Unit 7 - The Age of Discoveries - 2º bil ESO

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Unit 7 - The Age of Discoveries - 2º bil ESO

  1. 1. UNIT 7 - The Age of Discovery 2º Bil
  2. 2. 1- Why were the discoveries made? Countries known to Europe in the 15th century
  3. 3. Marco Polo, 13th century Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler whose travels are recorded in Il Milione (Book of the Marvels of the World), a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle. The three of them embarked in 1269 on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married and had three children. He died in 1324, and was buried in San Lorenzo.
  4. 4. Reason for the discoveries 1- Necessity of finding new trade routes to the East.
  5. 5. Reason for the discoveries 2- A number of technological advances in navigation: .New maps (portulan charts) .Navigational instruments .Ship improvements
  6. 6. Portolan charts Portolan charts are navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances observed by the pilots at sea. They were first made in the 13th century in Italy, and later in Spain and Portugal. With the advent of the Age of Discovery, they were considered State secrets in Portugal and Spain. They were very valuable in the description of Atlantic and Indian coastlines. The word portolan comes from the Italian adjective portolano, meaning "related to ports or harbours."
  7. 7. Astrolabe An astrolabe is an elaborate instrument, historically used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers. Its many uses include locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars, determining local time given local latitude and vice-versa, triangulation, etc. It was used from classical antiquity to the Renaissance. There is often confusion between the astrolabe and the mariner's astrolabe. While the astrolabe could be useful for determining latitude on land, it was an awkward instrument for use on the heaving deck of a ship or in wind. The mariner's astrolabe was developed to address these issues.
  8. 8. Quadrant A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°. It was originally proposed by Ptolemy as a better kind of astrolabe. Several different variations of the instrument were later produced by medieval Muslim astronomers.
  9. 9. Compass A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) – north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points to the north.
  10. 10. HOMEWORK Exercise 1 on page 67.
  11. 11. 2- What were the new sea routes? PORTUGUESE EXPEDITIONS -From the early 15th century. -They tried a new route to India surrounding Africa. -Various expeditions were developed during the 15th century leaded by the Portuguese monarchs and Prince Henry the Navigator. -They discovered Madeira Islands, the Azores and all the African coast to the Cape of Good Hope, opening the sea route to India. -Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama were noted explorers at the end of the 15th century.
  12. 12. 2- What were the new sea routes? -They established trading posts along the African coast and the new route to facilitate later journeys. -Portugal created a great empire becoming a world power.
  13. 13. Henry the Navigator He was an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and the Age of Discoveries. He was responsible for the development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents. Henry was the third child of King John I of Portugal. He encouraged his father to conquer Ceuta (1415), the Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar. He learnt of the opportunities from the Saharan trade routes that terminated there, and became fascinated with Africa in general. In "Crónica da Guiné" Henry is described as having no luxuries, not avaricious, speaking with soft words and calm gestures, a man of many virtues who never allowed any poor person to leave his presence empty-handed.
  14. 14. Bartolomeu Dias He was a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, the first European known to have done so.
  15. 15. Vasco de Gama He was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India. He is one of the most famous and celebrated explorers from the Discovery Ages, being the first European to reach India through sea. This discovery was very significant and paved the way for the Portuguese to establish a long lasting colonial empire in Asia.
  16. 16. Spanish and Portuguese rivalry The Crown of Castile was the main rival of Portugal in this search for new routes and territories. The Crown of Castile took another way and decided to sail to the West across the Atlantic in a risky attempt to arrive to India. They thought that the Earth was round but they did not know about the size of it or the existence of America, another continent discovered by the Crown of Castile in its journey to India.
  17. 17. The Caravel
  18. 18. Activities Exercises 1 and 2 on page 68, and exercise 1 on page 69.
  19. 19. 3- How was America discovered? -Christopher Colombus was convinced that the world was round, so he planned his route to India crossing the Atlantic Ocean. -The Catholic Monarchs decided to finance his expedition. -He began the expedition on August 1492. It was formed by three ships and 90 sailors. -They reached land on October 1492. They thought it was India, but instead they were discovering America without knowing it.
  20. 20. Christopher Colombus -After the first expedition, Colombus made three more, always financed by the Crown of Castile, he was improving the routes and conquering territories for the Crown. -Colombus died in 1506 in Spain, without knowing what he really had discovered. -In 1502 Amerigo Vespucci was the first in realising that it was a new continent, and later it was name America in his honour.
  21. 21. Activity Exercise 1 on page 70.
  22. 22. 4-What was the first voyage around the world? -Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. He served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands". -Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth, although Magellan himself did not complete the entire voyage, being killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines. -Elcano continued the expedition taking command.
  23. 23. Activity Exercise 3 on page 71
  24. 24. 5- What were the consequences of the discoveries? -Portugal and Spain signed a Treaty in Tordesillas in 1494 to avoid problems in the unexplored regions. He divided the world's map in two:
  25. 25. Europeans supremacy -But they were not alone in the world, and other European countries began their expeditions as well. -During the next five centuries there were a big rivalry between these European countries. -The discoveries brought progress in science (geography, cartography and natural sciences), new plants and animals were discovered. -Social and knowledge exchanges were also a consequence. -Diseases from European people caused dramatic effect on native people of America, that was a very bad consequence for them.
  26. 26. Activities Exercises 1 and 2 on page 72.
  27. 27. Work in groups Page 73, exercise 2: Project: Pre-Columbian America. -Make groups or 2-3 people. -Make a Presentation or poster completing tasks a and b. -Remember NOT to copy and paste... elaborate your works!

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