What are the industrial cities ?
How can we classify the industrial cities ?
Planning Principles for Factories and its
Related Service Buildings
Examples of industrial cities
Industrial cities appeared after the full
development of industrial capitalism in the core
nation-states of the late 18th-century world
Their urban cultural role fit well with the
capitalist economic order that came to dominate
all other social institutions.
Capitalism depended on the production of
commodities through wage labor in the interests
of capital accumulation.
WHAT ARE THE INDUSTRIAL CITIES?
THE DEFINITIONS OF INDUSTRIAL CITIES
We can define the industrial cities in many definitions
1- an industrial city is a city that builds its economy
and develops on commercial production (buying
and selling of goods) and sales of goods.
2- It is an area which has been specially planned for a
lot of factories.
Some times industrial cities called industrial parks or
industrial estate .
3- Industrial parks
may contain oil refineries, ports, warehouses,
distribution centers, chemical plants, plastics
manufacturers, airports, food and beverage processors,
and steel manufacturers, to name just a few examples.
Some industrial parks offer tax incentives for businesses
to locate there, such as tax increment financing.
4- Industrial Center
a city that is a center of one or several branches of indus
try, often performing transportation functions as well.
of the extractive
industry generally have a more restricted
of activities than centers of the manufacturing industry
because the production specialization of
the former is conditioned on the use of a limited range of
How can we classify the industrial cities ?
We can classified the industrial cities into fife
sections according to its manufacturing way :-
1- light Production assembly and its divided
into light technology & high technology .
2-Batch Production Assembly .
3- Mass Production Assembly.
4-Process Based Production and its divided
( Centralized Process based production)
&(Dispersed Process Based Production)
5- Heavy Engineering Production
light Production assembly
include the manufacture of the simple
then the requirements of Engineering
services utility was limited ,and the
production operation for this type did not
need a spatial requirement in design of its
Its working as a working cell , for example of
these productions like iron railways and iron
light Production assembly
This type include electronic
and scientific devices and
other small devices which
need spatial development
Techniques and because of
that we can consider these
manufacturing a clean
Batch Production Assembly
This type of industry includes, cloth industry, Iron works, packing and
packaging foods, engineering equipment and electronic works .
These industries are generally classified on It's the industries that the
Process is carried out through A unified design for a product manufacturing or
Manufacturing various parts of the Product using a specific machine,
knowing that the machines and devices Used for manufacturing can not be
modified mechanically to change In the size or shape of the product.
Manufacturing is done through the organization Different machines and
produce specific amounts of What parts of the product, and may vary in their
but are Assembled later integrated product,
for example ,Manufacture of clothing using
several machines for manufacturing design
A particular one-piece outfits.
requirementsThis type of industry requires longitudinal spaces, Compatible
with the production line, and in batches with referring to the
possibility of assembling machinery used in the Manufacture of
a particular type in a single center and that to ease the
movement of Materials.
This type of industries including, automotive industry, Electrical
items and consumer goods, durables And others.
Products of this industry with similar products Industries in
batches( Batch Production) but Differ in terms of the size,
This type of operations characterized as serial production
,(Linear industries) Linear Production (a high degree of
Accuracy in large quantities, and quickly.
Mass Production Assembly
In general serial industries buildings take Longitudinal
Surfaces shape, but it Considered of the deep surfaces
Shapes in many factories, so the flexibility achieved by
these Surfaces at they require expansions also its require
, artificial Lighting and artificial ventilation .
Process- Based Production
Processing productivity industries
The industries where the product is manufactured in two phases; the basic
And secondary treatment, to be divided into two types:
1. Productivity central processing industries, where are linked basic processing
of the Product directly to treatment secondary, which usually include packaging
And packaging within the same site.
2. Treatment productive industries within different facilities, where it is essential
for the central processing a product, while a secondary treatment in different
locations.These industries include pharmaceuticals and medicines cosmetic products
and petrochemical industries and materials food.
Basic treatment is considered spaces storage required for materials used in
Industry of the key elements in the formation of space.
This type of industries includes; paper industries ,Plastics, paints in addition to an
other similar Industries.
Share this type of construction industries with central manufacturing industries
buildings , but it differs in classification because they include industries that can be
Manufactured in two different places, where they are manufactured in the basic stage
in a separate building, and so environmental reasons, economic, and then be
transferred to The secondary manufacturing centers elsewhere.
Similar to the design requirements for this type of industry with the design
requirements, Of the central manufacturing.
This type of industries including, counters industry and heavy circuit breakers, heavy
manufacturing panels, railway wagons, heavy cables and others.
The production take process for this type of industry form a pivotal where the product is
in The midst of assembling building (position) and after confirming the readiness and
accuracy Made Through certain tests, are done partially dismantle it ,to be transferred /
shipped then to the desired location.
This type of industry requires heavy equipment hanging (Carnage), leading to the
formation Of axes to work within the building, as is the case in Manufacturing industries
buildings, Where the cranes in carrying Product that is transferred to the appropriate
machine, in Assembly areas, while other parts are grouped in areas side, and then, to be
assembled in Subsequent operations.
Planning Principles for Factory and its
Related Service Buildings
1- Determination of Labor Requirements and
2-Principles and Criteria of Factory Layout
3-Determining the Elements of the Factory
4-Regulations and Administrative Systems of
1-1 Determination of Labor Requirements and Area
A-Setting the criteria of determining the size of labor force according to
the industrial activity and the degree of automation.
B-Determining Plot Area Requirements
C-Determining plot dimensions (including industrial buildings, back-up
services, offices, and Set Back)
D-Determining land use within the factory (factory buildings, road, percentage,
utilities, and other services)
E-Determining factory area based on the type of industry (built area,
circulation lines, roads for in-factory shipping and loading, parking zones,
future expansion, and landscaping)
F-Determining covered in-site area (buildings percentage; leaving
sufficient space for trucks parking & movement, and storing raw
materials and other factory products). It is determined depending on
the factory type.
G- Optimum distribution of the built area (production, warehouses,
employees’ services, and electricity supply services) according to the
2- Principles and Criteria of Factory Layout
Planning2-1 .Planning Criteria for Factory Design
A- Plot-surrounding land use.
B- Regulations and laws applied in the industrial city.
C- Topography and geology of the site, soil qualifications and land drainage.
D- Environmental control and lighting (natural and artificial)
E-Noise suppression from adjacent buildings
G-Building area & height (volume)
H-Factory building types
I-Potential extension and future expansion
J-Site surrounding roads
K-Places of loading, unloading, commodity circulation, and maneuvering zone.
L-Vehicles, trucks, and private car entrances; and parking zones
(visitors- staff- trucks)
M-Location of utilities and service sources
N-Safety and security requirements of the factory
2-2 Principles of Factory Site Planning
A-Unity: Designing the site as one integrated unit, so that production flow
is accomplished without any stage interference.
B- Flexibility: The expected practical flexibility for product changes, vertical
and horizontal expansion possibilities, providing sufficient area for
meeting current and future needs, and the scheduled stages for
reaching the maximum capacity.
C- Clarity: by separating circulation types so as not to have flow
interference, and separating production sectors by the movement
D- Economy: the optimum use of the available land by providing layout
planning alternatives to accomplish economy.
E-Maintaining product flow: ease of access and connection among the project
F-Orientation: Placing production units and architectural elements to make the
optimum circulation of flow.
G-Compatibility with surrounding uses: by organizing the relationship among the
entrances, the exits, and the outer road network.
H-Accommodating employees and visitors in the factory: to prevent in-site excess
and extra movement.
I- Providing employees’ comfort: to ensure increasing their productivity by providing
services (Masjed, water closets, and clinic), parking zones,pedestrian walks, and
J- Studying factory buildings interrelationship: based on operations sequence;
separating irrelevant operations and isolating hazardous ones.
K- Designing the appearance and main facades: to make a unique identity for the
factory. The design should pay attention to the outer shape and the visual image in
the light of the building requirements and the planning principles.
Some alternatives to locate the offices of the factory
3-Determining the Elements of the Factory Site
3-1 Determining Site Elements
A-Administration: office buildings and guard’s room.
B-Employees’ facilities: employees’ services inside the factory.
Location of administrative
units: (top management,
administrative units, and
units). In determining
their relationship to the
factory site, all these units
must meet two
• Achieving direct
connection among units.
• Achieving connection
with the site and the
The location of engineering services
C- Supporting engineering services:
electrical power units, water supplying,
sanitation and waste establishments, civil
defense requirements, safety & security,
ventilation, and fire alarming.
D-Research & labs: Labs, research centers
and training centers.
F- Manufacturing: primary and secondary
G- Warehouses: production warehouse (interfering with production lines),
operation warehouses (not interfering, such as spare parts warehouses),
general warehouses (for equipment and waste) and raw material
warehouses, provided that the in-site permanent warehouses have
sufficient stock for one-month production.
H-Entrances and gates: car entrance, staff entrance, the disabled entrance, and
I- Loading zones: raw material loading zones, and product loading zones
Example for the zone of loading
Principles of Determining Factory Site Elements
1-Location of production operations (product planning – process planning); is
identified according to the production line flow, and the type of connection
network between site elements.
This is based on the following:
• Allocating buildings of the same type in one production zone.
• Arranging production zones according to production flow.
• Accomplishing in-site production flow using circulation axes network(road
• Taking into consideration the implementation stages, type of
extension, and future horizontal expansion.
2- Location of administrative units: (top management, production service
administrative units, marketing administrative units, financial
administrative units, and social administrative units). In determining
their relationship to the factory site, all these units must meet two conditions:
• Achieving direct connection among units.
• Achieving connection with the site and the outside.
3-All administrative units are to be gathered in one building (general administration)
that is directly connected with the road network and the site.
4-Employees’ facilities should be located near the work zone. It should be separated
efficiently from the noise and appearance of the work zone,
with a beautiful out view.
Regulations and Administrative Systems of Land
1- Sticking to the industrial activity land use according to zone specifications
in the industrial city.
2- Sticking to limitations and provisions of the selling/lease contract:
to make sure that the owner/leaseholder maintains the building and the
city attraction. These provisions are concerned with:
• Land uses (authorized, or forbidden) in the industrial city.
• Improvements of land use (provisions for developing the plot, such as:
land occupancy, heights, built areas, walls, ads, etc).
• Supplementary uses (allocating parking lots for employees’ vehicles and
trucks, a place for loading and unloading, workers’ place, landscaped
zone around the factory, etc).
1-For industrial uses, 45-50% of the plot area is built on.
2- Circulations, routes, Set Back, parking areas, landscaped area, and loading &
unloading are to occupy 15-30% of the plot area.
3- The area of future extension is not to be more than 25% of the area.
4- Warehouses (raw materials & final product) are not to exceed 30% of the area.
5- Office buildings and facilities are not to exceed 10% of the area.
Regulations of Buildings within the
6-Percentages might be modified according to specific factory requirements, so that
the minimum level of industrial use should not be less than 45% of the area.
7- Floor Area Ratio (built area to plot area ratio) must not exceed 2.
8- MODON may approve increasing the ratio, based on a documented proposal from
the investor; proving the need of his factory.
-2- Set Back
A-The front Set Back (to the street) is not to be less than 12m. Side and back Side
should not be less than 5m (or the Set Back should allow truck circulation-especially at
turns- without hitting existing buildings).
B- No establishments are to be in the Set Back. Exceptions are the electricity room, the
main switchgears of the reserve generator, the guard’s room, parking areas, and gas &
fuel tanks (to be placed in the front Set Back)
C-In case the side streets are 20m or 30m wide, a 3m trim should be made
from each side, with an angle of 45
D- The front Set Back may be utilized as a private car, or bus parking area (length is
not to exceed 6m perpendicular to the fence); or as open green areas.