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Early childhood (Cognitive Development)

Concept of Conservation, Developmental Memory Skills and Vygotsky's Sociocultural Approach

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Early childhood (Cognitive Development)

  1. 1. Early Childhood Cognitive Development
  2. 2. Early Childhood Age group 2-6 years. Period of rapid physical, mental, emotional, social and language development
  3. 3. Early Childhood •Foundation period of life. •Period of slow growth and rapid development. •“Pre-School age”.
  4. 4. Cognitive Development (Conservation Concepts, Classifying, Ordering Objects, Memory Abilities)
  5. 5. Pre-operational Stage  Capable of representational thought such as through drawings.  Ability to engage in pretend play. Cognitive Development
  6. 6. Limitations in Pre-operational Stage • Egocentrism • Concept of Conservation • Logical Inferences Cognitive Development
  7. 7. Limitations in Pre-operational Stage Egocentrism Piaget noted that children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people.
  8. 8. Concept of Conservation  The fact that some of properties of objects remain the same while other properties are changing.  In Piaget’s theory, preoperational children do not grasp this concept. Limitations in Pre-operational Stage
  9. 9. Limitations in Pre-operational Stage Logical Inferences  Children's thinking in pre- operational is dominated by the concrete reality of the way things look.
  10. 10. Concept of Conservation By Jean Piaget
  11. 11. Conservation of Number
  12. 12. Conservation of Length
  13. 13. Conservation of Mass Conservation of Area
  14. 14. Conservation of Displaced Liquid
  15. 15. Development of Memory Skills
  17. 17. Recognition •Ability to identify an object, person, or quality that was encountered before. Recall •Ability to reproduce material from memory
  18. 18. Recognition vs. Recall  4-year olds are usually able to recall only three or four items  Pre-schooler’s recognition memory is much better than their recall  Because they have taken in-or encoded- information and retained over time.
  19. 19. Poor Recall attributed to Use of strategies for retrieval  Pre-schoolers don’t memorize  Use of Categorization strategies  Not based from semantic content Lack of knowledge about the materials
  20. 20. Poor Recall attributed to Lack of knowledge about memory itself Metamemory • Knowledge about memory itself- about memory tasks, strategies and conditions • Pre-schoolers cannot explain that remembering the gist of a short story is easier that reciting it verbatim.
  21. 21. • The young child’s ideas about the nature of mental activities, especially those of people around them. • Children who have daily interactions are more advanced in their understanding of false beliefs than those with fewer interactions
  22. 22. the ability to hear and manipulate sounds of spoken language – the concept that the last number in a counting series represents the quantity of objects in a set.  Dialogic reading  Exposure to the alphabet and to printed materials of all kinds.
  23. 23. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Approach • He emphasized the contexts in which children’s learning takes place. • He stressed the role of guided participation in children’s learning. • Children learn how to perform the to become independent participants in activities that are valued by their culture.
  24. 24. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Approach Scaffolding– adults support that allow young children to begin to participate in family activities. • By gradually decreasing the amount of scaffolding they provide, parents enable children to act independently.
  25. 25. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Approach (ZPD) the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers • Private speech arises out of children’s internalization of speech that they have heard from others.