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Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychology

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Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychology

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
  2. 2. Cognitive Psychology Is… <ul><li>The study of how people perceive, learn, remember, and think about information. </li></ul>Problem Solving Attention Memory Decision Making Reading Language
  3. 3. Dialectic Progression of Ideas: Hegel Thesis Antithesis flaws/alt idea Synthesis: best of both New Thesis flaws/alt idea
  4. 4. Rationalist Logic & reasoning is key Empiricist Experience & observation is key Philosophical Roots
  5. 5. Rationalism (Descartes) Empiricism (Locke) Synthesis: Both have a role (Kant)
  6. 6. Structuralism (Titchener) Functionalism (James) led to Pragmatists Synthesis: Associationism (Ebbinghaus & Thorndike)
  7. 7. Associationism (Thorndike) Behaviorism (Pavlov) Synthesis: Extreme form of Behaviorism took hold. Psychology should study only observable behavior (Watson & Skinner).
  8. 8. Behaviorism Dominated until…. Synthesis: Cognitions should play an active role in psychology (Gestalt, Bandura) Less radical Behaviorist Cognitive Map (Tolman)
  9. 9. Contributions to Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Hebb & Lashley emphasize how cognition could be explained by neuroscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Chompsky’s review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior: “ reductio ad absurdum ” </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Computers and Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>These developments led to the “ cognitive revolution ” and increased interest in the study of mental processes (cognitions) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Methods <ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Psychobiological studies </li></ul><ul><li>Self report </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Simulations </li></ul>
  11. 11. In an Experiment… <ul><li>Random sample of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate the Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create experimental group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create control group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomly assign participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure the Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same for all groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control all other variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent confounds </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Typical Independent Variables <ul><li>Manipulate stimulus materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare words to non-words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare color diagrams to black and white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare Yes questions to No questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control how participants process materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use imagery to study versus repetition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary speed of presentation of materials </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Typical Dependent Variables <ul><li>Reaction Time (milliseconds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental events take time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy/Error analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How well the participant does on a task </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Psychobiological Studies <ul><li>Postmortem studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the cortex of dyslexics after death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain damaged individuals and their deficits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study amnesiacs with hippocampus damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor a participant doing a cognitive task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure brain activity while a participant is reciting a poem </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Self Report Studies <ul><li>Verbal Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants describe their conscious thoughts while solving a story problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diary Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants keep track of memory failures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor decision making of pilots during flights </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Case Studies <ul><li>Intensive studies of individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May examine archival records, interviews, direct observation, or participant-observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity of successful individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The deficits of a neglected child </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Computers in Research <ul><li>Analogy for human Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sequence of symbol manipulation that underlies thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal: discovery of the programs in humans’ memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer simulations of Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreate human processes using computers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Underlying Themes <ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism vs. Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Structures vs. Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Generality vs. Domain Specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Causal Inferences vs. Ecological validity </li></ul><ul><li>Applied vs. Basic Research </li></ul><ul><li>Biological vs. Behavioral Methods </li></ul>
  19. 19. Key Ideas in Cognitive… Theory Data Data can only be fully explained with theories, and theories are insufficient without data – thus creating the cycle of science.
  20. 20. Key Ideas in Cognitive… <ul><li>Cognition is typically adaptive, but errors made can be informative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- Spoonerisms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of pies (A pack of lies) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It's roaring with pain (It's pouring with rain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors can be used to infer how speech production occurs. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Key Ideas in Cognitive… <ul><li>Cognitive processes interact with each other and with non-cognitive processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions may affect decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working memory capacity contributes to reading speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception contributes to memory decisions </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Key Ideas in Cognitive… <ul><li>Many different methods are used to study cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical studies </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Key Ideas in Cognitive… <ul><li>Basic research often leads to important applications and applied research often contributes to a more basic understanding of cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priming is explained by spreading activation in memory, and can also explain why skilled readers may read faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying the common errors that 1 st graders make in math class can help us to better understand how humans process mathematical information </li></ul></ul>

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