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Cepe11 bodle upload

  1. 1. The ethics of online anonymity or Zuckerberg vs. “moot” Robert Bodle CEPE 2011 Milwaukee, WI
  2. 2. Five years of interoperability advances Facebook Developer (2006) Facebook Platform (2007) Facebook Connect (2008) Open Stream (2009) Open Graph (2010) Sharing one's 'social graph'
  3. 3. interoperable applications mashups widgets social games desktop mobile social plug-ins The “Like” button
  4. 4. Mark Zuckerberg
  5. 5. Facebook's real name only policy “ Impersonating anyone or anything is not permitted . To encourage people to use their real names on Facebook, we limit the number of times names can be changed. Also, if a Facebook representative changes your name for you, this change is considered final and you can’t manually change your name afterwards.”
  6. 6. Definition of anonymity “ nonidentifiability by virtue of noncoordinatability of traits” (Wallace)
  7. 7. Zuckerberg vs. 'moot' “ having two identities for yourself is an example of lack of integrity” (Zuckerberg)
  8. 8. Zuckerberg vs. 'moot' “ having two identities for yourself is an example of lack of integrity” (Zuckerberg) “ I think that's totally wrong . . . anonymity is authenticity” (Poole a.k.a. 'moot')
  9. 9. Fully anonymous posts – by design
  10. 10. Anonymous collective action
  11. 11. Anonymous campaigns
  12. 12. Anonymous campaigns
  13. 13. Anonymous campaigns
  14. 14. Anonymous Campaigns
  15. 15. overview <ul><li>cost/benefit analysis of anonymity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two fold effects of anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>deontological appraisal of anonymity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anonymity as enabling other rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pluralist approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>combining frameworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diverse implementation of anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gov, companies, users </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Anonymity common in online communities? Anonymity - 90% of posts are completely anonymous Ephemerality – a discussion thread lasts “an averages 5 minutes” (Berstein, Hernandez, Harry, Andre, Panovich, and Vargas, 2011)
  17. 17. Anonymity common in online communities? “ One important social rule . . . that Nobody is anonymous. Everybody is required to attach their real userid to their postings. It is possible to use pseudonyms to create alternate identities . . . but the pseudonyms are always linked in every posting to the real userid” (Stewart Brand qut in Rheingold, p. 38, 2000).
  18. 18. Two-sided effects of anonymity Minimizes accountability Disinhibition Depersonalization
  19. 19. Limits of utilitarianism -doesn’t account for the underlying values, and “ideals of justice and human rights” (Spinello, 2003) -doesn't account for the “extended range of our actions” in digital media (Ess, 2009).
  20. 20. Deontology and rights based ethics Immanuel Kant - Absolutist moral principles generated from imperatives: -each of us should act according to the principles that we wish other rational beings to act on. -human beings should be treated as ends rather than as means.
  21. 21. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
  22. 22. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Article 12: N o one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence . . . Article 19: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
  23. 23. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) “ Indeed, throughout history, people’s willingness to engage in debate on controversial subjects in the public sphere has always been linked to possibilities for doing so anonymously ” (La Rue, p. 15. 2011).
  24. 24. Human Rights on the Internet are interpreted and applied differently -arbitrary blocking or filtering of content -criminalization of legitimate expression -imposition of intermediary liability
  25. 25. Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement
  26. 26. Sarkozy and Zuckerberg at G8
  27. 27. Critique of the Categorical Imperative -inflexibility -inability to “make room for justified and important ‘exceptions to the rule’” (Ess, 181, 2009)
  28. 28. Meta-ethical Pluralism - a shared single norm applied “in diverse ways, in diverse contexts” (Ess, p. 191, 2009)
  29. 29. Ethical Pluralism – balancing human rights laws online Prima facie duties (W.D. Ross) Principalism (Beachamp and Childress) “ Principles of necessity and proportionality” (La Rue, 2011).
  30. 30. Summary - Ethics of Anonymity -benefits and positive effects -enables privacy and freedom of expression -flexible implementation
  31. 31. Conclusion – How to ensure the “noncoordinatability of traits” -identification should be opt in -anonymity should be the default -encourage a culture of responsible anonymity
  32. 32. Conclusion – How to ensure the “noncoordinatability of traits” -identification should be opt in -anonymity should be the default -encourage a culture of responsible anonymity - embrace anonymity & security tools - challenge persistent user identity online
  33. 33. Anonymity revisited - FTW
  34. 34. Thank you for your attention. [email_address] http://twitter.com/robertbodle
  35. 35. The ethics of online anonymity or Zuckerberg vs. “moot” Robert Bodle CEPE 2011 Milwaukee, WI

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