INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCHResearch and experimental development is formalwork undertaken systematically to increase the stockof knowledge, including knowledge of humanity,culture and society, and the use of this stock ofknowledge to devise new applications It is used toestablish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results ofprevious work, solve new or existing problems,support theorem, or develop new theories.
DEFINATION OF RESEARCHSystematic investigation into a problem or situation, where the intention is to identify facts and/or opinions that will assist in solving the problem or dealing with the situation"Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase ourunderstanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps:a) Pose a question,b)collect data to answer the question,c) present an answer to the question.
TYPES OF RESEARCH1) Fundamental research :• Fundamental research means experimental or theoretical work under taken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts, without any direct practical application or use in view."2) Quantitative research :• Quantitative research aim to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period.
3) Applied Research:Aims at solving specific problems• Aims at establishing policy programs that will help to improve social life• Types of applied research are action research,, cost-benefit analysis, evaluation research4) Longitudinal research:• Longitudinal’ is a broad term. It can be defined as research in which: (1) data are collected for two or more distinct periods (implying the notion of repeated measurements);(2) the subjects or cases analysed are the same, or at least comparable, from one period to the next period.
5) Qualitative Research:This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives & desires of human behaviour. using indepth interviews for this purpose.6) Action Research: It is application of fact findings to practical problem solving in a social situation with a view to improve quality of action within it, involving collaboration and cooperation of researchers, practitioners and laymen.
7) Descriptive Research:• Usually it forms preliminary study of a research project.• It aims at describe social events, relations and events.• It provides background information about an event in question.8) Classification research:• It aims at categorization of units into groups• To demonstrate differences• To explain relationships
9) Comparative Research:• To identify similarities and differences between units at all levels.10) Exploratory Research:• It aims at gaining information about an issue in hand.11) Explanatory Research:• It aims at explaining social relations and eventsm &To build, test or revise a theory.12) Causal Research:• Causal Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. The research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and allows market researchers to predict hypothetical scenarios.
Objectives of research Research extends knowledge Research establishes generalizations and general laws Research verifies and tests General laws developed through research Research analyze inter-relationships Applied research aims at finding solutions It aims to develop tools, concepts Rational decision making
Steps of research• Formulating the research problem Although the problem is identified in a broader perspective, it needs to be defined specifically in terms of what is to be researched. It is important to define the problem in a precise manner. A well defined problem gives the researcher a proper direction for carrying out investigation. It also helps in utilizing the resources provided for the research effectively.• Extensive literature survey At this juncture the researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem.
• Developing the hypothesis A hypothesis is a statement based on some presumptions about the existence of a relationship between two or more variables that can be tested through empirical data. A hypothesis normally makes the research question clearer to the researcher.• Preparing the research design Planning the research design is a crucial step in the research design process. A research design is the actual frame work of research that provides specific details regarding the process to be followed in conducting the research.
• Determining sample design A sample design is a definite plan determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample form a given population. Types of sample designs i. Deliberate sampling ii. simple random sampling iii.Systematic sampling iv. stratified sampling v. Quota sampling vi.Cluster sampling vii. Multi-stage sampling viii. sequential sampling
• Collecting the data In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate and hence it become necessary to collect the data which differ considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher. Primary data secondary data• Execution of the project The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time. The steps should be taken to ensure that the survey is under statistical control so that the collected information is in accordance with the pre-determined standards of accuracy.
• Analysis of data The most important aspect of data analysis is to convert the data collected into a format which will facilitate the manager in effective decision making. Editing Coding• Hypothesis testing If there is any hypothesis , the next step is to test it. Various tests such as Chi-square test, t-test, F- test has been developed by statisticians for this purpose.
• Generalisations and interpretation As a matter of fact, the real value of research lies in its ability to arrive at certain generalisations. If the researcher had no hypothesis to start with, he might seek to explain his findings on the basis of some theory.• Preparation of the report for presentation of the results Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. Writing of report must be done with great care keeping in view the following: layout reports should be written in concise charts and illustration calculated confidence limits must be mentioned
METHODS OF RESEARCH1.Experimental method• Laboratory• Variables• Degree of control• Value of an experiment2.Observational method3.Survey method4.Case studies5.Test method
GENERAL INTRODUCTION• Statement of the problem• Objective of the study• Scope of study• Methodology