Mushroom cultivation is the most suitable technology for creating
wealth out of plant, animal and industrial waste. Which are abundantly
available all over the globe. Mushroom cultivation is the gaining momentum
worldwide because of dietary food protein.
Mushroom cultivation is unique in the sense that it is the most
lignocelluloses material into high quality protein food. Mushroom cultivation
can subsidies income of millions of farmers.
Oyster mushroom is known as the wood fungus and in India is
commonly known as “Dhingri”. Oyster mushroom is scientifically known as
Pleurotus spp. Pleurotus is Basidiomycetes fungus belonging to order
Agaricles and family Trichomataceae/Polyporaceae. There are about 38
species described under genus Pleurotus from different part of the world, out
of which 25 species are under cultivation. They mainly include Pleurotus
osteatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus flabellatus, Pleurotus sajar caju,
Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus membranaceous, Pleurotus citrinopileatus,
Pleurotus eous and Pleurotus florida, P. cornicorpae.
Pleurotus sajar caju was first reported by Jandaik and Kapoor in
1974, can be grown in the temperature range of 20-300C with 70-85per cent
humidity, it has a good biological efficiency 84-90per cent under optimum
condition. Oyster mushroom contains 90per cent moisture , 4-5per cent
carbohydrate on wet weight basis, 20-35per cent protein, low sugar, low fat,
low starch, high fibre and sodium potassium ratio. They contain good
amount of C and B complex (thiamine, riboflavin and niacin). It also
contains minerals, iron (Fe), Phosphorus (P), Potassium(K) and sodium(Na)
and also low but available form of Iron(Fe).
The Oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. is saprophytic fungus
commercially cultivated throughout the
basidiocarp and simple cultivation technology. Oyster mushroom is having
capacity to grow in tropical and subtropical region. It is being cultivated in
Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Panjab (Chandra and Sharma in 1995).
Oyster mushroom can be use in different kitchen items such as
pickle, chutney, pakoda, bhaji, pulav, mix vegetables, kofta and other
delicious items etc.
Its cultivation is popular due to its rapid mycelial growth,
pleasant flavour, wide adoptablity and simple method of cultivation.
To learn various production techniques of mushroom
To get practical and experimental oriented knowledge of
To increases the yield of Pleurotus sajar caju by
supplementation of different supplements.
To prepared value added products from fresh mushroom.
Mandeel et.al (2005). Cultivated three spp. of Pleurotus viz., P.
columbinus, P.sajar-caju and P. ostreatus on organic waste such as chopped
paper,cardboard, sawdust and plant fibres. Higher yield of P. columbinus
was obtained on cardboard (135.5 g) followed by paper (100.8 g). P.
ostreatus produced maximum yield on paper (112.4 g) however, P. sajar-caju
failed to lowest yield on unsupplemented paddy straw (B.E 70 per cent).
Islam et.al.(2009).Evaluated performance of Pleurotus flabellatus on
seven different types of substrates viz., Mango, Jackfruit, Coconut, Jam,
Kadom, Manogony, Shiris sawdust with wheat bran and CaCO3. The
maximum biological efficiency was obtained with mango saw dust (150gm),
Jam(114gm), Jackfruit (97gm) and Coconut saw dust (83gm). Coconut saw
mushroom.produced satisfactory yield on all the substrates under study.
Indira et.al (2010). Studied the effect of Agnihotra on yield of P.
In this experiment paddy straw was supplemented with
Agnihotra ash ,Groundnut seed cake, Horse gram
powder, Cotton seed
powder among this supplement Agnihotra ash recorded higher (B.E. 97.5
per cent) yield in paddy straw while.
Chiejinas et.al (2010). Studied the effect of seven substrates for
cultivation of Pleurotus tuberregium. The substrates used were top soil, river
sand, Fermented sawdust, Fermented oil palm fruit fiber, Mixture of top soil
and Fermented sawdust, mixture of fermented oil palm fruit fibre and
fermented sawdust, mixture of river sand and fermented sawdust. Among
the seven substrates river sand and sawdust mixture produced significantly
Abere and Stanley (2011). Cultivated P.Tuber-regium on corncob
supplemented with rice bran at 10, 20 and 30 percent concentration on dry
weight basis. 30per cent supplementation of rice bran gave higher yield as
compared to other treatments.
Name of Department:- Department of Plant Pathology
Name of College :- Sharadchandraji Pawar College
of Agriculture, Kharwate-Dahiwali.
Tal.- Chiplun, Dist.- Ratnagiri.
Name of University :- Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan
Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Dapoli.
1 December 2011 to 4 April 2012
INPUT DETAILS: (Quantity and Cost of input)
A. For preparation of spawn (For 80 beds):
Cost required for preparation 8 kg spawn is Rs.240.
B. Cost required for preparation of one bed:
For preparation one bed Rs. 13.50 Required
C. Cost required for preparation of 80 beds:
Cost required for preparation of 80 beds is Rs.271
D. Supplement required for preparation of 50 beds:
Quantity (g) Cost (Rs.)
Gram dal flour(5 per
Cotton seed cake(5 per
Groundnut seed cake(5
Cost required for supplementation of 25 beds is Rs. 30
E. For marketing of mushroom bags required:
Total cost of bags- Rs. 8
used for preparation of mushroom pakoda
Quantity (g) Cost (Rs.)
According to 2
powder, red chilli
Cost required for preparation of mushroom pakoda is Rs.47
G. Input used for preparation of mushroom pulav
2 tables spoon
According to taste
Cost required for preparation of mushroom pulav is Rs.53
H. Total input cost required for mushroom cultivation
Preparation of 80 beds
Supplements of 25 beds
Dehydration of mushrooms
SUMMARY OF WORK PERFORMANCE
Mushroom is ideal agent for conversion of agro waste into
protein rich material. Among all the Pleurotus spp. is having ability to
grow in temperature range of 20-300C, its substrate colonization time
is late and it is more delicious than most of the species.
Oyster mushroom was grown on paddy straw. Paddy straw
are easily available in Konkan region, it act as good substrate for
mushroom cultivation. So that paddy straw was used for cultivation of
Pleurotus sajar caju. Mushroom beds were treated by using paddy
straw substrate supplemented with different supplements such as,
wheat bran (10per cent on dry weight basis substrate), cotton seed
cake, groundnut seed cake, gram dal flour (5 per cent on dry weight
basis of substrate). Among the substrate supplement combination tied
highest yield was observed in paddy straw supplemented with cotton
seed cake (610 g/500g dry substrate) that followed by paddy straw
supplemented with wheat bran
(600 g). However lowest yield was
observed in controlled treatment (Unsupplemented paddy straw).
From fresh mushroom we prepared value added products
such as mushrooms pakoras, mushroom pulav, mushroom pickle,
Steps involve in preparation of spawn
Good quality wheat grains
Clean and dry wheat grains
Soaked in water for (8-10 hrs)
Boiled the wheat grains up to they become soft(Avoid splitting)
Remove excess water
Spread on plastic sheet and add 4% CaCo3
Fill in conical flasks
Plugged with non-absorbent cotton
Kept in autoclave at 15 lbs pressure at 121◦C for 15 min.
Remove it from autoclave
Inoculation with pure culture
Incubate at room temperature (25±20C) for 1 week
Steps involve in preparation of Mushroom bed
Raw material (paddy straw)
Chopping (3-5 cm)
Fill up in gunny bags
Soaking in water (8-12 hrs)
Drain off excess water
Dip in hot water (80-85◦C) for 1-2 hrs
Drain of excess water
On cooling to room temperature bags with filled in layers of substrate,
supplement and spawn
Spawn running (15-20 days)
Remove plastic bags cover and maintain humidity, light and ventilation
Pinhead stage (3-5 days)
Cropping fruit flush, (3-4 days duration after pinhead) and subsequent
flushes about 10 days interval
Picking on maturity (before spore shedding start)
Fresh mushroom (125gm)
Cleaning and washing with water
Cut into transverse pieces
Mix them with gram flour, salt, turmeric powder, red chilli powder and
Add little water
Fry mushroom pakodas till it become light brown
Good quality mushroom (125g)
Cleaning, washing and cutting in small pieces
Fry lightly in ghee and kept aside
Add cumin, cardamom, cloves, black pepper and bay leaves in ghee
Add onion and fry upto light brown colouration
Add rice and double quantity water and salt to taste
Add mushrooms after boiling of rice
Cook on slow fire for few minute
Serve in plates
Fresh good quality of mushroom (125gm)
Clean and cut them into small pieces
Boiled the peeled green peas and potato make it into a paste
Cut the onion, green chillies, coriander leave into small pieces]
Grind the ginger into paste
Mixed all the mixture and add turmeric powder, chili powder and salt
Make the mixture into ball
Dip the ball in gram flour paste
Fry it in oil
Serve in plates
METHOD OF PRODUCTION
Maintenance of culture:
The pure culture of Pleurotus sajar caju was obtained from
the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture,Dapoli. The
culture was maintained on potato dextrose agar medium and sub
cultured at regular interval of three weeks.
Preparation of spawn
Spawn of pleurotus sajor
caju was prepared on wheat
grains. The grains were cleaned and boiled in hot water for 20-30
minutes taking care that the grains did not burst. After boiling, these
grains were spread on filter paper for removing the excess water.
Calcium carbonate@ 3-4per cent (wet weight basis) was mixed
uniformly with grains and then filled into 500 ml milk bottles (each
bottle contain 300gm boiled wheat grains). The bottles were plugged
with non absorbent cotton and sterilized in an autoclave at
1.54kg/cm2 pressure for one hour. The bottles were inoculated with
equal mycelial bits obtained from pure culture and incubated at room
temperature (27±1◦C) for 10-15 days.
Preparation of substrate
Paddy straw is common waste farm in Konkan region also it
obtained in low cost. Paddy straw contains high percentage of cellulose
so that it was use as a substrate for cultivation of Pleurotus sajor caju.
Paddy straw used for cultivation was stiff, clean and undamaged. The
substrates was first chopped into 2”-3” pieces then filled in gunny
bags and soaked overnight in cold water. 500 gm dry substrate was
used for preparing one mushroom bed. After overnight soaking weight
of 500 gm dry substrate increases to 2 kg wet substrate. Therefore one
bed comprised of 500 gm dry substrate i.e.2 kg wet substrate. The
gunny bag congaing soaked substrate was then transferred to plastic
drum with lid. Then hot boiling water was poured in the drum is such
a way that the substrate was thoroughly in hot water. The lid was then
placed on the drum to facilitate pasteurization.
Preparation of supplements:
Flour protein rich supplements viz., wheat bran, cotton seed
cake, groundnut seed cake and gram dal flour were used for
increasing the yield and increasing biological efficiency of Pleurotus
sajor caju. Among the flour supplements, wheat bran was used at
10per cent flour of dry weight of substrate while cotton seed cake,
gram dal flour and groundnut seed cake were used at 5per cent level.
Prior to use, required quantities of the supplements were sterilized by
autoclaving. Supplements were added to substrates at the time of
Bed filling and maintenance
After preparation of substrates and supplements by the
above procedure, mushroom beds were prepared by using appropriate
quantity of each substrate with each supplement. Two kg wet
substrate can be properly accommodated in plastic bag (100 gauges) of
size 55X35 cm. Hence these bags were used for filling beds. The beds
were prepared by filling the layers of substrate, supplements and
spawn in a sequence. Rate of spawning was two percent on wet weight
basis of substrate. Filled plastic bag were then perforated on all side to
provide proper aeration. Darkness favours rapid colonization of the
substrate. Therefore these plastic bags were kept in the darkness at
room temperature. Substrate colonization period range between 15-20
days depending upon the temperature and substrates supplement
When the substrate was fully colonize, beds were opened
and hanged to a firm support. Beds were watered as and required by
giving gentle sprayer of water. Humidity in cropping rooms was
maintained between 82-85 per cent.
After first harvest, each bed was trimmed on the all side by
a sharp knife. By maintaining 80-85per cent humidity, second flush
was taken within a period of 10-12 and third flush 10 days after the
Observation on biological efficiency were recorded by the
Biological efficiency =
Fresh weight of mushroom
Air dried substrates
(Chang et.al, 1981)
Different recopies of mushroom
Gram dal flour
- a pinch
Salt, turmeric powder, chilli powder-According to test
Oil to fry
First take the 300 g mushroom then clean, washed and cut
into transverse pieces. Mushroom pieces were mixed with gram dal
flour, salt, turmeric powder, red chilli powder and baking soda as per
required amount with little water for preparation of butter. After that
oil was heated and fried mushroom pakoras at a time till they become
-1 to 2
-2 table spoon
-according to taste
The good quality of mushroom were selected for preparation
of pulav. Mushroom were cleaned and washed with water and cut into
small pieces. Then mushroom were fried in ghee. Afterfrying kept it
aside. In some ghee add cumin, coriander, cardamom, clove, black
pepper and bay leaves. When cumin seed where being to crackled
onion was added and tied till light brown color appeared then rice were
added with double quantity of water and salt for taste. After boiling of
rice, fried mushroom pieces were added in rice. Then cooked on slow
fire till the pulao was ready.
Paddy straw supplemented with 10per cent wheat bran gives
5890 kg yield having cost Rs.1413
Paddy straw supplemented with 5per cent gram dal flour gives
2280 kg yield having cost Rs.545
Paddy straw with no supplemented gives 1965 kg yield having
Cost required for spawn preparation Rs.240/-
Cost required for preparation of 80 beds is Rs.271/-
Supplements required for preparation of 80 beds is
Plastic bags required for marketing of mushrooms
For preparation of one bed is Rs.13.50/-
Total input cost required for mushroom cultivation is
MARKETING STRATEGY OF MUSHROOM
We sold fresh mushroom in our college campus including
staff, student, worker, and also nearly people in village named
We also sold our mushroom to various in sawarda.
Temperature and humidity
Due to high temperature there is slow growth of mycelium
on beds and due to this time required for harvesting increases.
Due to high temperature and low humidity ,the pinheads
and mature mushroom dries quickly.
SUGGESTION TO OVERCOME PROBLEM
1. For maintansing temperature and humidity in cropping room:
We had sprayed water on walls of the room.
We staged the water in room.
Wetted gunny bags were spread on the floors.
2. For collection of good quality paddy straw:
We collected the paddy straw from the nearest village “ Agave
BUDGET OF PROJECT
A) Total working capital
B) Depreciation on machinery and equipments at 10%
C) Interest on total capital investment at11%
A) Total working capital :1.Personal:
2. Raw material:
2. Paddy straw
5. Cotton seed
Land and building
Total working capital: 60000+23154+2600+22400=108154
1. Laminar air
B) Depreciation on machinery =6890
C) Interest on total capital : 108154+68900=177054 (11%)=19475
D) Total project cost :-177054
E) Total income= 321600
F) B.C.R.= 321600/177054=1.8
Cost of production of mushroom for 80 beds :A. Variable
Rental value of
B) Fixed cost
Interest on fixed
C) Total fixed
D) Total cost C
F) Net returns
Conclusion : It is clear from above table the net returns required after
production of 80 beds of mushroom is Rs. 4751 and BCR is 4.8
In Konkan region, the temperature is suitable for oyster mushroom
Due it simple cultivation techniques it is very easy to cultivate
mushroom at home scale for farmers.
In Konkan region, maximum farmers are depending on monsoon, so
after Kharif season there is no source of income for farmer. Oyster
mushroom cultivation gives big source of income to farmer due to its
easy method of cultivation, low production cost, high demand its
delicious taste, nutritional value and better market price.
In Konkan region, there is easily availability of paddy straw and other
inputs that required for cultivation oyster mushroom cultivation.
We used different supplement and thus found that there was yield by
using cotton seed cake as supplement.
Due to delicious taste ,nutritional value and big demand we get better
REPORT OF EXPOSURE VISITE
:- College of Agriculture, Dapoli.
:- 04 ⁄ 03 ⁄ 2012
We visited mushroom unit of College of Agriculture, Dapoli. We
meet the Prof. P. G. Borker. He was shown different types and species
of mushroom with it’s own research on power point presentation. He
was given the detail information about cultivation of White Button
Mushroom. He had shown morphology of mushroom and difference
between morphology of different species of mushroom. Borker Sir. Also
shown actual cultivation of Oyster Mushroom with frogger system.
FUTURE LINE OF WORK
Mushrooms are being used as a food and medicine since long time. Their
cultivation on extensive scale can help to solve many problems such as
protein shortage, resource recovery and reuse as well as part of
environmental management. it s necessary to cultivate it on large scale for
benefit of the country. Thus, it is necessary to fulfill the requirement of
enormous increasing population and hence alternate resource is production
Abere S.A and H.O Stanley (2011) cultivation of oyster mushroom
(Pleurotus tuber-regium on supplemented corn cob with rice bran of
substrates) Greener Journal of agriculture science vol. 1(2),pp.018021.
Chang S.T, O. W. Lao and K. Y. Chock (1981). The cultivation and nutritive
value of P. sajar caju. European J. Appl. Microbial. Biotechnol.,12:5862.
Chiejina, V. Nveka, olufokunbi and J. Olumide (2010). Effect on different
substrates on the yield and protein content of Pleurotus
tuberregium. Affrican J. of biotechnology vol 9(11) PP.1573-1577.
Indira. V., P. Dhasarathan and N.Anandadevi (2010). Impact of Agnihotra
in mushroom cultivation Technology. J. Biosci. Res.,2010 Vol 1(4)
Islam M. Z, M.H Rahman and F. Hafiz (2000). Cultivation of Oyster
mushroom (P.flabellatus) on different substates, In sustain crop
Mandeel . A., A. A. Altaith and S.A. Mohame (2005). Cultivation on oyster
mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) on various lignocellulosic wastes. World
journal of microbiology and biotechnology 21(4):601-607.
At the rate
Isolation of pure culture
Pure culture of Oyster mushroom
Preparation of spawn
Isolation of pure culture
Preparation of spawn
Fully prepared spawn
Cutting of paddy straw
Soaking in cold water
Drained out excess cold water
Drain out excess hot water
Hot water treatment for sterilization
Preparation of Beds
Pinning of mushroom bed
Spawn run period
Removal of polythene bag
Hanging of mushroom bed
Spraying of water on bed
Pin head stage
Spraying water on
Harvesting of mushroom
Cleaning of mushroom
Scrapping of mushroom bed