Research is :• A process that has determined almost everything that is practiced now and in the future• An opportunity to explore, understand, and explain• A process that can lead to improving healthcare• Equals Curiosity. “ daily informal researches” Questions & Answers”• Is a part of daily healthcare professional working routine directly or indirectly .
Types of Researches• Experimental: manipulation of variables. double blind group assignments “ response to intervention”• Clinical : done is clinical setting. e.g randomized control trials.• Descriptive : describe a group, a situations, or individuals. case studies, surveys, observation cohort.• Laboratory: done is lab. setting. e.g basic science research
Develop aSelect a Define a ResearcTopic problem h questio n Revise Answer found in the literature Literat Problem Solved ure Review No answerData Design Dataanalysi Methodo collections logys Dissemination Interpret •Poster ation •PublicationResults conclusio •Presentation n
First step Select a topic Select a topic• Working environment (clinical observation, problem or challenges).• Special topic of interest (medical condition of self or family member)• Prior studies. Literature (unanswered studies question, and how to take it further)• Study replication for novice to confirm previous studies and to generalize if results can be applied to other contexts.
Please Note topic is• Existing knowledge about specific essential to determine to research need to be done.• Preliminary literature review is needed to examine current information and help refine the research question.• Research project that done without literature search might add nothing to the current knowledge and will be a waste of time,effort and money.Thus research problem need to be refined by literature search to determine what is known.
Research problem & Question• start with a general problem & brainstorm to refine into a specific focused research question.• Identifying the problem is not an easy task• what is the question to be answered?• keep it simple and very defined problem.• its unlikely that you will make a research shattering discovery. But each investigation can add a small pice of knowledge
To refine the problem ask these question•How to improve the problem?•What is known ( in the literature)?•What is not known ?•What information of data is needed to improve the problem ?
Example 1A nurse noticed anunusual number ofpostoperativeinfection on patientsneeding post operativeventilation.
Purpose of the study ?Reason for the infection & to minimizethe number of infected patients
Questions to ask ?• What DATA do we need ? ( medical records, survey data from, patients and staff)• What Variables to consider: • Patient related ( Age- type of procedure- population ( gender- ethnic group ...etc) • Surgical team related ( sterilization, surgical skills, antibiotics)• What ethical issues need to be addressed ?• Do we need consents from patients, and IRB ?• Do we need any financial support ? “Grant”
Possible Research questions• Are there any procedural differences between infected and non infected ?• Are there demographic differences between infected and non• Are there care differences?
Possible Research questions ?• Information about number of graduate who do not practice ( male & female)?• How many practiced & stopped?• How many never practiced?• What are the reasons that made them stop?• Does type of profession have an impact on decision?• What are the other factors that impact their decision ( age, marital status, financial,
What makes a good Research Question• Is it specific enough?• Does it answer something new or add to the field of knowledge or is just replication ?• Does it build on previous researches? e.g test a theory.• Is it feasible? e.g can you do it? how much time, money, staff & interments do you need?• Is it ethical?
Definition of a Literature Review• A survey of articles, books and other sources (e.g. dissertations, conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory.• A short description & critical evaluation of work critical to the topic ( strength and weakness)
Successful Literature Review :• Gives overview of the available literature on the study topic• Helps to determine what is known & unknown about topic• Allow the you identify area of controversy• Formulate questions requiring further research