Mushroom print2


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Mushroom print2

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Mushroom cultivation is the most suitable technology for creating wealth out of plant, animal and industrial waste. Which are abundantly available all over the globe. Mushroom cultivation is the gaining momentum worldwide because of dietary food protein. Mushroom cultivation is unique in the sense that it is the most efficient and economically valuable technology for conservation of lignocelluloses material into high quality protein food. Mushroom cultivation can subsidies income of millions of farmers. Oyster mushroom is known as the wood fungus and in India is commonly known as “Dhingri”. Oyster mushroom is scientifically known as Pleurotus spp. Pleurotus is Basidiomycetes fungus belonging to order Agaricles and family Trichomataceae/Polyporaceae. There are about 38 species described under genus Pleurotus from different part of the world, out of which 25 species are under cultivation. They mainly include Pleurotus osteatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus flabellatus, Pleurotus sajar caju, Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus membranaceous, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus eous and Pleurotus florida, P. cornicorpae. Pleurotus sajar caju was first reported by Jandaik and Kapoor in 1974, can be grown in the temperature range of 20-300C with 70-85per cent humidity, it has a good biological efficiency 84-90per cent under optimum condition. Oyster mushroom contains 90per cent moisture , 4-5per cent carbohydrate on wet weight basis, 20-35per cent protein, low sugar, low fat, low starch, high fibre and sodium potassium ratio. They contain good amount of C and B complex (thiamine, riboflavin and niacin). It also 1
  2. 2. contains minerals, iron (Fe), Phosphorus (P), Potassium(K) and sodium(Na) and also low but available form of Iron(Fe). The Oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. is saprophytic fungus commercially cultivated throughout the world because of its tasty basidiocarp and simple cultivation technology. Oyster mushroom is having capacity to grow in tropical and subtropical region. It is being cultivated in Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Panjab (Chandra and Sharma in 1995). Oyster mushroom can be use in different kitchen items such as pickle, chutney, pakoda, bhaji, pulav, mix vegetables, kofta and other delicious items etc. Its cultivation is popular due to its rapid mycelial growth, pleasant flavour, wide adoptablity and simple method of cultivation. Objectives:1) To learn various production techniques of mushroom production. 2) To get practical and experimental oriented knowledge of mushroom production. 3) To increases the yield of Pleurotus sajar caju by supplementation of different supplements. 4) To prepared value added products from fresh mushroom. 2
  3. 3. REVIEW Mandeel (2005). Cultivated three spp. of Pleurotus viz., P. columbinus, P.sajar-caju and P. ostreatus on organic waste such as chopped paper,cardboard, sawdust and plant fibres. Higher yield of P. columbinus was obtained on cardboard (135.5 g) followed by paper (100.8 g). P. ostreatus produced maximum yield on paper (112.4 g) however, P. sajar-caju failed to lowest yield on unsupplemented paddy straw (B.E 70 per cent). Islam performance of Pleurotus flabellatus on seven different types of substrates viz., Mango, Jackfruit, Coconut, Jam, Kadom, Manogony, Shiris sawdust with wheat bran and CaCO3. The maximum biological efficiency was obtained with mango saw dust (150gm), followed by Monogony (148gm), Shiris (146gm), Kadom (136gm), Jam(114gm), Jackfruit (97gm) and Coconut saw dust (83gm). Coconut saw dust proved to be the poorest substrate for fruiting of this mushroom.produced satisfactory yield on all the substrates under study. Indira (2010). Studied the effect of Agnihotra on yield of P. sajor-caju. In this experiment paddy straw was supplemented with Agnihotra ash ,Groundnut seed cake, Horse gram powder, Cotton seed powder among this supplement Agnihotra ash recorded higher (B.E. 97.5 per cent) yield in paddy straw while. Chiejinas (2010). Studied the effect of seven substrates for cultivation of Pleurotus tuberregium. The substrates used were top soil, river sand, Fermented sawdust, Fermented oil palm fruit fiber, Mixture of top soil and Fermented sawdust, mixture of fermented oil palm fruit fibre and fermented sawdust, mixture of river sand and fermented sawdust. Among the seven substrates river sand and sawdust mixture produced significantly more yield. 3
  4. 4. Abere and Stanley (2011). Cultivated P.Tuber-regium on corncob supplemented with rice bran at 10, 20 and 30 percent concentration on dry weight basis. 30per cent supplementation of rice bran gave higher yield as compared to other treatments. 4
  5. 5. LOCATION i. ii. Name of Department:- Department of Plant Pathology Name of College :- Sharadchandraji Pawar College of Agriculture, Kharwate-Dahiwali. Tal.- Chiplun, Dist.- Ratnagiri. iii. Name of University :- Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Dapoli. WORKING PERIOD 1 December 2011 to 4 April 2012 5
  6. 6. INPUT DETAILS: (Quantity and Cost of input) A. For preparation of spawn (For 80 beds): Sr.No Inputs Quantity 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wheat grain CaCO3 powder Gas Electricity Cotton bags Cost (Rs.) 5kg 400gm 2 units 90 bags 115 100 5 8 10 2 Total 240 Cost required for preparation 8 kg spawn is Rs.240. B. Cost required for preparation of one bed: Sr.No Inputs Quantity 1 2 3 4 5 500gm 25gm 1 - 0.50 0.50 0.50 2 1 100gm 9 Total 6 Paddy straw Supplements Bags Labour cost Other(Detol, rubber,Pin) Spawn Cost (Rs.) 13.50 For preparation one bed Rs. 13.50 Required C. Cost required for preparation of 80 beds: Sr.No Inputs Quantity 1 2 3 4 5 40 80 1 bottle 1 packet 40 40 160 24 7 Total 271 Paddy straw Bags Labour cost Detol Rubber Cost required for preparation of 80 beds is Rs.271 6 Cost (Rs.)
  7. 7. D. Supplement required for preparation of 50 beds: Sr.No Supplement Quantity (g) Cost (Rs.) 1 3 4 500 9 250 15 250 6 - - Total 2 Wheat bran(10 per cent) Gram dal flour(5 per cent) Cotton seed cake(5 per cent) Groundnut seed cake(5 per cent) 30 Cost required for supplementation of 25 beds is Rs. 30 E. For marketing of mushroom bags required: Total cost of bags- Rs. 8 F. Input Sr.No 1 2 3 4 used for preparation of mushroom pakoda Items Quantity (g) Cost (Rs.) Mushroom 125 30 Gram flour 100 7 Baking According to 2 powder,salt,turmeric taste powder, red chilli oil 250 10 total 47 Cost required for preparation of mushroom pakoda is Rs.47 7
  8. 8. G. Input used for preparation of mushroom pulav Sr.No Items Quantity (g) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mushroom Rice Onion Cumin seed Cardamom Bay leaf Clove Black pepper Ghee salt 125 100 1 ½tables spoon 2 2 2 2 2 tables spoon According to taste total Cost (Rs.) 30 3 1 9 9 1 53 Cost required for preparation of mushroom pulav is Rs.53 H. Total input cost required for mushroom cultivation Sr.No Items Cost 1 2 3 4 5 Spawn preparation Preparation of 80 beds Supplements of 25 beds Dehydration of mushrooms Packaging bags total Total input Rs.486.75/- cost required 8 for 106 271 30 30 486.75 mushroom cultivation is
  9. 9. SUMMARY OF WORK PERFORMANCE Mushroom is ideal agent for conversion of agro waste into protein rich material. Among all the Pleurotus spp. is having ability to grow in temperature range of 20-300C, its substrate colonization time is late and it is more delicious than most of the species. Oyster mushroom was grown on paddy straw. Paddy straw are easily available in Konkan region, it act as good substrate for mushroom cultivation. So that paddy straw was used for cultivation of Pleurotus sajar caju. Mushroom beds were treated by using paddy straw substrate supplemented with different supplements such as, wheat bran (10per cent on dry weight basis substrate), cotton seed cake, groundnut seed cake, gram dal flour (5 per cent on dry weight basis of substrate). Among the substrate supplement combination tied highest yield was observed in paddy straw supplemented with cotton seed cake (610 g/500g dry substrate) that followed by paddy straw supplemented with wheat bran (600 g). However lowest yield was observed in controlled treatment (Unsupplemented paddy straw). From fresh mushroom we prepared value added products such as mushrooms pakoras, mushroom pulav, mushroom pickle, mushroom bhaji. 9
  10. 10. FLOWCHART Steps involve in preparation of spawn Good quality wheat grains Clean and dry wheat grains Soaked in water for (8-10 hrs) Boiled the wheat grains up to they become soft(Avoid splitting) Remove excess water Spread on plastic sheet and add 4% CaCo3 Fill in conical flasks Plugged with non-absorbent cotton Kept in autoclave at 15 lbs pressure at 121◦C for 15 min. Remove it from autoclave Inoculation with pure culture Incubate at room temperature (25±20C) for 1 week Commercial spawn 10
  11. 11. Steps involve in preparation of Mushroom bed Raw material (paddy straw) Chopping (3-5 cm) Fill up in gunny bags Soaking in water (8-12 hrs) Drain off excess water Dip in hot water (80-85◦C) for 1-2 hrs Drain of excess water On cooling to room temperature bags with filled in layers of substrate, supplement and spawn Spawn running (15-20 days) Remove plastic bags cover and maintain humidity, light and ventilation Pinhead stage (3-5 days) 11
  12. 12. Cropping fruit flush, (3-4 days duration after pinhead) and subsequent flushes about 10 days interval Picking on maturity (before spore shedding start) Marketing Fresh/dried 12
  13. 13. MUSHROOM PAKODA Fresh mushroom (125gm) Cleaning and washing with water Cut into transverse pieces Mix them with gram flour, salt, turmeric powder, red chilli powder and baking soda Add little water Heat oil Fry mushroom pakodas till it become light brown 13
  14. 14. MUSHROOM PULAV Good quality mushroom (125g) Cleaning, washing and cutting in small pieces Fry lightly in ghee and kept aside Add cumin, cardamom, cloves, black pepper and bay leaves in ghee Add onion and fry upto light brown colouration Add rice and double quantity water and salt to taste Add mushrooms after boiling of rice Cook on slow fire for few minute Serve in plates 14
  15. 15. MUSHROOM CUTLET Fresh good quality of mushroom (125gm) Clean and cut them into small pieces Boiled the peeled green peas and potato make it into a paste Cut the onion, green chillies, coriander leave into small pieces] Grind the ginger into paste Mixed all the mixture and add turmeric powder, chili powder and salt Make the mixture into ball Dip the ball in gram flour paste Fry it in oil Serve in plates 15
  16. 16. METHOD OF PRODUCTION Maintenance of culture: The pure culture of Pleurotus sajar caju was obtained from the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture,Dapoli. The culture was maintained on potato dextrose agar medium and sub cultured at regular interval of three weeks. Preparation of spawn Spawn of pleurotus sajor caju was prepared on wheat grains. The grains were cleaned and boiled in hot water for 20-30 minutes taking care that the grains did not burst. After boiling, these grains were spread on filter paper for removing the excess water. Calcium carbonate@ 3-4per cent (wet weight basis) was mixed uniformly with grains and then filled into 500 ml milk bottles (each bottle contain 300gm boiled wheat grains). The bottles were plugged with non absorbent cotton and sterilized in an autoclave at 1.54kg/cm2 pressure for one hour. The bottles were inoculated with equal mycelial bits obtained from pure culture and incubated at room temperature (27±1◦C) for 10-15 days. Preparation of substrate Paddy straw is common waste farm in Konkan region also it obtained in low cost. Paddy straw contains high percentage of cellulose so that it was use as a substrate for cultivation of Pleurotus sajor caju. Paddy straw used for cultivation was stiff, clean and undamaged. The substrates was first chopped into 2”-3” pieces then filled in gunny bags and soaked overnight in cold water. 500 gm dry substrate was used for preparing one mushroom bed. After overnight soaking weight of 500 gm dry substrate increases to 2 kg wet substrate. Therefore one bed comprised of 500 gm dry substrate i.e.2 kg wet substrate. The gunny bag congaing soaked substrate was then transferred to plastic 16
  17. 17. drum with lid. Then hot boiling water was poured in the drum is such a way that the substrate was thoroughly in hot water. The lid was then placed on the drum to facilitate pasteurization. Preparation of supplements: Flour protein rich supplements viz., wheat bran, cotton seed cake, groundnut seed cake and gram dal flour were used for increasing the yield and increasing biological efficiency of Pleurotus sajor caju. Among the flour supplements, wheat bran was used at 10per cent flour of dry weight of substrate while cotton seed cake, gram dal flour and groundnut seed cake were used at 5per cent level. Prior to use, required quantities of the supplements were sterilized by autoclaving. Supplements were added to substrates at the time of spawning. Bed filling and maintenance After preparation of substrates and supplements by the above procedure, mushroom beds were prepared by using appropriate quantity of each substrate with each supplement. Two kg wet substrate can be properly accommodated in plastic bag (100 gauges) of size 55X35 cm. Hence these bags were used for filling beds. The beds were prepared by filling the layers of substrate, supplements and spawn in a sequence. Rate of spawning was two percent on wet weight basis of substrate. Filled plastic bag were then perforated on all side to provide proper aeration. Darkness favours rapid colonization of the substrate. Therefore these plastic bags were kept in the darkness at room temperature. Substrate colonization period range between 15-20 days depending upon the temperature and substrates supplement combination. 17
  18. 18. When the substrate was fully colonize, beds were opened and hanged to a firm support. Beds were watered as and required by giving gentle sprayer of water. Humidity in cropping rooms was maintained between 82-85 per cent. After first harvest, each bed was trimmed on the all side by a sharp knife. By maintaining 80-85per cent humidity, second flush was taken within a period of 10-12 and third flush 10 days after the second. Observation on biological efficiency were recorded by the formula, Biological efficiency = Fresh weight of mushroom X 100 Air dried substrates (Chang, 1981) Different recopies of mushroom Mushroom pakoras Mushroom -125g Gram dal flour -100g Backing powder - a pinch Salt, turmeric powder, chilli powder-According to test Oil to fry -250g First take the 300 g mushroom then clean, washed and cut into transverse pieces. Mushroom pieces were mixed with gram dal flour, salt, turmeric powder, red chilli powder and baking soda as per required amount with little water for preparation of butter. After that oil was heated and fried mushroom pakoras at a time till they become brown. 18
  19. 19. Mushroom pulav Mushroom -125gm Rice -100g Onion -1 Cumin seed - Cardamom -1 Bay leaf -2 Clove -1 to 2 Black pepper -2 to3 Ghee -2 table spoon Salt -according to taste table spoon The good quality of mushroom were selected for preparation of pulav. Mushroom were cleaned and washed with water and cut into small pieces. Then mushroom were fried in ghee. Afterfrying kept it aside. In some ghee add cumin, coriander, cardamom, clove, black pepper and bay leaves. When cumin seed where being to crackled onion was added and tied till light brown color appeared then rice were added with double quantity of water and salt for taste. After boiling of rice, fried mushroom pieces were added in rice. Then cooked on slow fire till the pulao was ready. 19
  20. 20. QUANTITY OF PRODUCE Treatment Paddy straw + cotton seed cake(5per cent) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Harvesting(gm) I II Treatment Paddy straw + wheat bran(10per cent) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Harvesting(gm) I II 360 365 350 370 390 350 320 340 355 360 375 III Total Cost yield(g/500g (Rs.) of dry substrate 70 580 70 590 90 600 80 610 80 620 80 610 90 590 70 580 70 615 90 680 75 610 Total 6685 Paddy straw supplemented with 5per cent cotton seed 6685 kg yield having cost Rs.1604.4 330 370 380 360 350 375 360 360 340 320 150 155 160 160 150 180 180 170 190 130 160 III 160 150 130 140 160 135 170 180 170 190 80 60 90 80 90 80 70 60 80 70 Total 20 139.2 141.6 144.0 146.4 148.8 146.4 141.6 139.2 147.6 163.2 146.4 1604.4 cake gives Total Cost yield(g/500g (Rs.) of dry substrate 570 580 600 580 600 590 600 600 590 580 5890 136.8 139.2 144.0 139.2 144.0 141.6 144.0 144.0 141.0 139.2 1413
  21. 21. Paddy straw supplemented with 10per cent wheat bran gives 5890 kg yield having cost Rs.1413 . Treatment Paddy straw + Gram dal flour(5per cent) 1 2 3 4 5 Harvesting I II 255 260 265 270 275 118 135 130 125 130 Total Cost yield(g/500g (Rs.) of dry substrate III 72 60 55 70 60 Total 445 455 450 465 465 2280 106 109 108 111 111 545 Paddy straw supplemented with 5per cent gram dal flour gives 2280 kg yield having cost Rs.545 Treatment Harvesting Control I II (unsupplement) 1 2 3 4 5 230 235 230 235 225 115 120 110 125 125 III 50 45 45 40 45 total Total yield(g/500g of dry substrate 395 400 385 390 395 1965 Cost (Rs.) 94 96 92 93 94 469 Paddy straw with no supplemented gives 1965 kg yield having cost Rs.469 21
  22. 22. PRODUCTION COST  Cost required for spawn preparation Rs.240/-  Cost required for preparation of 80 beds is Rs.271/-  Supplements required for preparation of 80 beds is Rs. 79.75/ Plastic bags required for marketing of mushrooms Rs.8/ For preparation of one bed is Rs.13.50/- Total input cost required for mushroom cultivation is Rs.612.25 22
  23. 23. MARKETING STRATEGY OF MUSHROOM We sold fresh mushroom in our college campus including staff, student, worker, and also nearly people in village named kharawate. We also sold our mushroom to various in sawarda. 23
  24. 24. PROBLEM FACED 1. Temperature and humidity Due to high temperature there is slow growth of mycelium on beds and due to this time required for harvesting increases. Due to high temperature and low humidity ,the pinheads and mature mushroom dries quickly. 24
  25. 25. SUGGESTION TO OVERCOME PROBLEM 1. For maintansing temperature and humidity in cropping room: We had sprayed water on walls of the room. We staged the water in room. Wetted gunny bags were spread on the floors. 2. For collection of good quality paddy straw: We collected the paddy straw from the nearest village “ Agave 25
  26. 26. BUDGET OF PROJECT A) Total working capital B) Depreciation on machinery and equipments at 10% C) Interest on total capital investment at11% A) Total working capital :1.Personal: 1. Manager 2. Supervisor 3. labor Total Rate 2500 1500 1000 Total (Rs) 30000 18000 12000 60000 2. Raw material: 1. Spawn 2. Paddy straw 3. Polyethylene bag 4. Supplement (wheat straw) 5. Cotton seed cake 6. bamboo Total 3. Utilities: 1. power 2. water Total Rate 90/kg 0.50/bag 0.50/bag Quantity 200 5000 2200 Total (Rs) 18000 2500 1100 28/kg 18 504 30/kg 25 750 15/bamboo 20 300 23154 500/month 50/month 2000 600 2600 26
  27. 27. 4.Other expenses:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Land and building Telephone Transportation Advertisement Miscellaneous Stationary Total 6000/3000/12000/600/500/300/22400/- Total working capital: 60000+23154+2600+22400=108154 B) Depreciation Machinery 1. Laminar air flaw 2. Autoclave 3. Freeze 4. Cooker 5. Cylinder 6. Sprayer Total on machinery: Quantity 1 Rate (Rs) 35000 1 1 1 1 3 Total (Rs) 35000 15000 15000 500 2500 900 68900(10%)=6890 B) Depreciation on machinery =6890 C) Interest on total capital : 108154+68900=177054 (11%)=19475 D) Total project cost :-177054 E) Total income= 321600 F) B.C.R.= 321600/177054=1.8 27
  28. 28. Cost of production of mushroom for 80 beds :A. Variable cost Particular Paddy straw Bags Unit/quantity Rate Amount (Rs) 160 bundle 0.50 80 80bag 1/bag 80 Other Supplement Labor charges 50 2 kg 28/kg 56 4 120/day 480 Interest on working capital (10%) Rental value of lab Total variable cost B) Fixed cost 74.6 450 1196 Depreciation on fixed capital (rack) Interest on fixed capital @10% C) Total fixed cost D) Total cost C 50 3 53 1249 E) Gross returns F) Net returns 6000 4751 G) B.C.R. 4.8 Conclusion : It is clear from above table the net returns required after production of 80 beds of mushroom is Rs. 4751 and BCR is 4.8 28
  29. 29. CONCLUSION  In Konkan region, the temperature is suitable for oyster mushroom cultivation.  Due it simple cultivation techniques it is very easy to cultivate mushroom at home scale for farmers.  In Konkan region, maximum farmers are depending on monsoon, so after Kharif season there is no source of income for farmer. Oyster mushroom cultivation gives big source of income to farmer due to its easy method of cultivation, low production cost, high demand its delicious taste, nutritional value and better market price.  In Konkan region, there is easily availability of paddy straw and other inputs that required for cultivation oyster mushroom cultivation.  We used different supplement and thus found that there was yield by using cotton seed cake as supplement.  Due to delicious taste ,nutritional value and big demand we get better market price. 29
  30. 30. REPORT OF EXPOSURE VISITE Venue :- College of Agriculture, Dapoli. Date :- 04 ⁄ 03 ⁄ 2012 We visited mushroom unit of College of Agriculture, Dapoli. We meet the Prof. P. G. Borker. He was shown different types and species of mushroom with it’s own research on power point presentation. He was given the detail information about cultivation of White Button Mushroom. He had shown morphology of mushroom and difference between morphology of different species of mushroom. Borker Sir. Also shown actual cultivation of Oyster Mushroom with frogger system. 30
  31. 31. FUTURE LINE OF WORK Mushrooms are being used as a food and medicine since long time. Their cultivation on extensive scale can help to solve many problems such as protein shortage, resource recovery and reuse as well as part of environmental management. it s necessary to cultivate it on large scale for benefit of the country. Thus, it is necessary to fulfill the requirement of enormous increasing population and hence alternate resource is production 31
  32. 32. References Abere S.A and H.O Stanley (2011) cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus tuber-regium on supplemented corn cob with rice bran of substrates) Greener Journal of agriculture science vol. 1(2),pp.018021. Chang S.T, O. W. Lao and K. Y. Chock (1981). The cultivation and nutritive value of P. sajar caju. European J. Appl. Microbial. Biotechnol.,12:5862. Chiejina, V. Nveka, olufokunbi and J. Olumide (2010). Effect on different substrates on the yield and protein content of Pleurotus tuberregium. Affrican J. of biotechnology vol 9(11) PP.1573-1577. Indira. V., P. Dhasarathan and N.Anandadevi (2010). Impact of Agnihotra in mushroom cultivation Technology. J. Biosci. Res.,2010 Vol 1(4) :245-250. Islam M. Z, M.H Rahman and F. Hafiz (2000). Cultivation of Oyster mushroom (P.flabellatus) on different substates, In sustain crop product. 4(1):45-48 Mandeel . A., A. A. Altaith and S.A. Mohame (2005). Cultivation on oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) on various lignocellulosic wastes. World journal of microbiology and biotechnology 21(4):601-607. 32
  33. 33. ABBREVIATIONS @ At the rate ◦C Degree centigrade and other g Gram(s) lit Liter(s) kg Kilogram(s) % Percent I.e. That is 33
  34. 34. Isolation of pure culture Pure culture of Oyster mushroom Preparation of spawn Isolation of pure culture Figure 1 Preparation of spawn Fully prepared spawn Cutting of paddy straw 34
  35. 35. Soaking in cold water Drained out excess cold water Drain out excess hot water Hot water treatment for sterilization Preparation of Beds Layer spawning 35
  36. 36. Pinning of mushroom bed Spawn run Spawn run period Removal of polythene bag Hanging of mushroom bed Spraying of water on bed 36
  37. 37. Pin head stage Mature mushroom Spraying water on mushroom bed Harvesting of mushroom Figure 2 Cleaning of mushroom Harvested mushroom Scrapping of mushroom bed 37
  38. 38. Mushroom for marketing Mushroom pulav Mushroom-pea curry Mushroom omlet Mushroom cutlet 38
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  42. 42. Pin head stage Mature mushroom Harvesting of mushroom Harvested mushroom Cleaning of mushroom Scrapping of mushroom bed 42
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