Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The case for privacy (2012)


Published on

Updated slides for MAC309 undergrad module

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The case for privacy (2012)

  1. 1.
  2. 2. The case for privacy in a digitally networked era MAC309 [email_address]
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Commodification of publicness </li></ul><ul><li>Lifecasting </li></ul><ul><li>The new publicness </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook and privacy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Privacy today <ul><li>Privacy is a fundamental human right. It underpins human dignity and other values such as freedom of association and freedom of speech. It has become one of the most important human rights of the modern age </li></ul><ul><li>It is protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and in many other international and regional human rights treaties. Nearly every country in the world includes a right of privacy in its constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy International, 2007 </li></ul>
  5. 5.
  6. 6. European Privacy and Human Rights (EPHR) 2010
  7. 7. European Privacy and Human Rights (EPHR) 2010
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Sheller and Urry (2003: 107) <ul><li>20 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>‘ the over-whelming power of the state and market to interfere in and to overpower “ private ” life ’ </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century </li></ul><ul><li>the erosion of the ‘ public ’ by ‘ processes otherwise understood to be “ private ”’ (ie. commercial) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sheller and Urry (2003: 107) <ul><li>Private corporations have taken over once public institutions of schools, hospitals, prisons, transportation systems, postal services and the state itself, leading to a loss of democratic control, ... while, ... a politics of confessional intimacy and shaming has invaded the once public arena of political debate and arbitration of collective interests. On every front, it seems, the ‘ public ’ is being privatized, the private is becoming oversized, and this undermines democratic life. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sensitive data? <ul><li>UK census data [2011] gathered by US arms manufacturer Lockheed Martin </li></ul>
  12. 12. Privacy versus sociability <ul><li>Tension between the right to privacy and the sacrifices we make in order to communicate online </li></ul><ul><li>Personal autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Private information commoditized </li></ul>
  13. 13. Privacy versus sociability <ul><li>Tension between the right to privacy and the sacrifices we make in order to communicate online </li></ul><ul><li>Personal autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Private information commoditized </li></ul><ul><li>“ We have had developers tell us that they don't want their platform screwed up by too much privacy management … There's all sorts of hoodwinking and linguistic devices that they use to persuade you to hand over your data.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simon Davies, director-general of Privacy International </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Apple’s 1984 Orwellian advert
  15. 15. Apple is Orwellian? iPhone launched in China, Dalia Lama app banned, 2009
  16. 16. Apple is Orwellian? Satirical app by Pulitzer Prize winner, Mark Fiore, is banned ( Apr 2010 ) Later reinstated by Apple
  17. 17. Apple is Orwellian? German Bild app censored; Stern app pulled from store ( March 2010 )
  18. 18. The private leaks into the public <ul><li>“ The proliferation of screens, from the miniature ones displaying text messages on handheld devices to the large ones in public spaces is allowing for new kinds of informational mobilities that use public spaces for ‘ private ’ purposes … . Private conversations are increasingly occurring in various `free spaces ’ that have been appropriated from the `semipublic ’ realm of streets, trains, stairwells, hallways, and stations. New degrees and kinds of personal communication or `keeping in touch’ are now possible from shifting public locations.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Mimi Sheller, 2004, ‘Mobile publics: beyond the network perspective’, Environment and Palnning D: Society and Space , vol 22 p39-52 </li></ul>
  19. 19. (Hu)man as confessional animal
  20. 20. Surveillance society?
  21. 21. Surveillance society? <ul><li>Automatic Number Plate Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Interception Modernisation Programme </li></ul><ul><li>National ID scheme (50 pieces of info) </li></ul><ul><li>National DNA database </li></ul><ul><li>CCTV </li></ul>
  22. 22. Public or private? <ul><li>‘ the public is concerned about privacy ’ (Zittrain, 2008: 202) </li></ul><ul><li>civil servants & memory sticks/CDs (Boffey, 2/11/2008; BBC, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>the MoD/NHS &laptops (Norton-Taylor, 22/1/2008; Oates, 15/2/2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Yet... </li></ul>
  23. 23. The end of online privacy? <ul><li>Feb 8 2012 – Arun Thampi discovers Path app uploading the entire contents of users address books – names, emails, phone numbers – to its servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 8 2012 – Dustin Curtis claims 13/15 popular iOS apps do this. One company has contact details for Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg and Larry Ellison </li></ul>See Arthur, 2012
  24. 24. The end of online privacy? <ul><li>Feb 17 2012 – Jonathan Mayer discovers t hat Google had hacked past the default privacy settings of Apple's browsers on the iPhone, iPad and desktop so that it tracked people's use of the web, whether or not they were signed into its services. </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 16 2012 – New York Times shows how Target can spot pregnancy before family members </li></ul>See Arthur, 2012
  25. 25. Lifecasting <ul><li>Josh Harris – The Bunker </li></ul>
  26. 26. Lifecasting <ul><li>Steve Mann </li></ul><ul><li>Wearable Wireless Webcam </li></ul>
  27. 27. Lifecasting
  28. 28. Lifecasting
  29. 29. The new publicness? <ul><li>‘ any activity is subject to recording and broadcast ’ (Zittrain, 2008: 210) </li></ul><ul><li>The Sherrif ’ s Office of Anderson County, Tennesse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jailcam fiasco </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Bus Uncle <ul><li> </li></ul>
  31. 31. Dog Poop Girl <ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>2005 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Public ridicule and reputations <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Remix </li></ul>
  33. 33. Celebrity sex tapes <ul><li>Accidental? </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeful? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Deliberate exposure <ul><li>Chris Crocker, ‘ Leave Britney alone! ’ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Lonelygirl15 >>> Kate Modern </li></ul>
  35. 35. Deliberate exposure
  36. 36. Accidental exposure? <ul><li>Browser tracking? </li></ul><ul><li>Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Super-cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral ads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phorm UK </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Deliberate disappearance <ul><li>Evan Ratliff, US, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>27 days </li></ul>
  38. 38. Deliberate disappearance <ul><li>David Bond, UK, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Erasing David </li></ul><ul><li>18 days </li></ul>
  39. 39. Facebook and privacy <ul><li>More popular than the BBC (Warman, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Keele University incident (Williams, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Employers vetting candidates (Bergstrom, 2008) </li></ul>
  40. 40. You are what you post? <ul><li>“ You have one identity. […] The days of you having a different image for your co-workers and for the other people you know are probably coming to an end pretty quickly. […] Having two identities for yourself is an example of a lack of integrity.” </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook (in Kiss, 2010 ) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Facebook and privacy <ul><li>Problems deleting accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Datamining? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  42. 42. Facebook and privacy
  43. 43. Facebook and privacy <ul><li>‘ online risks may arise from their very confidence that they can know, judge and trust the people with whom they are intimate ... teenagers ’ limited internet literacy combined with confusing or poorly designed site settings, [leaves] them unclear regarding their control over who can see what about them ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Livingstone, 2008: 406 </li></ul>
  44. 44. Facebook ’ s “ News Feed ” <ul><li>“ The tech world has a tendency to view the concept of ‘ private ’ as a single bit that is either 0 or 1. Data are either exposed or not. When companies make a decision to make data visible in a more ‘ efficient ’ manner, it is often startling, prompting users to speak of a disruption of ‘ privacy ’ ” </li></ul><ul><li>boyd, 2008: 14 </li></ul>
  45. 45. Facebook’s privacy (d)evolution Image: Matt Mckeon
  46. 46. Facebook’s privacy (d)evolution Image: Matt Mckeon
  47. 47. Facebook’s privacy (d)evolution Image: Matt Mckeon
  48. 48. Facebook’s privacy (d)evolution Image: Matt Mckeon
  49. 49. Facebook’s privacy (d)evolution Image: Matt Mckeon
  50. 50. Facebook’s privacy (d)evolution
  51. 51. Facebook’s privacy (d)evolution Image: Matt Mckeon
  52. 52. Privacy is a luxury? <ul><li>“ what renders privacy a luxury commodity is that obtaining it implies a level of computer literacy that is inaccessible to most, and typically associated with higher income and education levels, and certain ethnic groups, in ways that mirror dominant socio–demographic inequalities” </li></ul><ul><li>Zizi Papacharissi , 2010 </li></ul>
  53. 53. Facebook and loneliness <ul><li>The pressure to conform? </li></ul><ul><li>Social Identity Theory (Henri Tajfel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In groups/out groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion/exclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encouraged to share? </li></ul>
  54. 54. Summary <ul><li>Increasing desire for personalization of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing desire for socialization via Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy is a basic human right but we may be living through a period of ‘filter bubbles’ ( Pariser, 2011 ) whereby what is public or hidden from us is difficult to ascertain </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent are we complicit/ignorant of the implications? </li></ul>
  55. 55. Summary <ul><li>New media = new risks? </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation and commerce - Amazon, eBay, etc (Zittrain, 2008: 218) </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable to social contexts (Youtube?) </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance brings new benefits? </li></ul>
  56. 56. Questions to consider: <ul><li>To what extent do we willingly reveal private information about ourselves in public forums, and how risky is this behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>How commonplace is ‘ lifecasting ’ in its various forms and what are the potential implications of spending an increasing amount of time broadcasting our lives? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent can we trust companies to respect our privacy or our private infomration? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent do social media tools reconfigure traditional boundaries of public and private? </li></ul>
  57. 57. Sources <ul><li>Guy Adams (2008), ‘ Couple sue McDonald's over nude photos ’ , The Independent , </li></ul><ul><li>BBC (2007), ‘ UK's families put on fraud alert ’ , </li></ul><ul><li>Ida Bergstrom (2008), ‘ Facebook can ruin your life. And so can MySpace, Bebo... ’ , The Independent , </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Boffey (2008), ‘ Tax website shut down as memory stick with secret personal data of 12million is found in a pub car park ’ , Mail Online , </li></ul><ul><li>danah boyd (2008), ‘ Facebook's Privacy Trainwreck: Exposure, Invasion, and Social Convergence ’ , Convergence , Vol 14 Iss 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Harvey (2008), ‘ Horror as teenager commits suicide live ’ , TimesOnline , online </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Krim, 2005, ‘ Subway Fracas Escalates Into Test Of the Internet's Power to Shame ’ , The Washington Post , </li></ul><ul><li>Sonia Livingstone (2008), ‘ Taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: teenagers' use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and self-expression ’ , New Media & Society , Vol 10 Iss 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Norton-Taylor (2008), ‘ MoD admits inquiry into 69 lost laptops ’ , , </li></ul><ul><li>John Oates (2008), ‘ 5,000 NHS records vanish with latest lost laptop ’ , The Register , </li></ul><ul><li>Mimi Sheller and John Urry (2003), ‘ Mobile Transformations of “ Public ” and “ Private ” Life ’ , Theory, Culture and Society , Vol 20 Iss 3, 107-125 </li></ul><ul><li>Mimi Sheller, 2004, ‘Mobile publics: beyond the network perspective’, Environment and Palnning D: Society and Space , vol 22 p39-52 </li></ul><ul><li>Evan Ratliff, 2009, ‘Writer Evan Ratliff Tried to Vanish: Here’s What Happened’ in Wired </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Warman (2008), ‘ How Facebook toppled the BBC ’ , Telegraph , </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Williams (2007), ‘ University moves to hush Facebook criticism ’ , The Register , </li></ul>