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Literature review in research methodology


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A literature review is a
“critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles”

Published in: Education, Technology

Literature review in research methodology

  1. 1. WELCOME Literature Review Raison Sam Raju Department of Commerce University of Kerala
  2. 2. Overview Literature Review • Definition • Literature • Types of literature review • process • Purpose • What to review? • Literature search procedure • Sources of literature • Planning the review work • Note taking
  3. 3. Definition • According to university of wincosin writing centre, A literature review is a “critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles”
  4. 4. Key points of a literature review • Tell me what the research says(Theory) • Tell me how the research was carried out (Methodology) • Tell me what is missing or the gap that research intends to fill.(Research gap)
  5. 5. Literature literature in this context consists of: Books •Encyclopedias •Year books •Text books •Reference books Journals •Published monthly,quarterly,half yearly or annually Reports •Reports of commissions appointed by Govt. •Seminar reports Research dissertations & Thesis News papers Micro forms: Audio & Video tapes
  6. 6. Types of Literature Review On the purpose of research there are 3 main types of literature review •Evaluative Review •Explorative Review •Instrumental Review
  7. 7. Evaluative Review
  8. 8. Exploratory Review
  9. 9. Instrumental Review
  10. 10. PROCESS A literature review can be divided into 2 process: 1.The search for material & resources 2.Writing literature review In the first process topics include 1. What to review & purpose of review 2. Literature search procedure 3. Planning of research work In the second process topics include: Note taking
  11. 11. Purpose of literature review
  12. 12. WHAT TO REVIEW ??? The kinds of literature to be revived at the various stage of the research process and specific purposes of the review are indicated below:
  13. 13. steps in the research process identification & selection of problem kinds of literature to be reviewed 1.1 source materials,encyclopedia,text books 1.2 latest publications on the discipline 1.3 theses in the selected discipline Purpose of review 1.1 to gain preliminary orientation & background knowledge 1.2 to gain up-to-date knowledge in the field 1.3 to know work already done on the subject 1.4 to identify research gaps in the field. 1.5 to avoid duplication
  14. 14. steps in the research process kinds of literature to be reviewed Purpose of review to become familiar with formulation of the selected appropriate methodology & problem previous study in the field & research techniques relevant journals to the study. for clarifying concepts and operationalisation of knowing measurements concepts same as 2 techniques. 4.1 illustrated books on 4.1 to devolope alternative methodology of research designs preparation of research 4.2 for formulating hypothesis proposals and deciding sample design 4.2 thesis etc
  15. 15. steps in the research process kinds of literature to be reviewed Purpose of review 5.1 same as 4.1 & 4.2 construction of tools for collection of data 5.2 copies of tools & scales furnished in the appendix of theses. for gaining thorough knowledge of the process of tools and measurement techniques journals drafting theoretical chapters text books & theory parts of other chapters reference books reports on subject matter to take notes and compile bibliography
  16. 16. LITERATURE SEARCH PROCEDURE OR HOW CAN WE FIND LITERATURE? Literature search procedure involves a series of steps which aims to identify the sources of literature.
  17. 17. 1.Request learned professors,librarians,or other familiar to suggest relevant references. 2.Find out whether any bibliography already prepared on the subject is available in the library. 3.Consult bibliographies in the these on the topic & related topics. 4.Examine periodicals,monographics,reports,confrence proceedings & other materials including micro films available 5.Consult reference cited in the books & articles already located. Each book will be a means for locating additional references. 6.Consult the abstract journal on the subject 7.See the book review pages in the daily news papers & in the journals.
  18. 18. Sources of Literature Sources of literature can be divided into 3 : 1.Primary literature sources 2.Secondary literature sources 3. Tertiary literature sources The different categories of literature sources represents the flow of information from original source.
  19. 19. 1.Primary literature sources Primary literature sources are the first occurrence of a piece of work. It includes: 1.Reports Reports include market research reports, government reports etc. 2.Confrence proceedings Conference proceedings referred to any symposia are often published as unique titles with in journals, or as books. most conference will have a very specific theme. 3.Theses These are the research papers contains details of research done in a particular topic. It is a good source of detailed information & further reference.
  20. 20. 2.Secondary Literature sources Secondary sources such as books & journals are subsequent publication of primary literature. These publications are aimed at wider audience. it includes: 1.Journals Journals are also known as periodicals, magazines are published on a regular of management studies, people management etc. 2.Books Books are written for specific audiences.the material in books are presented in a more ordered and accessible manner than in journals. 3.News papers News papers are good source of topical events, developments with in the business &government as well as recent statistical information..
  21. 21. 3. Tertiary literature sources Tertiary literature sources also called as “search tools” are designed either to help to locate primary & secondary literature or to introduce a topic. They include indexes & abstracts as well as encyclopaedias & bibliographies. Eg:subject catalogues of libraries List of books and publishers bulletins.
  22. 22. Planning the review work One can identify many references relating to the selected topic. The problem now is to go through the references one after the other & point out exact information relevant to study. Steps This planning involves 3 steps:
  23. 23. 1. To decide what information is useful &what is not useful. The researcher should draw up a preliminary outline of the topic with reference to objectives of study. it serve as a guide to take above decision. 2.To determine how to record what is gathered from a published material. Should it be noted down as verbatim or paraphrased. 3.To set up as orderly recording or note taking system In this decision the researcher must be guided by the requirement of a good recording system. these requirements are: (a) The recording system should facilitate ready location of the recorded information when required. (b) it should allow for more flexible handling & organising information. (c) all notes relating to a particular concept of a topic should available together. All these requirements are meet with card system.
  24. 24. NOTE TAKING Note taking means recording of information. the suitable method of note taking is the use of cards. The recording system involves uses of 2 sets of cards. 1.Source cards(3” * 5”) 2.Note cards(5” * 8”)
  25. 25. 1.Source cards An source card or index card or system card consists of heavy paper stock cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing bibliographic information. It was invented by Carl Linnaeus, around 1760. Source card serves 2 purposes. 1.Provide documentary information for foot notes to be given in report 2.Used for compiling bibliography to be furnished at the end of report.
  26. 26. Structure of source card Source card had a definite structure. It has a code structure to in order to relate them to the corresponding note cards. On the left hand top corner the letter „B‟ OR „J‟ OR „R‟ may be marker according to the type of reference which a card represents. B-book J-journal R=report On the right hand top corner anther code is to be marked. Its a combination of letter & number begins with “c”.the same code has to be marked on the corresponding notes card for ready reference of each note. For each reference a separate card is used. and written only in one side. Cards are arranged in the alphabetical order of the authors according to the type of reference.
  27. 27. The recording of bibliographic information in the source card should be made in proper bibliographic format. Its varies for book and article. 1.For a book Two formats are used in popular. They are as below (a)Authors name (starting with last name) , the title of book, place of publication: the publisher's name, year. E.g.: Krishnaswami,o.r,methodology of research in social science ,Mumbai:himalaya publishing house,1993 (b)Authors name (starting with last name) , the title of book, the publisher's name,place,year. E.g.: Krishnaswami,o.r,methodology of research in social science , Himalaya publishing house, Mumbai,1993
  28. 28. If a work has 3 or more authors, the abbreviation “et al” meaning „and others‟ may be used after the first author. E.g.. Koontz,harold, et al.,management.newdelhi:mcgraw hill international book comany,1980 If publication is an edited one ,use the abbreviation “ed” after the name. 2.For articles Here also 2 forms are used. (a).Authors name ,”the title of article", the journal name,place.publishers name,vol,issue no.,date,pages (b).Authors name ,”the title of article", the journal name, publishers name, place,vol,issue no.,date,pages
  30. 30. 2.NOTE CARD Information extracted from a printed source is recorded on the note cards. There should be a single fact or idea on each card. The structure of note card is as below: (1). On the left hand top corner the source reference code is marked. (2).on the right hand top corner the number of researcher’s proposed chapter to which the information is related is entered. (3).On the space between top edge and first horizontal line, the title of broad theme is written & in the next space the title of the specific idea is marked. (4).The idea or fact extracted from concerned reference is recorded after above step.
  33. 33. REFRENCE 1. Krishnaswami,o.r,methodology of research in social science ,Mumbai:himalaya publishing house,1993 2.adams,john,etal.,research methods for graduate business and social science students,usa:library of congress,2007 3.Lewis,philip, etal., Research methods for business students,newdelhi:dorling kindersely,2000