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Secondary sector


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Economic activities of the secondary sector

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Secondary sector

  2. 2. This sector includes the activities related to the transformation of raw materials into manufactured products. These activities are: construction, mining, production of energy and industry.
  3. 3. MINING It consists of the extraction of minerals of the subsoil. There are different types of mines: - Open- cast mines: if the mineral is not very deep, like in quarries. - Underground mines: if the miners have to dig to reach the minerals.
  4. 4. The main problem of mining is security: miners have to face gas leaks, landslides, collapses, floods, accumulation of mineral dust in miners’ lungs, which can causes silicosis, pneumoconiosis…
  5. 5. Minerals have become very important for industrial and technological development. There are few countries in the world that have enough mineral resources. This is the reason why the most developed countries try to control the mines that produce the minerals they need.
  6. 6. Control of minerals has led to bloody wars in Africa: the population of Sierra Leone and Liberia suffered years of war for the control of diamonds. In central Africa more than 4 million people have died in the First African War caused by the fights for the control of coltan (columbite- tantalite) mines.
  7. 7. Energy is the capacity of producing heat, work or movement. Energy sources are all the raw materials or natural resources with which we can produce heat, work or movement. Classification: -Renewable: solar power, wind power, hydroelectric power (it´s renewable, but dams cause great environmental impact), bio-mass, geothermic power, ocean wave energy. -Non-renewable: nuclear and fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas). PRODUCTION OF ENERGY
  8. 8. Climate change and exhaustion of the fossil fuels´ fields have led the governments of the developed countries to invest money in renewable energy sources: solar and wind power, bio-fuels, electric engines…
  9. 9. It’s the economic activity that consists in transforming raw materials into manufactured products (production goods or consumer goods). INDUSTRY
  10. 10. In the last decades of the 18th century there were important changes in the way of producing products. As population had increased, there was more demand for every kind of products and producers introduced innovations in the organization of work and invented some machines that increased production (steam engine). This was the Industrial Revolution, a deep change in the way of manufacturing products, which led to important changes in economy and society. This process started in Great Britain, but it spread quickly to continental Europe and North America. EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRY
  11. 11. Industrial work was organized to produce the most in the least time. Factories introduced innovations in the way of organizing work: -Assembly line production (Taylorism or Scientific Management): workers are organized along a production line and every worker makes only a part of the product. -Mass production or standardization: production of many copies of the same model. This allows for lower prices and more consumption.
  12. 12. What kind of organization of production is this one?
  13. 13. The elements needed to produce products are the following: -Capital (money and all that can be bought with it: land, buildings, machines …) -labor force (workers and a staff to organize work) -raw materials -energy supply -technology ELEMENTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS
  14. 14. TYPES OF INDUSTRIES Industries can be classified according to their production: -Heavy industry or Production Goods Industry: industries that produce goods than can´t be consumed directly, but they are used to produce other goods: steel industry, concrete industry… -Light industry or Consumer Goods Industry: industries that produce goods that can be consumed directly, such as food, cars, electric appliances, furniture…
  15. 15. What kind of industries are these?
  16. 16. What kind of industries are these?
  17. 17. Industrial concentrations appear when industries merge with other industries in order to be more competitive. Industrial concentrations can be horizontal or vertical: -Horizontal concentration: it´s the merger of several industries of the same sector. For example, a car company that produces different brands of cars. -Vertical concentration: it´s the merger of several industries that take part in the different stages of the production process of a product. For example, a company that owns farms that produce wool, factories that produce thread, fabric and clothes and shops where the clothes are sold. INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATIONS
  18. 18. SIOEN What kind of concentrations are these?
  19. 19. FACTORS OF INDUSTRIAL LOCATION In the past the most important factors were proximity to the raw materials and supply of energy. The first factories were located near coal mines or rivers. Today industries are usually settled down near the markets, near the transportation networks (roads, ports) or near technology parks (if they need technological support). Industries locate on the outskirts of the cities, in industrial parks, where the land is cheaper. The Catalan textile industries were located near rivers in order to take advantage of hydraulic power Technology park of Zamudio (Biscay)
  20. 20. If industries want to be competitive, they have to be in constant change: they have to invest in new technology and workers have to recycle to get updated. If industries don´t modernize, they can get out of date and start losing money. Out of date industries dismiss workers and sometimes they have to close. This happened in the developed countries during the 80´s and the 90´s: many old-fashioned industries closed, because they couldn´t compete with the more modern industries of other countries. This process was called industrial reconversion and it was dramatic for many workers. DEINDUSTRIALIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL RECONVERSION
  21. 21. A more recent process is industrial outsourcing or delocalization: many industries of the developed countries have closed their factories and they have moved them to developing countries, where the production costs (and sometimes the security controls) are lower. This is the case of maquiladoras in the border cities of Mexico (El Paso, Ciudad Juárez) or the sport multinationals, such as Adidas, Nike or Puma, that produce all their products in Asian countries. OUTSOURCING OR DELOCALIZATION
  22. 22. The most important industrial regions are located in Europe, the U.S.A, Japan and China. There are also important industrial centers in South Korea, India, Mexico and Brazil. Africa is the least industrialized continent. Only South Africa has important industrial regions in Johannesburg and Cape Town. Some countries like Egypt and Morocco have attracted European and American industries by offering cheaper production costs and more relaxed security controls. MAIN INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
  23. 23. This map shows the relationship between industrial concentration and water pollution