Equality – the same rights for all people.
Rebellion – fighting against the government.
Dictator – government leader with total authority.
Grants – gifts of land.
Empresario – a person given a grant by Mexican government
to bring settlers to Texas.
Militia – a group of unpaid people that acts as an army
formed to keep order.
Tejanos – Mexican settlers in Texas.
Bilingual – able to speak two languages
Title – the ownership of land or property.
Anglos – people whose ancestors are from Britain; or white
In 1808 Napoleon Bonaparte took
over Spain and removed the king
of Spain from the throne. He
placed his own brother as the
ruler of Spain. Spain no longer
had a strong leader.
Criollos (kree*OH*yohs), people
who were born in New Spain, but
had ancestors from Spain, and
Spanish-born (those from Spain)
began fighting each other for
control of Mexico.
Neither group wanted the
Indians or the mestizos to have
Gave a speech, the
equality and same
rights for all people in
He led the Indians
and mestizos against
captured, tried and
Dr. James Long led a expeditions in
September of 1821, from Mississippi into
Texas to help drive out Spanish.
His wife, Jane Long, vowed to wait for him to
return to Galveston.
The fort was deserted when supplies ran out
except for Jane, her 6 year old daughter and
a 12 year old servant.
She gave birth to her third child.
Dr. Long was killed during the expedition and
never returned and she left the area the
Because of her devotion to her family and
staying during the long winter, Jane Long is
known as the Mother of Texas.
A French pirate that
attacked Spanish ships
in the Gulf of Mexico.
He helped build and
had complete control
of Galveston Island for
a long period of time.
Five years later in 1820
fighting began again.
This time, Agustin de
Iturbide announced the Plan
de Iguala which sought to
make Mexico Independent.
Many people, including some
Spanish soldiers agreed.
eventually forced Spain to
give up control of Mexico.
Flag of Spain
In 1822 the Emperor
of Mexico, Agustin
I, ruled with complete
power as a dictator.
Within a year, he was
removed from power by
In the following
years, Mexico had
several other leaders.
Years of fighting in Mexico had destroyed
Spanish missions and presidio buildings in Texas.
Farming and ranching nearly stopped.
The city of Nacogdoches was turned into a ghost
town. Fewer people lived in Texas.
Mexico feared it would lose Texas to the United
States because so few people lived there.
The new Mexican
government began working
with Empresarios, giving
them land grants (gifts of
land) in order to bring
settlers to Texas.
Empresarios were paid for
their expenses in addition
to receiving land.
Under new Mexican law, Coahuila and
Texas were a single state.
Most people in Texas were natives of
When Spain was in charge, many Mexican
settlers moved into Texas.
These settlers, Tejanos, lived in San
Antonio de Bexar, La Bahia del Espiritu
Santo and Nacogdoches.
Some Tejanos began farms and ranches.
One of the well-known Tejano ranchers
was Erasmo Seguin. He and his son, Juan
Seguin, helped the “Texians”, as some
Americans that moved into Texas called
Many Tejanos loyal to Spain left Texas.
The remaining Tejanos became loyal to the
new Mexican government.