chapter 9


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chapter 9

  1. 1. Part III The Play Years: Cognitive Development Chapter Nine Piaget and Vygotsky Children’s Theories Language Early-Childhood Education
  2. 2. The Play Years: Cognitive Development <ul><li>… thinking and learning from age 2 to 6… </li></ul><ul><li>… remarkable advances in language and thought… </li></ul><ul><li>… the simple sentence of the typical 2-year-old that are nonstop, complex outpourings of a talkative 6-year-old, who can explain almost anything… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Piaget and Vygotsk <ul><li>…famous for their description of cognition… the eager learning of children… are compatible in many ways… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Piaget <ul><li>Piaget: Preoperational Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>preoperational intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes languages and imagination (in addition to the senses and motor skills of infancy), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Piaget <ul><li>Obstacles to Logical Operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>centration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>egocentrism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget’s term for children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a characteristic of preoperational though in which a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Piaget <ul><li>Obstacles to Logical Operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>static reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thinking that nothing changes: Whatever is now has always been and always will be </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irreversibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that nothing can be undone; the inability to recognize that something can sometimes be restored to the way it was before a change occurred </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Piaget <ul><li>Conservation and Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Piaget
  9. 9. Piaget <ul><li>Limitations of Piaget’s Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget underestimated the conceptual ability of young children and infants… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>designing his experiments to reveal what children seemed not to understand, rather than to identify what they could understand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relied on the child’s words rather than the child’s nonverbal signs in play context </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Vygotsk <ul><li>Vygotsky: Social Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>young children can be very sensitive to the wishes and emotions of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>young children have social thoughts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Vygotsk <ul><li>Children as Apprentices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive development is embedded in a social context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curious and observant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ask questions </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Vygotsk <ul><li>Children as Apprentices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>apprentice in thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older more skilled members of society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guided participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Vygotsk <ul><li>Children as Apprentices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>guided participation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Vygotsk <ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>zone of proximal development (ZPD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the skills that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZPD applies to the ideas or cognitive skills a person is close to mastering as well as to more apparent skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scaffolding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>temporary support that is tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Vygotsk <ul><li>Language as a Toll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>private speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a function of speech by which a person’s cognitive skills are refined and extended through both formal instruction and casual conversation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Children’s Theories <ul><li>Theory-Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Children’s Theories <ul><li>Theory of Mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a person’s theory of what other people might be thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the realization is seldom possible before age 4 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Children’s Theories <ul><li>Belief and Reality: Understanding the Difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a sudden leap of understanding occurs at about age 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>between age 3 – 6 children come to realize that thoughts may not reflect reality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Children’s Theories <ul><li>Contextual Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maturation of the brain’s prefrontal cortex appears to be the reason for the age-related advance in children </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Language <ul><li>is pivotal to cognition in early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>is the leading cognitive accomplishment in early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>24-month-olds begin this period with short sentences and limited vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>6-year-olds end it with the ability to understand and discuss almost anything </li></ul>
  21. 21. Language <ul><li>critical period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a time when a certain development must happen if it is ever to happen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>sensitive period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen and happens most easily </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Language <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new words are added rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at age 2 knows about 500 words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at age 6 about 10,000 words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Language <ul><li>Fast-Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by mentally charting them into categories according to their meaning </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Language <ul><li>Words and the Limits of Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>logical extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>used to describe other objects in the same category </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use of available vocabulary to cover all the territory they want to talk about </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Language <ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar of language includes the structure, techniques, and rules that are used to communicate meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parts of grammar: word order and word repetition, prefixes and suffixes, intonation and emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overregularization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, so that the language is made to seem more “regular” than it actually is </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Language <ul><li>Learning Two Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bilingualism is an asset—a necessity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language-minority children are at a disadvantage (not the dominant language of the nation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more likely to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do poorly in school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feel ashamed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>become unemployed as adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning the majority language is crucial </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Language <ul><ul><li>What is the goal of having a second language? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research supports that children should learn at least two languages…the language-sensitive years of early childhood are the best time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>soon after the vocabulary explosion, young are able to master two languages—distinct sets of words and grammar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young children have difficulty with pronunciation in every language, but this does not slow down their learning of a second language </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Language <ul><ul><li>Bilingualism, Cognition, and Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Since language is integral to culture, bilingualism is embedded in emotions of ethnic pride and fear. This reality hampers developmental research.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Language <ul><ul><li>Constant Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The basics of language learning… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>explosion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fast-mapping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>overregularization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extensive practice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… apply to bilingual learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Languages continually change… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negro to Black to African American </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hip-hop; e-mail; DVD; spam; blog; cell (phone); rap (music); buff (in shape) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other languages are basic English vocabulary – salsa, loco, amour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Early-Childhood Education <ul><ul><li>a hundred years ago children had no formal education until first grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today 3 – 5-year-olds in developed nations are in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>early educational institutions differ, but names do not indicate the nature of the program </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Early-Childhood Education
  32. 32. Early-Childhood Education <ul><li>Child-Centered Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Montessori Schools </li></ul><ul><li>The Reggio Emilia Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-Directed Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Programs </li></ul>
  33. 33. Early-Childhood Education <ul><li>Costs and Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quality early-childhood education matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial aspects are especially significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parents pay the bulk of the cost or preschool in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality child care: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adequate space and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low adult-child ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>positive social interaction among children and adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trained staff and educated parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continuity helps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ How long has each staff member worked at the center?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>