Texas Independence


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Texas Independence

  1. 1. War of Texas Independence The Emergence of Texas as a Nation
  2. 2. Important Things/ People <ul><li>Texians: Whites who lived in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Tejano: Mexicans who lived in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna: Military Dictator of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Houston: Leader of the Texian army </li></ul><ul><li>William B. Travis: Leader of the Army at the Alamo </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Bowie: Leader of the Militia at the Alamo </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Velasco: gave Santa Anna safe passage to Mexico in return for his support of Texas Independence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reasons <ul><li>Coahuila y Tejas </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Republic usurped by dictator Santa Anna </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration restrictions from the United States </li></ul><ul><li>No freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>No funding for public education </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated right to bear arms and right to a jury trial </li></ul>
  4. 4. Battle of Velasco <ul><li>First bloodshed during the War for Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican commander, Domingo de Ugartechea, tried to prevent Texians from getting a cannon </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting ensued until Ugartechea exhausted his ammunition and was forced to surrender </li></ul>
  5. 5. Convention of 1832 <ul><li>Texans petitioned for reforms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff reductions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting immigration restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding for public education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation from Coahuila </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultimately failed when Mexican government deemed the Convention illegal </li></ul>
  6. 6. Convention of 1833 <ul><li>Had almost the same agenda as the Convention of 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>A constitution was drafted </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen F. Austin presented the petitions to the the petitions to the Mexican government </li></ul><ul><li>In early 1834, he was imprisoned without charges </li></ul>
  7. 7. Battle of Gonzales <ul><li>Small Mexican force sent to obtain a cannon from the residents of Gonzales </li></ul><ul><li>Texian Colonels, Moore and Wallace, fired the cannon at the Mexican force </li></ul><ul><li>Mexicans retreated after suffering one casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of the “Come and Take it” flag </li></ul>
  8. 9. Convention of 1836 <ul><li>Met on March 1, 1836 for the purpose of writing a Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence signed on March 2, 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared a constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Established an ad interim (temporary) government </li></ul>
  9. 10. Siege and Battle of the Alamo <ul><li>Mexican siege of San Antonio de Bexar began on February 23, 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Mexican troops against around 189 Texians </li></ul><ul><li>Texians took refuge in the Presidio San Antonio de Valero, or the Alamo </li></ul>
  10. 12. Pic of unfinished alamo
  11. 13. The Alamo cont. <ul><li>William B. Travis led the army, while Jim Bowie led the militia </li></ul><ul><li>On February 24, William B. Travis wrote his famous letter from the Alamo </li></ul><ul><li>The siege ended on March 6, when Santa Anna began firing upon the Alamo </li></ul>
  12. 14. Pic of letter plaque and “line”
  13. 17. The Alamo cont. <ul><li>All of the Texians died, bringing down 600 Mexicans with them </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna left a small group of women and slaves unharmed </li></ul><ul><li>Historians dispute whether or not Crockett died during the battle </li></ul><ul><li>The battle provided a huge motivation for all Texans </li></ul>
  14. 18. Pic of the “battleground” alamo (aerial)
  15. 19. Goliad Massacre <ul><li>Captured Texians were brutally massacred by Santa Anna on March 26, 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>This violated the “rules of war” </li></ul><ul><li>Provided another motivation for the Texians </li></ul>
  16. 20. Battle of San Jacinto <ul><li>April 21, 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges leading out of the Marshland were destroyed by the Texians </li></ul><ul><li>Texians attacked during the Mexicans siesta </li></ul><ul><li>Battecry was “Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!” </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting lasted 18 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna was discovered trying to cross the river. He was wearing regular soldiers clothes. </li></ul>
  17. 21. San Jacinto cont. <ul><li>The Texians did not realize who Santa Anna was until he was saluted as “El Presidente” </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Houston spared Santa Anna’s life in exchange for Texas Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna was promised a safe journey to Mexico if he lobbied for Texas Independence through the Treaty of Velasco </li></ul>
  18. 23. Santa Anna’s Journey <ul><li>Santa Anna was detained as a POW for 6 months, the Texians violating their treaty </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican government disowned Santa Anna </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Independence was not recognized by Mexico until the Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican-American War </li></ul>
  19. 24. Effects <ul><li>Texas became an independent nation until it became the 28 th state in 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>Texas is the only state to have ever been its own country </li></ul>