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Basic Concepts of
Earned Value Management
(EVM)
Agenda
7/23/2015
2
 Safety
 EarnedValue Management?
 Why EVM?
 Successful EVM requires…
 Background and Context
 Organizations Practicing EVM
 Approaches to EVM
 Examples ofTerms,Variances, Indices
 Benefits of EVM & KeyTakeAways
 Questions & Support
 PDU opportunities
 The deeper dive…. (for those who wish to participate)
Earned Value Management
7/23/2015
3
Earned value management is a project management
technique for measuring performance and progress. It
combines measurements of the project management
triangle:
 Scope
 Schedule
 Costs
Why Earned Value Management?
7/23/2015
4
 EVM can provide:
 Accurate forecasts of project performance problems
 Significant positive impacts in the areas of planning & controls
 Improvements in scope definition
Successful EVM requires…
7/23/2015
5
 A good project plan
 Values identified for planned work
 Earning metrics – performance indicators
Background & Context
7/23/2015
6
 1900’s EVM practices first used in manufacturing
 1960’s Department of Defense (DoD) adopts EVM; establishes 35 criteria
 1970’s & 1980’s Cost/Schedule Control Systems Criteria (C/SCSC) analysis grows
 1979 EVM introduced toArchitecture and Engineering professions
 1987 PMI Includes EVM into PMBOK Guide
 1990’s EVM emerges as PM methodology for managers and executives
 1998 EVM criteria reduced to 32 and adopted asANSI Standard EIA 748-A
 2002 EVM achieves greater attention due to Sarbanes-OxleyAct of 2002
 2005 EVM becomes part of general federal project risk management
 EVM is now recognized worldwide.
Organizations Practicing EVM…
7/23/2015
7
 Some of the more well known organizations include:
 NASA
 Project Management Institute (PMI)
 Society of Cost Estimating andAnalysis
 DefenseAcquisition University
 Association for theAdvancement of Cost Engineering (AACEi)
 FederalAcquisition Institute
 Acquisition Management (UK)
 Most large engineering, procurement and construction organizations
Approaches to EVM
7/23/2015
8
 Scalable to fit most every project performance need
 Simple – spreadsheet based
 Intermediate – computer programs withWBS, cost & scheduling
 Advanced - complex programs with extensive capabilities
 All approaches require varying degrees of:
 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to define the work
 PlanValues (PV) – costs, hours or units of measure
 Schedule to “earn” credit – “value”
 Execute the earned value tracking and measurement plan
Element Description
Estimate at
Completion
(EAC)
The expectedTOTAL cost of the
completed work.
EAC = BAC / CPI
or = AC + ETC
or = AC + ((BAC - EV) / CPI) (typical
case)
or = AC + (BAC - EV) (atypical case)
Estimate to
Complete
(ETC)
The expected cost to FINISH the
remaining work.
ETC = EAC - AC
or = (BAC / CPI) - (EV/CPI)
or = (BAC - EV) / CPI
Cost Forecasting Terms:
7/23/2015
9
BAC - Budget at completion. CPI – Cost Performance Index. AC – Actual Cost. EV – EarnedValue
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Project
Cost
$M
PV EV Forecast
Element Description
CostVariances
(CV)
How much under or over budget.
CV = EV-AC
NEGATIVE is over budget, POSITIVE is
under budget.
Schedule
Variances (SV)
How much ahead or behind schedule.
SV = EV-PV
NEGATIVE is behind schedule, POSITIVE
is ahead of schedule.
Variance At
Completion
(VAC)
Variance ofTOTAL cost of the work and
expected cost.
VAC = BAC - EAC
Cost Forecasting Variances:
7/23/2015
10
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Project
Cost
($M)
PV EV
Forecast revised EV
revised Forecast
BAC - Budget at completion. EAC – Estimate at Completion. EV – EarnedValue. PV – PlannedValue.AC –Actual Costs.
Element Description
Cost
Performance
Index (CPI)
CPI = EV / AC
Over budget (< 1) or under budget (>
1).
Schedule
Performance
Index (SPI)
SPI = EV / PV
Ahead of schedule (> 1) or behind
schedule (< 1).
Cost Forecasting
Performance Indexes:
7/23/2015
11
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Project
Cost
($M)
PV EV
Forecast revised EV
revised Forecast
EV – EarnedValue. PV – PlannedValue.AC –Actual Costs.
Benefits of EVM
7/23/2015
12
 Improves the planning process,
 Fosters a clear definition of the work scope,
 Establishes clear responsibility for work effort,
 Integrates technical, schedule, and cost performance,
 Provides early warning of potential problems,
 Identifies problem areas for immediate and proactive management attention,
 Enables more accurate reporting of cost and schedule impacts of known problems,
 Enhances the ability to assess and integrate technical, schedule, cost, and risk factors,
 Provides consistent and clear communication of progress at all management levels,
 Improves project visibility and accountability.
Key Take Away Items
7/23/2015
13
 Recognize EVM terminology when used.
 Know that EVM is a set of guidelines by which your project
can be more effectively monitored and managed.
 Understand the benefits of utilizing EVM.
Questions?
7/23/2015
14
For PMI-PDU Credit Please send e-mail to:
President@PMI-Metrolina.com
provide their PMI member ID with the notification
What is EVM?
7/23/2015
15
 The basic concept of EVM is more than a unique project
management process or technique.
 It is an umbrella term for 32 guidelines that define a set of
requirements that must be met.
 The objectives are to:
 Relate time phased budgets to specific contract tasks and/or
statements of work.
 Provide the basis to capture work progress assessments against the
baseline plan.
 Relate technical, schedule, and cost performance.
 Provide valid, timely, and auditable data/information for proactive
management action.
 Supply managers with a practical level of summarization for effective
decision making.
Terminology
7/23/2015
16
 Earned value management does introduce a few new terms.
 Budget vs.Actual
 Budgeted cost for work scheduled (BCWS), sometimes called the planned value.
 Budgeted cost for work performed (BCWP) or earned value.
 Actual cost of work performed (ACWP).
 Budget at completion (BAC).
 Estimate at completion (EAC) which is comprised of the cumulative to date actual cost
of work performed plus the estimate to complete the remaining work.
 Variance
 Cost variance (CV) which is calculated as BCWP minusACWP. A result greater than
0 is favorable (an underrun), a result less than 0 is unfavorable (an overrun).
 Schedule variance (SV) which is calculated as BCWP minus BCWS. A result greater
than 0 is favorable (ahead of schedule), a result less than 0 is unfavorable (behind
schedule).
 Variance at completion (VAC) which is calculated as BAC minus EAC. A result greater
than 0 is favorable, a result less than 0 is unfavorable.
32 Guidelines
7/23/2015
17
 The 32 guidelines in theANSI-748 Standard for EVMS are
divided into five sections:
 Organization
 Planning, Scheduling and Budgeting
 Accounting Considerations
 Analysis and Management Reports
 Revisions and Data Maintenance
Organization
7/23/2015
18
Element Description
Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS)
Extended down to a level that describes the tasks that will be performed as well as their
relationship to product deliverables.
Organizational
Breakdown Structure
(OBS)
Defines who is responsible for the work effort in theWBS
Control Account Where theWBS (what) and OBS (who) intersect
Responsibility The person responsible for the work effort (scope, schedule, and budget) is the project
manager
Integration of the planning, scheduling, budgeting, work authorization, and processes
Planning, Scheduling and Budgeting
7/23/2015
19
Element Description
Integrated master
schedule
Resource loaded to determine the budget for the work as scheduled.
Forms the basis for the monthly budget, or BCWS, for each task and the project.
Creates the time phased budget for the performance measurement baseline (PMB).
The total budget for each task, control account, or the entire project is defined as the
budget at complete (BAC).
Schedule Uncertainty Managed with Management Reserve (MR) or Net Estimate Uncertainty
EVM Methodology Work classification: discrete, apportioned effort, or level of effort (LOE).
Earned value technique e.g. 50/50, 0/100, rules of credit or percent complete.
Authorization to
complete
Work only begins when there is formal authorization to proceed. This requirement is a
disciplined approach to clearly define work, schedule, and budget before work
commences and actual costs begin to accrue.
Accounting Considerations
7/23/2015
20
Element Description
Actual costs (ACWP) Actual costs must be captured in a manner consistent with the way work is planned and
budgeted
Timeliness Schedule an important project resource, material, and to accrue performance data
correctly
AccrualTiming Common sense practice to accrue the costs for the material in the same month as the
BCWP was taken (earned) to avoid a very misleading cost variance, also known as
“booking lag.”
Element Description
Human Attention To cost and schedule variances, documenting cause, impact, and correction action, and
determining a new estimate at complete (EAC), if warranted.
Variance Calculations Done at the control account level which provides the ability to summarize the data up
through theWBS and/or the OBS. The ability exists to drill down from the control
account level into the detail data to identify the root cause of a variance, determine the
impact of the variance on future work effort, and identify correction actions.
EVM DataAnalysis
Indices
Consider their past performance and their future performance to complete the work
within the approved EAC and estimated completion date (ECD).
Cost & Schedule
Indices
Featured in commercial off the shelf project management toolsets such as MS Project and
Primavera and should be carefully reviewed during each reporting cycle. They serve as a
valuable validity test to the estimate at completion.
Analysis and Management Reports
7/23/2015
21
Element Description
Disciplines and
Timely
Incorporation of customer directed changes, including stop work orders.
Baseline Control Schedule and budget baseline is essential to be able to assess work accomplished for each
reporting period.
Proactive &
Meaningful
The Revision and Data Maintenance section is a must for proactive, meaningful earned
value management when there is a constantly changing baseline.
Revisions and Data Maintenance
7/23/2015
22

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Basic Concepts of Earned Value Management.pdf

  • 1. Basic Concepts of Earned Value Management (EVM)
  • 2. Agenda 7/23/2015 2  Safety  EarnedValue Management?  Why EVM?  Successful EVM requires…  Background and Context  Organizations Practicing EVM  Approaches to EVM  Examples ofTerms,Variances, Indices  Benefits of EVM & KeyTakeAways  Questions & Support  PDU opportunities  The deeper dive…. (for those who wish to participate)
  • 3. Earned Value Management 7/23/2015 3 Earned value management is a project management technique for measuring performance and progress. It combines measurements of the project management triangle:  Scope  Schedule  Costs
  • 4. Why Earned Value Management? 7/23/2015 4  EVM can provide:  Accurate forecasts of project performance problems  Significant positive impacts in the areas of planning & controls  Improvements in scope definition
  • 5. Successful EVM requires… 7/23/2015 5  A good project plan  Values identified for planned work  Earning metrics – performance indicators
  • 6. Background & Context 7/23/2015 6  1900’s EVM practices first used in manufacturing  1960’s Department of Defense (DoD) adopts EVM; establishes 35 criteria  1970’s & 1980’s Cost/Schedule Control Systems Criteria (C/SCSC) analysis grows  1979 EVM introduced toArchitecture and Engineering professions  1987 PMI Includes EVM into PMBOK Guide  1990’s EVM emerges as PM methodology for managers and executives  1998 EVM criteria reduced to 32 and adopted asANSI Standard EIA 748-A  2002 EVM achieves greater attention due to Sarbanes-OxleyAct of 2002  2005 EVM becomes part of general federal project risk management  EVM is now recognized worldwide.
  • 7. Organizations Practicing EVM… 7/23/2015 7  Some of the more well known organizations include:  NASA  Project Management Institute (PMI)  Society of Cost Estimating andAnalysis  DefenseAcquisition University  Association for theAdvancement of Cost Engineering (AACEi)  FederalAcquisition Institute  Acquisition Management (UK)  Most large engineering, procurement and construction organizations
  • 8. Approaches to EVM 7/23/2015 8  Scalable to fit most every project performance need  Simple – spreadsheet based  Intermediate – computer programs withWBS, cost & scheduling  Advanced - complex programs with extensive capabilities  All approaches require varying degrees of:  Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to define the work  PlanValues (PV) – costs, hours or units of measure  Schedule to “earn” credit – “value”  Execute the earned value tracking and measurement plan
  • 9. Element Description Estimate at Completion (EAC) The expectedTOTAL cost of the completed work. EAC = BAC / CPI or = AC + ETC or = AC + ((BAC - EV) / CPI) (typical case) or = AC + (BAC - EV) (atypical case) Estimate to Complete (ETC) The expected cost to FINISH the remaining work. ETC = EAC - AC or = (BAC / CPI) - (EV/CPI) or = (BAC - EV) / CPI Cost Forecasting Terms: 7/23/2015 9 BAC - Budget at completion. CPI – Cost Performance Index. AC – Actual Cost. EV – EarnedValue 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Project Cost $M PV EV Forecast
  • 10. Element Description CostVariances (CV) How much under or over budget. CV = EV-AC NEGATIVE is over budget, POSITIVE is under budget. Schedule Variances (SV) How much ahead or behind schedule. SV = EV-PV NEGATIVE is behind schedule, POSITIVE is ahead of schedule. Variance At Completion (VAC) Variance ofTOTAL cost of the work and expected cost. VAC = BAC - EAC Cost Forecasting Variances: 7/23/2015 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Project Cost ($M) PV EV Forecast revised EV revised Forecast BAC - Budget at completion. EAC – Estimate at Completion. EV – EarnedValue. PV – PlannedValue.AC –Actual Costs.
  • 11. Element Description Cost Performance Index (CPI) CPI = EV / AC Over budget (< 1) or under budget (> 1). Schedule Performance Index (SPI) SPI = EV / PV Ahead of schedule (> 1) or behind schedule (< 1). Cost Forecasting Performance Indexes: 7/23/2015 11 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Project Cost ($M) PV EV Forecast revised EV revised Forecast EV – EarnedValue. PV – PlannedValue.AC –Actual Costs.
  • 12. Benefits of EVM 7/23/2015 12  Improves the planning process,  Fosters a clear definition of the work scope,  Establishes clear responsibility for work effort,  Integrates technical, schedule, and cost performance,  Provides early warning of potential problems,  Identifies problem areas for immediate and proactive management attention,  Enables more accurate reporting of cost and schedule impacts of known problems,  Enhances the ability to assess and integrate technical, schedule, cost, and risk factors,  Provides consistent and clear communication of progress at all management levels,  Improves project visibility and accountability.
  • 13. Key Take Away Items 7/23/2015 13  Recognize EVM terminology when used.  Know that EVM is a set of guidelines by which your project can be more effectively monitored and managed.  Understand the benefits of utilizing EVM.
  • 14. Questions? 7/23/2015 14 For PMI-PDU Credit Please send e-mail to: President@PMI-Metrolina.com provide their PMI member ID with the notification
  • 15. What is EVM? 7/23/2015 15  The basic concept of EVM is more than a unique project management process or technique.  It is an umbrella term for 32 guidelines that define a set of requirements that must be met.  The objectives are to:  Relate time phased budgets to specific contract tasks and/or statements of work.  Provide the basis to capture work progress assessments against the baseline plan.  Relate technical, schedule, and cost performance.  Provide valid, timely, and auditable data/information for proactive management action.  Supply managers with a practical level of summarization for effective decision making.
  • 16. Terminology 7/23/2015 16  Earned value management does introduce a few new terms.  Budget vs.Actual  Budgeted cost for work scheduled (BCWS), sometimes called the planned value.  Budgeted cost for work performed (BCWP) or earned value.  Actual cost of work performed (ACWP).  Budget at completion (BAC).  Estimate at completion (EAC) which is comprised of the cumulative to date actual cost of work performed plus the estimate to complete the remaining work.  Variance  Cost variance (CV) which is calculated as BCWP minusACWP. A result greater than 0 is favorable (an underrun), a result less than 0 is unfavorable (an overrun).  Schedule variance (SV) which is calculated as BCWP minus BCWS. A result greater than 0 is favorable (ahead of schedule), a result less than 0 is unfavorable (behind schedule).  Variance at completion (VAC) which is calculated as BAC minus EAC. A result greater than 0 is favorable, a result less than 0 is unfavorable.
  • 17. 32 Guidelines 7/23/2015 17  The 32 guidelines in theANSI-748 Standard for EVMS are divided into five sections:  Organization  Planning, Scheduling and Budgeting  Accounting Considerations  Analysis and Management Reports  Revisions and Data Maintenance
  • 18. Organization 7/23/2015 18 Element Description Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Extended down to a level that describes the tasks that will be performed as well as their relationship to product deliverables. Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) Defines who is responsible for the work effort in theWBS Control Account Where theWBS (what) and OBS (who) intersect Responsibility The person responsible for the work effort (scope, schedule, and budget) is the project manager Integration of the planning, scheduling, budgeting, work authorization, and processes
  • 19. Planning, Scheduling and Budgeting 7/23/2015 19 Element Description Integrated master schedule Resource loaded to determine the budget for the work as scheduled. Forms the basis for the monthly budget, or BCWS, for each task and the project. Creates the time phased budget for the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The total budget for each task, control account, or the entire project is defined as the budget at complete (BAC). Schedule Uncertainty Managed with Management Reserve (MR) or Net Estimate Uncertainty EVM Methodology Work classification: discrete, apportioned effort, or level of effort (LOE). Earned value technique e.g. 50/50, 0/100, rules of credit or percent complete. Authorization to complete Work only begins when there is formal authorization to proceed. This requirement is a disciplined approach to clearly define work, schedule, and budget before work commences and actual costs begin to accrue.
  • 20. Accounting Considerations 7/23/2015 20 Element Description Actual costs (ACWP) Actual costs must be captured in a manner consistent with the way work is planned and budgeted Timeliness Schedule an important project resource, material, and to accrue performance data correctly AccrualTiming Common sense practice to accrue the costs for the material in the same month as the BCWP was taken (earned) to avoid a very misleading cost variance, also known as “booking lag.”
  • 21. Element Description Human Attention To cost and schedule variances, documenting cause, impact, and correction action, and determining a new estimate at complete (EAC), if warranted. Variance Calculations Done at the control account level which provides the ability to summarize the data up through theWBS and/or the OBS. The ability exists to drill down from the control account level into the detail data to identify the root cause of a variance, determine the impact of the variance on future work effort, and identify correction actions. EVM DataAnalysis Indices Consider their past performance and their future performance to complete the work within the approved EAC and estimated completion date (ECD). Cost & Schedule Indices Featured in commercial off the shelf project management toolsets such as MS Project and Primavera and should be carefully reviewed during each reporting cycle. They serve as a valuable validity test to the estimate at completion. Analysis and Management Reports 7/23/2015 21
  • 22. Element Description Disciplines and Timely Incorporation of customer directed changes, including stop work orders. Baseline Control Schedule and budget baseline is essential to be able to assess work accomplished for each reporting period. Proactive & Meaningful The Revision and Data Maintenance section is a must for proactive, meaningful earned value management when there is a constantly changing baseline. Revisions and Data Maintenance 7/23/2015 22