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Earned Value Management
Define
Plan
Monitor
& Control
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Now
Planned Value
PV
Earned Value
EV
Actual Cost
AC
Planned
Duration
Time
Now
Time
2 of 24
Earned Value Management (EVM) originated at the US DoD in 1967 with their ‘instruction 7000.2’,
mandating an early form of EVM for larger contracts. This was to prevent projects going so far before
serious problems were apparent that too much had already been spent to contemplate cancelation.
“EVM is a project control process based on a structured approach to planning, cost collection and
performance measurement. EVM facilitates the integration of project scope, time and cost objectives
and the establishment of a baseline plan for performance measurement.” APM Competence Framework
EVM uses the Planned Value, the Actual Cost and the Earned Value to track performance
– and show what has been achieved for the money spent to date
What is Earned Value Management?
3 of 24
Why Use EVM?
Improves the predictability of projects
An early indicator of problems
A structured approach to planning and the data to enable performance management
Objectively ties delivered value to spend, comparing that with what was planned
Forecasts the impact of corrective actions
4 of 24
US Standard
ANSI EIA 748-C [07-2013] Earned Value Management Systems 
Australian Standard
AS 4817 [2006] Project Performance Using Earned Value 
Association for Project Management
Earned Value Management Handbook [03-2013] 
Earned Value Management APM Guidelines, 2nd edition [2008] 
Interfacing Risk and Earned Value Management [2008] 
The Earned Value Management Compass [2010] 
Project Management Institute
Practice Standard for Earned Value Management [2011] 
UK Government
Ministry of Defence Acquisition System Guidance: Earned Value Management [v3.2.17]
US Government
Department of Defence: Earned Value Management Implementation Guide [2006] 
NASA
EVM Implementation Handbook [02-2013]  and EVM Reference Card 
Earned Value Management Best Practice
5 of 24
Project Tracking using only Actual Cost
Before EVM, projects were tracked by looking at actual
spend and comparing with planned spend
Compare Actual Cost (40) with Planned Cost (80)
at time Now (4); what is the project status?
Is the project under-spent? Or over-spent?
Is the project on schedule? Or behind schedule?
Status depends on how much of the planned work is
complete for the money spent
– If all the work planned to time now is complete
Status: on schedule but 50% under-spent
– If half the work planned to time now is complete
Status: on budget but 100% behind schedule
– If a quarter of the work planned to time now is complete
Status: 200% over-spent and 400% behind schedule
– If all the work planned is complete
Status: 80% under-spent and 60% ahead of schedule
Status cannot be known using Actual Cost alone
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV AC
Now
40
80
6 of 24
EVM Process
Define
What work needs to be done and who will do it, defined in the Statement of Work (SoW)
Product Breakdown Structure > Work Breakdown Structure > Work Packages > Tasks
or PBS > WBS > WP > Tasks
Use EVM at the WBS level, sometimes at the WP level, hardly ever at the task level
minimise the overhead whilst maximising the value of using EVM
Each WBS element, made up of a number of WPs, is a Control Account
Each Control Account has a Control Account Manager - on smaller projects the PM or a Team Leader
Plan
How and when the work will be done, at what cost
A PERT or Gantt chart with estimates for the cost per task as hours x hourly rate
Resource level so the resources do not exceed those available at any given time
The sum cost of all the work will give us the Planned Value, or baseline for the project
Monitor & Control
Manage delivery performance during the project, against the baseline
At any point in time: how much have we delivered? (the Earned Value)
how much had we planned to deliver? (the Planned Value)
what are the variances?
are any corrective actions indicated?
Define
Plan
Monitor
& Control
7 of 24
Choose an Appropriate Measure of Progress
x/y: 0/100, 50/50, User Defined Percentage (10/90, 20/80…)
The EV is x% at the start of the WP and a further y% at the end when the WP is complete
If the work falls within a single reporting period, 0/100 may be appropriate
If the work spans two reporting periods, 50/50 or a user defined percentage may be appropriate
Milestones
Setup milestones at the start of the project. Assign each milestone a proportion of the budget
As milestones are completed, the EV is that part of the budget assigned to them
If the work spans multiple reporting periods, this method may be appropriate
Percent Complete
EV depends on the percentage completion of the WP
It can be difficult to agree an objective measure of percent complete…
Equivalent Units
EV = WP budget x the number of tasks completed / by the number of tasks to be done
Level of Effort
EV is set such that 1 hour effort = 1 hour EV
Appropriate where there is no specific deliverable result, e.g. administration
Apportioned Effort
EV is equal to the EV on another directly related WP, e.g. if a Technical Authority works on two Control
Accounts and one CA has 50% EV, the other CA is also considered to have 50% EV
Individual Judgement
Expert judgement may have to be used for complex work where no other method is applicable
8 of 24
EVM Terms and Formulae
Basic Measures
Planned Value (PV), Planned Cost, Budget, Budgeted Cost of the Work Scheduled (BCWS)
The sum of all budgets for the planned work, to a point in time
Budget At Completion (BAC)
The total budget for completing the project. Note that contingency is usually excluded
Planned Duration
The planned duration of the project
Actual Cost (AC), Actual Cost of the Work Performed (ACWP)
The sum of cost incurred in completing the work to a point in time
Earned Value (EV), Budgeted Cost of the Work Performed (BCWP)
The sum of all budgets that were planned to complete the work that has actually been completed, at a
point in time, or what the completed work should have cost
Variances (good: positive values, possibly bad: negative values)
Schedule Variance (SV) = BCWP-BCWS or EV-PV
The difference between planned achievement and actual achievement, at a point in time
Can be measured in both cost and time
Cost Variance (CV) = BCWP-ACWP or EV-AC
The difference between planned achievement and actual spend to achieve this, at a point in time
9 of 24
EVM Terms and Formulae II
Performance Indices …or Variances as ratios (good: >1, possibly bad: <1, on plan: =1)
Schedule Performance Index (SPI) =
BCWP
BCWS
=
EV
PV
Cost Performance Index (CPI) =
BCWP
ACWP
=
EV
AC
To Complete Performance Index (TCPI)
The anticipated performance to achieve the BAC = TCPIBAC =
BAC−BCWP
BAC−ACWP
=
BAC−EV
BAC−AC
or the EAC = TCPIEAC =
BAC−BCWP
EAC−ACWP
=
BAC−EV
EAC−AC
Calculated Estimates …based on performance to date
Estimate At Completion (EAC) =
BAC
CPI
A forecast of the cost at completion
Estimate To Completion (ETC) = EAC-ACWP or EAC-AC
A forecast of the costs remaining to get to completion
Estimated Duration =
Planned Duration
SPI
A forecast of the total duration of the project
10 of 24
EVM Chart
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
TimeNow
Planned Value PV
Earned Value EVActual Cost AC
Planned
Duration
Time
Now
Budget At Completion
BAC
Cost Variance CV
Schedule Variance SV
Schedule Variance (time)
Estimate At Completion
EAC
Forecast Schedule Variance (time)
Estimated Duration ED
11 of 24
EVM Example
Status at Time Now (4)
Basic Measures
BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10
PV = 80, AC = 80, EV = 80
Variances
SV = 0, CV = 0
Performance Indices
SPI = 1.0, CPI = 1.0, TCPI(BAC) = 1.0
Calculated Estimates
EAC = 200, ETC = 120, Estimated Duration = 10
Summary
On schedule, on budget
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators
SPI CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV EV AC EAC
Now
80
On Time
On Budget
On BAC
12 of 24
EVM Example II
Status at Time Now (4)
Basic Measures
BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10
PV = 80, AC = 40, EV = 40
Variances
SV = -40, CV = 0
Performance Indices
SPI = 0.5, CPI = 1.0, TCPI(BAC) = 1.0
Calculated Estimates
EAC = 200, ETC = 160, Estimated Duration = 20
Summary
Behind schedule, on budget
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV EV AC EAC
Now
80
40
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators
SPI CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
0.5
Late
On Budget
On BAC
SV = EV - PV = 40 - 80 = -40, i.e. Late
Forecast Schedule Slip = 10
13 of 24
EVM Example III
Status at Time Now (4)
Basic Measures
BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10
PV = 80, AC = 114, EV = 114
Variances
SV = 34, CV = 0
Performance Indices
SPI = 1.4, CPI = 1.0, TCPI(BAC) = 1.0
Calculated Estimates
EAC = 200, ETC = 86, Estimated Duration = 7
Summary
Ahead of schedule, on budget
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV EV AC EAC
Now
114
80
0
4
8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators
SPI CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
1.4
1.0
Early
On Budget
On BAC
Forecast Schedule Gain = 3
SV = EV - PV = 114 - 80 = 34, i.e. Early
14 of 24
EVM Example IV
Status at Time Now (4)
Basic Measures
BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10
PV = 80, AC = 100, EV = 80
Variances
SV = 0, CV = -20
Performance Indices
SPI = 1.0, CPI = 0.8, TCPI(BAC) = 1.2
Calculated Estimates
EAC = 250, ETC = 150, Estimated Duration = 10
Summary
On schedule, over budget
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV EV AC EAC
Now
100
80
250
-3
0
3
6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators
SPI CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
0.8
1.0
1.2
On Time
Over Budget
Above BAC
Forecast Over Spend = 50
CV = EV - AC = 80 - 100 = -20, i.e. Over Spent
15 of 24
EVM Example V
Status at Time Now (4)
Basic Measures
BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10
PV = 80, AC = 40, EV = 80
Variances
SV = 0, CV = 40
Performance Indices
SPI = 1.0, CPI = 2.0, TCPI(BAC) = 0.75
Calculated Estimates
EAC = 100, ETC = 60, Estimated Duration = 10
Summary
On schedule, under budget
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV EV AC EAC
Now
80
40
0
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators
SPI CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
1.00
2.00
0.75
On Time
Under Budget
Below BAC
Forecast Under Spend = 100
CV = EV - AC = 80 - 40 = 40, i.e. Under Spent
16 of 24
EVM Example VI
Status at Time Now (4)
Basic Measures
BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10
PV = 80, AC = 80, EV = 40
Variances
SV = -40, CV = -40
Performance Indices
SPI = 0.5, CPI = 0.5, TCPI(BAC) = 1.3
Calculated Estimates
EAC = 400, ETC = 320, Estimated Duration = 20
Summary
Behind schedule, over budget
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV EV AC EAC
Now
80
40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators
SPI CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
0.50
1.33
6
-6
Late
Over Budget
Above BAC
Forecast Schedule Slip = 10
Forecast Over Spend = 200
CV = EV - AC = 40 - 80 = -40, i.e. Over Spent
SV = EV - PV = 40 - 80 = -40, i.e. Late
17 of 24
EVM Example VII
Status at Time Now (4)
Basic Measures
BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10
PV = 80, AC = 80, EV = 120
Variances
SV = 40, CV = 40
Performance Indices
SPI = 1.5, CPI = 1.5, TCPI(BAC) = 0.67
Calculated Estimates
EAC = 133, ETC = 53, Estimated Duration = 6.7
Summary
Ahead of schedule, under budget
0
200
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cost
Time
Project Status
PV EV AC EAC
Now
80
120
133
0
8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators
SPI CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
1.50
0.67
Early
Under Budget
Below BAC
Forecast Schedule Gain = 3.3
Forecast Under Spend = 67
SV = EV - PV = 120 - 80 = 40, i.e. Early
CV = EV - AC = 120 - 80 = 40, i.e. Under Spent
18 of 24
Corrective Actions
Resource Problems
– Not enough resources?
– Wrong or insufficiently skilled resources? Training needed? Replacement needed?
Work Problems
– More difficult than anticipated?
– More rework than anticipated? Need technical help?
Assumption or Dependency Problems
– Incorrect assumption(s)?
– Missing in-feeds?
Data Problems
– Correct & consistent data? e.g. are Actuals for the same time as Planned
– Appropriate method of objectively assessing EV?
19 of 24
EVM Bulls Eye Chart
To make reporting easier, variance
thresholds can be agreed at the start
of a project. Variances within these
thresholds can then be logged but
with no explanation needed.
Variances might be presented using a
Bulls Eye Chart.
CPI and SPI are plotted each reporting
period (weekly, monthly or quarterly).
0.00
1.00
2.00
0.00 1.00 2.00
CPI
SPI
CPI < 1, SPI < 1
Over Spent, Late
CPI < 1, SPI > 1
Over Spent, Early
CPI > 1, SPI < 1
Under Spent, Late
CPI > 1, SPI > 1
Under Spent, Early
20 of 24
Risk Management & Change Control
At the start of a project, the Planned Value does not include all the risk contingency as risk
events are uncertain (i.e. have a probability less than 100%)
Risk mitigation and enhancement tasks will be included in the PV
As the project progresses it will likely be necessary to add or modify tasks – either adding
further risk mitigations or enhancements, or because of scope change
These should update the baseline PV – in order to maintain the validity of the EVM data
This can be done within standard planning tools with care; or specialist tools are available
21 of 24
Earned Schedule
A schedule variance of 0 or SPI of 1 indicates that a project is exactly on schedule
However, when a project is complete, SV is always 0 and SPI is always 1, even if the project
delivered late
Earned Schedule (ES) resolves the long-standing dilemma of the EVM schedule indicators
providing false information for late performing projects
ES = C + I
where C = ES for completed PV time periods = (EV >= PV)cumulative
and I = ES for partially completed PV time periods = (EV – PVC) / (PVC+1 – PVC)
SV (time) = ES – Actual Time
SPI (time) =
ES
Actual Time
ES metrics are not a substitute for
schedule analysis using the project plan
EVM Example II (slide 12) using SPI (time) in place of SPI
First proposed by Walt Lipke in 2003
0
1
2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Index
Time
Performance Indicators (ES)
SPI (time) CPI TCPI (BAC)
Now
Late
On Budget
On BAC
0.69
22 of 24
Cautions & Tips
SPI > 1 does not always mean the project is ahead of schedule. Schedule performance
should be assessed looking at the project plan, in particular the critical path
If more non-critical path work is done than planned at a given point, this could lead to SPI >
1, but this will not shorten the critical path!
Take care that materials and expenses don’t incorrectly skew EVM
Use EVM to trigger appropriate action
Setting hares running on seeing CPI, SPI less than 1 may be neither necessary or helpful
EVM will not help a project with inadequate requirements, WBS or change control,
i.e. EVM is not a substitute for general project management best practice
Remember that all measures of project progress are estimates
23 of 24
Summary
Earned Value Management offers an objective way of visualising project performance,
providing early indication of problems as well as a view on the impact of corrective actions.
It is an indispensable project management tool for all but the smallest projects
EVM is not complex to implement
Like any tool, EVM is open to misuse in the wrong hands
In competent hands EVM is the most efficient means of assessing project progress, providing
a narrative for progress reporting and is highly recommended
24 of 24
Author Profile
In my board role I led a team of 22 Project Managers and 5 Quality Engineers, and ensured Roke’s £79m
project portfolio delivered better than budget profit. I set-up and ran a virtual PMO and created REP,
the Roke Engineering Process, also managing the engineering tools to support it.
After 4 years as an electronics engineer for Siemens, achieving Chartered Engineer,
I moved into project management for 14 years, at Siemens and Roke Manor Research.
Successfully delivering Roke’s most challenging whole lifecycle product developments
on time and under budget led to a role as Director and board member for 6 years.
In 2013 I returned to hands-on project management as Programme Director at
Cambridge Consultants, founder member of the Cambridge Science Park.
Creator of the APM corporate accredited PM Excellence Programme,
I chaired a quarterly PM forum to share best practice and built a
supportive PM community. I coached seven PMs to RPP, five to PQ,
and all passed APMP.
These investments in PM professionalism led to a turn-around and
annual improvement in project results across a 400 project portfolio
and delivered an above budget performance in five consecutive years
with profits totalling £7.9m above budget.
Passionate advocate of PM professionalism, Fellow of the APM and
the IET and author of articles published in Project and PM Today.
Professional Development
Winning Project Work
Planning
Estimating
Risk Management
Earned Value Management
Change Control
Stakeholder Management
3 Steps to Professional Project Management: Case Study
ProjectManagementTopics

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Earned Value Management

  • 1. 1 of 24 Earned Value Management Define Plan Monitor & Control 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Now Planned Value PV Earned Value EV Actual Cost AC Planned Duration Time Now Time
  • 2. 2 of 24 Earned Value Management (EVM) originated at the US DoD in 1967 with their ‘instruction 7000.2’, mandating an early form of EVM for larger contracts. This was to prevent projects going so far before serious problems were apparent that too much had already been spent to contemplate cancelation. “EVM is a project control process based on a structured approach to planning, cost collection and performance measurement. EVM facilitates the integration of project scope, time and cost objectives and the establishment of a baseline plan for performance measurement.” APM Competence Framework EVM uses the Planned Value, the Actual Cost and the Earned Value to track performance – and show what has been achieved for the money spent to date What is Earned Value Management?
  • 3. 3 of 24 Why Use EVM? Improves the predictability of projects An early indicator of problems A structured approach to planning and the data to enable performance management Objectively ties delivered value to spend, comparing that with what was planned Forecasts the impact of corrective actions
  • 4. 4 of 24 US Standard ANSI EIA 748-C [07-2013] Earned Value Management Systems  Australian Standard AS 4817 [2006] Project Performance Using Earned Value  Association for Project Management Earned Value Management Handbook [03-2013]  Earned Value Management APM Guidelines, 2nd edition [2008]  Interfacing Risk and Earned Value Management [2008]  The Earned Value Management Compass [2010]  Project Management Institute Practice Standard for Earned Value Management [2011]  UK Government Ministry of Defence Acquisition System Guidance: Earned Value Management [v3.2.17] US Government Department of Defence: Earned Value Management Implementation Guide [2006]  NASA EVM Implementation Handbook [02-2013]  and EVM Reference Card  Earned Value Management Best Practice
  • 5. 5 of 24 Project Tracking using only Actual Cost Before EVM, projects were tracked by looking at actual spend and comparing with planned spend Compare Actual Cost (40) with Planned Cost (80) at time Now (4); what is the project status? Is the project under-spent? Or over-spent? Is the project on schedule? Or behind schedule? Status depends on how much of the planned work is complete for the money spent – If all the work planned to time now is complete Status: on schedule but 50% under-spent – If half the work planned to time now is complete Status: on budget but 100% behind schedule – If a quarter of the work planned to time now is complete Status: 200% over-spent and 400% behind schedule – If all the work planned is complete Status: 80% under-spent and 60% ahead of schedule Status cannot be known using Actual Cost alone 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV AC Now 40 80
  • 6. 6 of 24 EVM Process Define What work needs to be done and who will do it, defined in the Statement of Work (SoW) Product Breakdown Structure > Work Breakdown Structure > Work Packages > Tasks or PBS > WBS > WP > Tasks Use EVM at the WBS level, sometimes at the WP level, hardly ever at the task level minimise the overhead whilst maximising the value of using EVM Each WBS element, made up of a number of WPs, is a Control Account Each Control Account has a Control Account Manager - on smaller projects the PM or a Team Leader Plan How and when the work will be done, at what cost A PERT or Gantt chart with estimates for the cost per task as hours x hourly rate Resource level so the resources do not exceed those available at any given time The sum cost of all the work will give us the Planned Value, or baseline for the project Monitor & Control Manage delivery performance during the project, against the baseline At any point in time: how much have we delivered? (the Earned Value) how much had we planned to deliver? (the Planned Value) what are the variances? are any corrective actions indicated? Define Plan Monitor & Control
  • 7. 7 of 24 Choose an Appropriate Measure of Progress x/y: 0/100, 50/50, User Defined Percentage (10/90, 20/80…) The EV is x% at the start of the WP and a further y% at the end when the WP is complete If the work falls within a single reporting period, 0/100 may be appropriate If the work spans two reporting periods, 50/50 or a user defined percentage may be appropriate Milestones Setup milestones at the start of the project. Assign each milestone a proportion of the budget As milestones are completed, the EV is that part of the budget assigned to them If the work spans multiple reporting periods, this method may be appropriate Percent Complete EV depends on the percentage completion of the WP It can be difficult to agree an objective measure of percent complete… Equivalent Units EV = WP budget x the number of tasks completed / by the number of tasks to be done Level of Effort EV is set such that 1 hour effort = 1 hour EV Appropriate where there is no specific deliverable result, e.g. administration Apportioned Effort EV is equal to the EV on another directly related WP, e.g. if a Technical Authority works on two Control Accounts and one CA has 50% EV, the other CA is also considered to have 50% EV Individual Judgement Expert judgement may have to be used for complex work where no other method is applicable
  • 8. 8 of 24 EVM Terms and Formulae Basic Measures Planned Value (PV), Planned Cost, Budget, Budgeted Cost of the Work Scheduled (BCWS) The sum of all budgets for the planned work, to a point in time Budget At Completion (BAC) The total budget for completing the project. Note that contingency is usually excluded Planned Duration The planned duration of the project Actual Cost (AC), Actual Cost of the Work Performed (ACWP) The sum of cost incurred in completing the work to a point in time Earned Value (EV), Budgeted Cost of the Work Performed (BCWP) The sum of all budgets that were planned to complete the work that has actually been completed, at a point in time, or what the completed work should have cost Variances (good: positive values, possibly bad: negative values) Schedule Variance (SV) = BCWP-BCWS or EV-PV The difference between planned achievement and actual achievement, at a point in time Can be measured in both cost and time Cost Variance (CV) = BCWP-ACWP or EV-AC The difference between planned achievement and actual spend to achieve this, at a point in time
  • 9. 9 of 24 EVM Terms and Formulae II Performance Indices …or Variances as ratios (good: >1, possibly bad: <1, on plan: =1) Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = BCWP BCWS = EV PV Cost Performance Index (CPI) = BCWP ACWP = EV AC To Complete Performance Index (TCPI) The anticipated performance to achieve the BAC = TCPIBAC = BAC−BCWP BAC−ACWP = BAC−EV BAC−AC or the EAC = TCPIEAC = BAC−BCWP EAC−ACWP = BAC−EV EAC−AC Calculated Estimates …based on performance to date Estimate At Completion (EAC) = BAC CPI A forecast of the cost at completion Estimate To Completion (ETC) = EAC-ACWP or EAC-AC A forecast of the costs remaining to get to completion Estimated Duration = Planned Duration SPI A forecast of the total duration of the project
  • 10. 10 of 24 EVM Chart 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost TimeNow Planned Value PV Earned Value EVActual Cost AC Planned Duration Time Now Budget At Completion BAC Cost Variance CV Schedule Variance SV Schedule Variance (time) Estimate At Completion EAC Forecast Schedule Variance (time) Estimated Duration ED
  • 11. 11 of 24 EVM Example Status at Time Now (4) Basic Measures BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10 PV = 80, AC = 80, EV = 80 Variances SV = 0, CV = 0 Performance Indices SPI = 1.0, CPI = 1.0, TCPI(BAC) = 1.0 Calculated Estimates EAC = 200, ETC = 120, Estimated Duration = 10 Summary On schedule, on budget 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators SPI CPI TCPI (BAC) Now 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV EV AC EAC Now 80 On Time On Budget On BAC
  • 12. 12 of 24 EVM Example II Status at Time Now (4) Basic Measures BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10 PV = 80, AC = 40, EV = 40 Variances SV = -40, CV = 0 Performance Indices SPI = 0.5, CPI = 1.0, TCPI(BAC) = 1.0 Calculated Estimates EAC = 200, ETC = 160, Estimated Duration = 20 Summary Behind schedule, on budget 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV EV AC EAC Now 80 40 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators SPI CPI TCPI (BAC) Now 0.5 Late On Budget On BAC SV = EV - PV = 40 - 80 = -40, i.e. Late Forecast Schedule Slip = 10
  • 13. 13 of 24 EVM Example III Status at Time Now (4) Basic Measures BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10 PV = 80, AC = 114, EV = 114 Variances SV = 34, CV = 0 Performance Indices SPI = 1.4, CPI = 1.0, TCPI(BAC) = 1.0 Calculated Estimates EAC = 200, ETC = 86, Estimated Duration = 7 Summary Ahead of schedule, on budget 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV EV AC EAC Now 114 80 0 4 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators SPI CPI TCPI (BAC) Now 1.4 1.0 Early On Budget On BAC Forecast Schedule Gain = 3 SV = EV - PV = 114 - 80 = 34, i.e. Early
  • 14. 14 of 24 EVM Example IV Status at Time Now (4) Basic Measures BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10 PV = 80, AC = 100, EV = 80 Variances SV = 0, CV = -20 Performance Indices SPI = 1.0, CPI = 0.8, TCPI(BAC) = 1.2 Calculated Estimates EAC = 250, ETC = 150, Estimated Duration = 10 Summary On schedule, over budget 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV EV AC EAC Now 100 80 250 -3 0 3 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators SPI CPI TCPI (BAC) Now 0.8 1.0 1.2 On Time Over Budget Above BAC Forecast Over Spend = 50 CV = EV - AC = 80 - 100 = -20, i.e. Over Spent
  • 15. 15 of 24 EVM Example V Status at Time Now (4) Basic Measures BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10 PV = 80, AC = 40, EV = 80 Variances SV = 0, CV = 40 Performance Indices SPI = 1.0, CPI = 2.0, TCPI(BAC) = 0.75 Calculated Estimates EAC = 100, ETC = 60, Estimated Duration = 10 Summary On schedule, under budget 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV EV AC EAC Now 80 40 0 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators SPI CPI TCPI (BAC) Now 1.00 2.00 0.75 On Time Under Budget Below BAC Forecast Under Spend = 100 CV = EV - AC = 80 - 40 = 40, i.e. Under Spent
  • 16. 16 of 24 EVM Example VI Status at Time Now (4) Basic Measures BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10 PV = 80, AC = 80, EV = 40 Variances SV = -40, CV = -40 Performance Indices SPI = 0.5, CPI = 0.5, TCPI(BAC) = 1.3 Calculated Estimates EAC = 400, ETC = 320, Estimated Duration = 20 Summary Behind schedule, over budget 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV EV AC EAC Now 80 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators SPI CPI TCPI (BAC) Now 0.50 1.33 6 -6 Late Over Budget Above BAC Forecast Schedule Slip = 10 Forecast Over Spend = 200 CV = EV - AC = 40 - 80 = -40, i.e. Over Spent SV = EV - PV = 40 - 80 = -40, i.e. Late
  • 17. 17 of 24 EVM Example VII Status at Time Now (4) Basic Measures BAC = 200, Planned Duration = 10 PV = 80, AC = 80, EV = 120 Variances SV = 40, CV = 40 Performance Indices SPI = 1.5, CPI = 1.5, TCPI(BAC) = 0.67 Calculated Estimates EAC = 133, ETC = 53, Estimated Duration = 6.7 Summary Ahead of schedule, under budget 0 200 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cost Time Project Status PV EV AC EAC Now 80 120 133 0 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators SPI CPI TCPI (BAC) Now 1.50 0.67 Early Under Budget Below BAC Forecast Schedule Gain = 3.3 Forecast Under Spend = 67 SV = EV - PV = 120 - 80 = 40, i.e. Early CV = EV - AC = 120 - 80 = 40, i.e. Under Spent
  • 18. 18 of 24 Corrective Actions Resource Problems – Not enough resources? – Wrong or insufficiently skilled resources? Training needed? Replacement needed? Work Problems – More difficult than anticipated? – More rework than anticipated? Need technical help? Assumption or Dependency Problems – Incorrect assumption(s)? – Missing in-feeds? Data Problems – Correct & consistent data? e.g. are Actuals for the same time as Planned – Appropriate method of objectively assessing EV?
  • 19. 19 of 24 EVM Bulls Eye Chart To make reporting easier, variance thresholds can be agreed at the start of a project. Variances within these thresholds can then be logged but with no explanation needed. Variances might be presented using a Bulls Eye Chart. CPI and SPI are plotted each reporting period (weekly, monthly or quarterly). 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 CPI SPI CPI < 1, SPI < 1 Over Spent, Late CPI < 1, SPI > 1 Over Spent, Early CPI > 1, SPI < 1 Under Spent, Late CPI > 1, SPI > 1 Under Spent, Early
  • 20. 20 of 24 Risk Management & Change Control At the start of a project, the Planned Value does not include all the risk contingency as risk events are uncertain (i.e. have a probability less than 100%) Risk mitigation and enhancement tasks will be included in the PV As the project progresses it will likely be necessary to add or modify tasks – either adding further risk mitigations or enhancements, or because of scope change These should update the baseline PV – in order to maintain the validity of the EVM data This can be done within standard planning tools with care; or specialist tools are available
  • 21. 21 of 24 Earned Schedule A schedule variance of 0 or SPI of 1 indicates that a project is exactly on schedule However, when a project is complete, SV is always 0 and SPI is always 1, even if the project delivered late Earned Schedule (ES) resolves the long-standing dilemma of the EVM schedule indicators providing false information for late performing projects ES = C + I where C = ES for completed PV time periods = (EV >= PV)cumulative and I = ES for partially completed PV time periods = (EV – PVC) / (PVC+1 – PVC) SV (time) = ES – Actual Time SPI (time) = ES Actual Time ES metrics are not a substitute for schedule analysis using the project plan EVM Example II (slide 12) using SPI (time) in place of SPI First proposed by Walt Lipke in 2003 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Index Time Performance Indicators (ES) SPI (time) CPI TCPI (BAC) Now Late On Budget On BAC 0.69
  • 22. 22 of 24 Cautions & Tips SPI > 1 does not always mean the project is ahead of schedule. Schedule performance should be assessed looking at the project plan, in particular the critical path If more non-critical path work is done than planned at a given point, this could lead to SPI > 1, but this will not shorten the critical path! Take care that materials and expenses don’t incorrectly skew EVM Use EVM to trigger appropriate action Setting hares running on seeing CPI, SPI less than 1 may be neither necessary or helpful EVM will not help a project with inadequate requirements, WBS or change control, i.e. EVM is not a substitute for general project management best practice Remember that all measures of project progress are estimates
  • 23. 23 of 24 Summary Earned Value Management offers an objective way of visualising project performance, providing early indication of problems as well as a view on the impact of corrective actions. It is an indispensable project management tool for all but the smallest projects EVM is not complex to implement Like any tool, EVM is open to misuse in the wrong hands In competent hands EVM is the most efficient means of assessing project progress, providing a narrative for progress reporting and is highly recommended
  • 24. 24 of 24 Author Profile In my board role I led a team of 22 Project Managers and 5 Quality Engineers, and ensured Roke’s £79m project portfolio delivered better than budget profit. I set-up and ran a virtual PMO and created REP, the Roke Engineering Process, also managing the engineering tools to support it. After 4 years as an electronics engineer for Siemens, achieving Chartered Engineer, I moved into project management for 14 years, at Siemens and Roke Manor Research. Successfully delivering Roke’s most challenging whole lifecycle product developments on time and under budget led to a role as Director and board member for 6 years. In 2013 I returned to hands-on project management as Programme Director at Cambridge Consultants, founder member of the Cambridge Science Park. Creator of the APM corporate accredited PM Excellence Programme, I chaired a quarterly PM forum to share best practice and built a supportive PM community. I coached seven PMs to RPP, five to PQ, and all passed APMP. These investments in PM professionalism led to a turn-around and annual improvement in project results across a 400 project portfolio and delivered an above budget performance in five consecutive years with profits totalling £7.9m above budget. Passionate advocate of PM professionalism, Fellow of the APM and the IET and author of articles published in Project and PM Today. Professional Development Winning Project Work Planning Estimating Risk Management Earned Value Management Change Control Stakeholder Management 3 Steps to Professional Project Management: Case Study ProjectManagementTopics