H = Infects only Human beings
I = Immunodeficiency virus weakens the
immune system and increases the risk of infection
V = Virus that attacks the body
“Acquired Immune Deficiency
A = Acquired, not inherited
I = Weakens the Immune system
D = Creates a Deficiency of CD4+ cells in the
S = Syndrome, or a group of illnesses taking place at
the same time
H.I.V (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is
a unique type of virus (i.e. a retrovirus) that
invades the T- helper cells (CD4 cells) in the
body of the host (defense mechanism of a
AIDS:acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is
a disease of the human immune system
caused by infection with human
immunodeficiency virus.In children it is
acquired perinatally or by vertical –maternal-
According to WHO
2.3 million children below 15 years are
affected i.e 7.7% of the world population
Globally 91% from vertical trasmission
5% from nosochrombial trasmission
4% from sexual abuse
From mother to featus i.e during
pregnancy,labor and delivery and breast feeding
Advanced maternal disease
High maternal viral load
Prolonged rupture of membranes
During breast feeding
“Human Immunodeficiency virus”
There are two types of HIV.
HIV-1 is more common
HIV-1 is easily
HIV-1 is pathogenic in
Duration of HIV-1
infection is quite long.
HIV-1 is commonly seen
HIV-2 is found in West Africa,
Mozambique, and Angola.
HIV-2 is less easily transmitted.
HIV-2 is less pathogenic.
Duration of HIV-2 infection is
HIV-2 is relatively rare and has
not been reported from India.
• Most cases in between 20-49 years.
• Rarely seen in childrens under 15 yrs.
• Seen in both males & females.
• Mostly in homosexual and bisexual mens.
• Male homosexuals & heterosexual partners.
• IV drug abusers, transfusion if infected blood
• HIV virus infects and destroys T-helper cells.
• It results in reduced cellular immunity.
Viral DNA is transcribed into mRNA
Integrase inserts viral DNA into Host DNA
RNA transcribes DNA by enzyme Reverse Transcriptase
RNA enters the human cell
HIV virus binds to CD4 receptors on surface of T cells.
Due to etiological factors
Destruction of T- helper cells and immune response
declines causing S/S.
Host cell is killed as viruses are released and budding
Polyprotein converts into genome n becomes permanent
part of cell’s genetic structure.
mRNA is translated into protein – polyprotein
The WHO clinical case defines pediatric AIDS if
the existence of at least two major signs
associated with at least one minor sign in the
absence of other known cases of
immunosupression such as cancer or severe
malnutrition or other recognized etiologies.
• Weight loss (10% of body wt)
• Chronic diarrhoea
• Prolonged fever or
intermittent fever for over a
• Persistent cough over a month
• Generalized dermatitis
• Recurrent herpes zoster
• Oropharyngeal candidiasis
• Generalised lymphadenopathy
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent
• Screening test for HIV
• Sensitivity > 99.9%
• Confirmatory test
• Specificity > 99.9% (when combined with ELISA)
Absolute CD4 lymphocyte count
• Predictor of HIV progression
• Risk of opportunistic infections and AIDS when
HIV viral load tests
• Best test for diagnosis of acute HIV infection
• Correlates with disease progression and response
There is no curative treatment of hiv aids.no
vaccine are available for prevention.so
children should be protected from contacting
the hiv infection
Immunization can be given to hiv infected
infant and children i.e are hepatitis b,polio
Plenty of fluid should be provided
Nutriotional food shold be given
sive drug shold be given.
Antiretroviral drugs is given when the child
have signs of immunodepression or hiv
associated symptomsi.e are
didanosine,zalcilabine,staudine etc.these are
used for prolongation of life.
Other drugs like prolease inhibitors,non
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is
also given with antiretroviral combination
Antiretroviral treatment with combination
therapy or post exposure prophylaxis to prevent
hiv in children.
Vertical trasmission can be prevented by
zidovudine prophylaxis to the infected pregant
women antd to infant till 6 weeks of life.
Health education shold be given to people to
avoidins blood brone hiv trasmission.
Provide specific prophylaxis for hiv
Parent to child trasmission can be prevented by
avoiding indiscrimate sexaul practices of adults.
Heticulous screening of blood and blood
products should be done before blood
Sterilized syringe and needle should be used
Aseptic techniques should be used during
Promoting community awareness of spread of
hiv infection for unsafe practices.
Risk for infections related to immuodefiency
Alterd nutrition related to anorexia,pain in
Diarrhoea and dehydration related to enteric
pathogens and infection.
Alterd pain related to advanced hiv diseases.
Fear and anxiety related to diagnostic and
Knowledge deficit regarding trasmission of