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LITERATURE REVIEWGhulam AbbasLISC,IUB
What is our own Understanding ofLiterature Review in Research?Why do we review literature whileconducting research? Lets’ ...
WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?Literature review is systematic, explicit,and reproducible method for identifying,evaluating and...
Ten Reasons for Literature Reviewi. It gives new ideasii. It helps researchers understand what otherresearchers have done ...
Four Main Functions of Literature Reviewi. To give reasons why the topic is ofsufficient importanceii. To provide the read...
Literature Review Answers thei. What are key sources?ii. What are the key theories, concepts andideas?iii. What are ration...
Activity• Literature is usually reviewed duringresearch project. Academia is required toconduct and supervise the research...
Literature Review: Basic StrategiesA researcher has to Plan• Where to review• What to review• Whom to review• How to find/...
Literature Review: Where to review-Library & InternetSources of Information in the Library• Librarians• Catalogues• Databa...
What to Review: Sources of Literature Reviewi. Booksii. Academic Journalsiii. Reportsiv. Popular Media-Magazines etcv. Com...
Sources of Literature Review• Enlist different sources of literature whichyou have consulted/used for the researchyou have...
Literature Review: Whom to Review• Supervisors/mentors• Experts• Researchers• Seniors and• Colleagues
Literature Review:How to Find What Researcher Needs• Seek guidance from supervisor, or fellowresearchers• Locate books, jo...
Literature Review: Quick Review of a Book/Journal• Pick up a relevant book or journal• Give yourself five minutes• Note do...
Critical Literature ReviewCritical Literature Review is one that• Goes beyond description by offeringopinions, and making ...
Critical Literature Review• Strives to be explicit about the valuesand theories which inform seemnecessary for reading and...
Critical Literature ReviewAssessing an argument- Analyzingi. Researchers should Identify conclusion andreasons: look for ‘...
Critical Literature ReviewAssessing an argument- Evaluatingii. Researcher should evaluate truth of reasonsiii. Researcher ...
Critical Literature ReviewAssessing an argument- Evaluatingviii. Researcher should know ‘Is any ofthe reasoning in the pas...
Recording the Literature Review• The author or authors• The title of the paper, report or book• The date of publication• I...
How many References• In one ethnographic journal, the numberof references per article varied from 12to 60• In one social p...
Why ReferencesResearcher should use references to:• Justify and support the arguments• Allow him/her to make comparisonswi...
Activity• As a researcher, how you will doliterature review?--------------------------------------------------------------...
Activity• As a research supervisor, what tipsyou will provide to your students to doliterature review?--------------------...
Literature ReviewThank you
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  1. 1. LITERATURE REVIEWGhulam AbbasLISC,IUB
  2. 2. What is our own Understanding ofLiterature Review in Research?Why do we review literature whileconducting research? Lets’ share thereasons.We review literature because it------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  3. 3. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?Literature review is systematic, explicit,and reproducible method for identifying,evaluating and interpreting the existingbody of recorded work or knowledgeproduced by researchers, scholars andpractitioners. Literature review appearsas a part of researcher’s academicdevelopment- of becoming expert in thefield.
  4. 4. Ten Reasons for Literature Reviewi. It gives new ideasii. It helps researchers understand what otherresearchers have done in the area of studyiii. It broadens the perspective and sets the work ofresearcher in the contextiv. It supports the direct experience of theresearchersv. It legitimates the arguments of researchersvi. It helps to change mind of the researchervii. It opens up new dimensions for researchersviii. Researchers can effectively criticize what othershave doneix. It provides opportunities to researchers learnmore about research methods and theirapplication in practicex. It help researchers identify areas which have notbeen researched/addressed
  5. 5. Four Main Functions of Literature Reviewi. To give reasons why the topic is ofsufficient importanceii. To provide the reader with a brief up-to-date account and discussion of literatureon the issue relevant to the topiciii. To provide a conceptual and theoreticalcontext in which the topic for researchcan be studiediv. To discuss relevant research carried outin the same area or similar topics.
  6. 6. Literature Review Answers thei. What are key sources?ii. What are the key theories, concepts andideas?iii. What are rationale grounds for thediscipline?iv. What are the main questions and problemsthat have been addressed to date?v. How is the knowledge on the topicstructured and organized?vi. What are the origins and definitions of theterms relevant to the topic?vii. What are the implications of the research?viii. What are the major issues and debatesabout the topic?
  7. 7. Activity• Literature is usually reviewed duringresearch project. Academia is required toconduct and supervise the researches.Enlist the ways of literature review youadopted in your recent research project.i. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  8. 8. Literature Review: Basic StrategiesA researcher has to Plan• Where to review• What to review• Whom to review• How to find/locate what a researcher needs toreviewWhere to review• Library• Computer and Internet
  9. 9. Literature Review: Where to review-Library & InternetSources of Information in the Library• Librarians• Catalogues• Databases and Computers• Abstracts and Reviews• Dictionaries, encyclopedias and referencebooks• Open ShelvesInternet as Source of Information• Search engines• Databases• Online Journal• Keywords
  10. 10. What to Review: Sources of Literature Reviewi. Booksii. Academic Journalsiii. Reportsiv. Popular Media-Magazines etcv. Computer-based materialsvi. Memos, minutes, and internal reportsvii. Published and unpublishedpapers/dissertations/theses/ researchesviii. Contemporary and classic workix. Introductory and overview textsx. Edited collections and literature reviewxi. Methodological and Confessional writings
  11. 11. Sources of Literature Review• Enlist different sources of literature whichyou have consulted/used for the researchyou have just undertaken or intending toundertake. Write the full name of thesource, author, and publisher of each.i. --------------------------------------------------------ii. --------------------------------------------------------iii. --------------------------------------------------------iv. --------------------------------------------------------v. --------------------------------------------------------vi. --------------------------------------------------------
  12. 12. Literature Review: Whom to Review• Supervisors/mentors• Experts• Researchers• Seniors and• Colleagues
  13. 13. Literature Review:How to Find What Researcher Needs• Seek guidance from supervisor, or fellowresearchers• Locate books, journals, and other relevantmaterial: from libraries and Internet• After identifying the material/locations searchother relevant material• Once researcher has identified relevant journals,look through recent issues for up-to-dateinformation on the topic• Read outwards from original sources: interesting/repeating references• Identify key texts: seek out latest editions• Researcher has to try ensuring that s/he hasdeveloped understanding of the topic• Researcher has to use time ad resourcesappropriately for extensive review
  14. 14. Literature Review: Quick Review of a Book/Journal• Pick up a relevant book or journal• Give yourself five minutes• Note down all the salient points about thebook, journals’ article related with theresearch• Summarize the key messages of the book/article in the journal relevant to the research• Concentrate on the content, method, ortheory of the text, or try to do all the three
  15. 15. Critical Literature ReviewCritical Literature Review is one that• Goes beyond description by offeringopinions, and making a personalresponse, to what has been written• Relates different writings to eachother, indicating their differences andcontradictions and highlighting whatthey lack• Does not take what is written at facevalueContinued………
  16. 16. Critical Literature Review• Strives to be explicit about the valuesand theories which inform seemnecessary for reading and writing• Views research writing as a contestedterrain, within which alternative viewsand positions may be taken up• Shows an awareness of the powerrelations involved in research, and ofwhere writers are coming from• Uses a particular language (authorsassert, argue, state, conclude orcontend) in impersonal voice
  17. 17. Critical Literature ReviewAssessing an argument- Analyzingi. Researchers should Identify conclusion andreasons: look for ‘conclusion indicators’(keywords: therefore, so, should, hence,thus); look for ‘reason indicators’ (keywords:because, for, since); and/or• Researcher should ask ‘what is the passagetrying to get him/her to accept or believe?’• Researcher should ask ‘what reasons,evidence is it using in order to get him/herbelieve?’
  18. 18. Critical Literature ReviewAssessing an argument- Evaluatingii. Researcher should evaluate truth of reasonsiii. Researcher should assess the reliability of anyauthority on whom the reasoning dependsiv. Researchers should find ‘is there any additionalevidence which strengthens or weakens theconclusion?’v. Researcher should assess the plausibility of anyexplanationvi. Researcher should assess the appropriatenessof any comparison identifiedvii. Can researcher draw any conclusion from thepassage? If so what it suggests?
  19. 19. Critical Literature ReviewAssessing an argument- Evaluatingviii. Researcher should know ‘Is any ofthe reasoning in the passage parallelwith reasoning which researcherknows to be faulty’?ix. Researcher should know ‘do any ofthe reasons embody a generalprinciple?’ If so must evaluate it.x. Researcher should assess ‘is theconclusion well supported by thereasoning?’
  20. 20. Recording the Literature Review• The author or authors• The title of the paper, report or book• The date of publication• In case of book or report; thepublisher and place of publication• If it is a chapter in an edited book, thetitle, and the editor of the book and thepage numbers of the chapter;• If it s paper in a journal, the title of thejournal, volume and issue number, andpages;• If it is website, the date researcher hasaccessed the information
  21. 21. How many References• In one ethnographic journal, the numberof references per article varied from 12to 60• In one social policy journal, the numberof reference per article varied from 10 to140• In one management journal, the numberof reference per article varied from 18 to135
  22. 22. Why ReferencesResearcher should use references to:• Justify and support the arguments• Allow him/her to make comparisonswith other research• Express matters better than s/he couldhave done so• Demonstrate his/her familiarity withthe field of work
  23. 23. Activity• As a researcher, how you will doliterature review?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  24. 24. Activity• As a research supervisor, what tipsyou will provide to your students to doliterature review?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  25. 25. Literature ReviewThank you

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