopted for different penetrations for the standard material with a C.B.R. value of 100% Penetration of plunger (mm) Standard load (kg) 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 1370 2055 2630 3180 3600 Preparationof TestSpecimen: Undisturbed specimen: Attach the cutting edge to the mould and push it gently into the ground. Remove the soil from the outside of the mould which is pushed in. When the mould is full of soil, remove it from weighing the soil with the mould or by any field method near the spot. Then determine the density.
  • 32. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 32 Remolded specimen: Prepare the remolded specimen at Proctor’s maximum dry density. Maintain the specimen at optimum moisture content or the field moisture as required. The material used should pass 20 mm I.S. sieve but it should be retained on 4.75 mm I.S. sieve. Prepare the specimen either by dynamic compaction or by static compaction. Dynamic Compaction:  Take about 4.5 to 5.5 kg of soil and mix thoroughly with the required water.  Fix the extension collar and the base plate to the mould. Insert the spacer disc over the base. Place the filter paper on the top of the spacer disc.  Compact the mix soil in the mould using either light compaction or heavy compaction. For light compaction, compact the soil in 3 equal layers, each layer being given 55 blows by the 2.6 kg rammer. For heavy compaction compact the soil in 5 layers, 56 blows to each layer by the 4.89 kg rammer.  Remove the collar and trim off soil.  Turn the mould upside down and remove the base plate and the displacer disc.  Weigh the mould with compacted soil and determine the bulk density and dry density.  Put filter paper on the top of the compacted soil (collar side) and clamp the perforated base plate on to it. Static Compaction: Calculate the weight of the wet soil at the required water content to give the desired density when occupying the standard specimen volume in the mould from the expression. W = {desired dry density / (1+w)} x V Where W = Weight of the wet soil W = desired water content
  • 33. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 33 V = volume of the specimen in the mould = 2250 cm3 (as per the mould available in laboratory)  Take the weight W (calculated as above) of the mix soil and place it in the mould.  Place a filter paper and the displacer disc on the top of soil.  Keep the mould assembly in static loading frame and compact by pressing the displacer disc till the level of disc reaches the top of the mould.  Keep the load for some time and then release the load. Remove the displacer disc.  The test may be conducted for both soaked as well as unsoaked conditions.  If the sample is to be soaked, in both the case of compaction, put a filter paper on the top of the soil and place the adjustable stem and perforated plate on the top of filter paper.  Put annular weights to produce a surcharge equal to weight of base material and pavement expected in actual construction. Each 2.5 kg weight is equivalent to 7 cm construction. A minimum of two weights should be put.  Immerse the mould assembly and weights in a tank of water and soak it for 96 hours. Remove the mould from tank.  Note the consolidation of the specimen. Procedure for PenetrationTest:  Place the mould assembly with the surcharge weights on the penetration test machine.  Seat the penetration piston at the centre of the specimen with the smallest possible load, but in no case in excess of 4 kg so that full contact of the piston on the sample is established.  Set the stress and strain dial gauge to read zero. Apply the load on the piston so that the penetration rate is about 1.25 mm/min.  Record the load readings at penetrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mm. Note the maximum load and corresponding penetration if it occurs for a penetration less than 12.5 mm.  Detach the mould from the loading equipment. Take about 20 to 50 g of soil from the top 3 cm layer and determine the moisture content.
  • 34. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 34 Result : The C.B.R. values are usually calculated for penetration of 2.5 mm and 5 mm. Generally the C.B.R. value at 2.5 mm will be greater that at 5 mm and in such a case/the former shall be taken as C.B.R. for design purpose. If C.B.R. for 5 mm exceeds that for 2.5 mm, the test should be repeated. If identical results follow, the C.B.R. corresponding to 5 mm penetration should be taken for design. CBR was found out for all the seven specimens. A fall of 290% and 267% in CBR is observed by adding 7 % Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash respectively. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 At 7% At 9% At 11% Sugar Bagasse Ash Normal Rice Husk Ash
  • 35. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 35 CBR testing machine Hand Compaction Of Sample Results
  • 36. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 36 Plain Soil Sugar Baggesse Ash Rice Husk Ash Percentage Replaced 7 9 11 7 9 11 OMC 9.23 11.37 11.4 11.43 11.96 12.13 12.11 MDD 15.6 15.1 15 13.4 15.3 14.7 13.9 LL 37.8 34.77 34.36 34.17 35.54 34.9 34.76 PL 20.3 21.2 22.13 23.25 23.68 23.96 24.03 CBR 3.4 13.26 13.02 10.13 12.47 12.08 8.33
  • 37. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 37 Advantages Of Sugar Baggese Ash And Rice Husk Ash  Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash decreases Liquid Limit of soil.  Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash increases Plastic Limit of soil.  The ash has high angle of internal friction which results in more stability.  Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash increases California Bearing Ratio content of soil.  Use of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash for soil stabilisation help in reducing the burden of disposing Sugar Bagasse and Rice Husk.  Sugar Bagasse and Rice Husk is a waste that is being utilised to its maximum when used for soil stabilisation.  Selling of Sugar Bagasse provide a extra income to small juice vendor.  Selling of Rice Husk for soil stabilisation help small in earning small extra money as it is waste to them.
  • 38. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 38 Disadvantages Of Sugar Baggese Ash And Rice Husk Ash  Sugar Baggese and Rice Husk is burnt for conversion to ash that result in the loss of heat energy.  Sugar Baggese and Rice Husk is burnt which contributes to air pollution.  Transportation of Sugar Baggese and Rice Husk from place of production to place of its utilisation is expensive.  Due to lack of cohesiveness of ash there might be problem in construction like erosion and shearing where heavy rolling is done.  Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash increases Optimum Moisture Content of soil.  Addition of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash decreases Maximum Dry Density of soil.
  • 39. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 39 Conclusion  Treatment of black cotton soil with Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash showed a gradual decrease in Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and increase in Optimum Moisture Content (OMC).  Improved value of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) was observed at 7% addition Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash as compared to natural black cotton soil.  There is significant improvement in plasticity index of the black cotton soil.  Reduction in overall cost of construction by the use of Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash in black cotton soil.
  • 40. Comparative Study on Soil Stabilization by Sugar Bagasse Ash and Rice Husk Ash 40 Bibliography  internationaljournalofresearch.org  iaeme.com  ijettjournal.org  ijirt.org  irjet.net  jerad.org  ijceronline.com  journalofenvironmentalresearchanddevelopment  conferenceworld.in  IS:2720 (Part 16):1987-Methods of test for soils: Part 16 Laboratory determination of CBR (second revision)  IS 2720(Part 5):1985-Methods of test for soils: Part 5 Determination of liquid and plastic limit (second revision)  IS 2720(Part 7):1980-Methods of test for soils: Part 7 Determination of water content- dry density relation using light compaction (second revision)  IS:1498-1970-Classification and identification of soils for general engineering purposes (first revision)