Usually called “Brain of Computer”. Carry out instructions in a computer program. Perform arithmetic/logic operations along with input/output operations. This term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.
Instruction : A sequence of bits in a specific format to instruct the computer to perform a specific operation. Program : A sequence of instructions to perform a specific task on the computer. Clock : It is the frequency of the crystal oscillator of the computer. It determines how the processor is. Word Length :It is basically a fixed sized group of bits that are handled as a unit by the instruction set and/or hardware of the processor. Transistor Count : It is the no. of transistors fabricated in the processor. It is a measure of complexity of the processor.
Given by Gordon Moore, co-founder and former chairman of Intel Corporation. It states : The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. This trend has continued for more than half a century and is expected to continue until 2015 or 2020 or later. The capabilities of many digital electronic devices are strongly linked to Moores law: processing speed, memory capacity, sensors and even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras.
Intel 4004 :o First single-chip microprocessor.o Introduced November 15, 1971o Clock rate 740 kHz.o 0.07 MIPSo Instruction set contained 46 instructionso Number of Transistors 2,300 at 10 µmo Addressable Memory 640 byteso Bus Width 4 bits (multiplexed address/data due to limited pins)o Originally designed to be used in Busicom calculator
Intel 8008 :o Introduced April 1, 1972.o First 8-bit processor.o Clock rate 800 kHzo Instruction set contained 48 instructionso Number of Transistors 3,500 at 10 µmo Addressable Memory 16 KBo Originally intended for use in Datapoint 2200 microcomputer
Intel 8086 :o Introduced June 8, 1978.o Introduction of x86 architecture.o Clock rate 4.77 - 10 MHzo 16-bit data bus, 20-bit address buso Number of Transistors 29,000 at 3 µmo Addressable Memory 1 MB.o Used in portable computing, and in the IBM PS/2 computers
Intel 8088 :o Introduced June 1, 1979.o Backward compatible 8086.o Internal architecture 16-bit.o External architecture 8-bit.o Address bus 20-bit.o Highly successful due to pivotal sale of IBM-PC.
Intel 80386 :o Introduced October 17, 1985.o Clock rates : 16 – 33 MHz.o 32-bit data & address buso Addressable Memory 4GBo Virtual Memory 64 TBo No. of transistors : 275,000 at1 µmo Backward compatible with x86 (16-bit)o Used in Desktop Computing
Intel Pentium :o Introduced March 22,1993.o Clock rates : 60 - 66 MHz.o 64-bit data buso 32-bit address buso Addressable Memory 4GBo Virtual Memory 64 TBo No. of transistors : 3.1 million at 0.8 µmo Superscalar Architectureo 273 pin PGA packageo 16 KB L1 cache
Pentium MMX:o Introduced January 8, 1997.o Clock rates : 66 MHz.o 32 KB L1 cacheo 296/321 pin PGA.o No. of transistors : 4.5 million at 0.35 µmo Intel MMX (SIMD Instruction set) support
Pentium Pro (1995):Pentium II (1997):Pentium III (1999):o Introduction of L2 cache (512 KB).o Clock rates : upto 600 MHz.o Introduction of Internet Streaming SIMD Instructiono No. of transistors : 9.5 million at 0.25 µm
Pentium IV (2000 - 2008):o Clock rate : upto 3.8 GHzo L2 cache increased upto 512 KBo Introduction of SSE2 SIMD Extensiono No. of transistors : 42 million at 0.18 µmo In 2004, the 32-bit x86 architecture was extended to 64-bit x86-64 seto Used greatly in the desktop & laptop computers.
Two Line of Processors:The Core 2 series: • Core 2 Duo • Core 2 Quad • Core 2 ExtremeThe Core i Series: • Core i3 • Core i5 • Core i7 • Core i7 Extreme
Features:o Pure 64-bit architectureo Introduction of SSSE3 SIMD Instructionso Multiple cores on single die.o Large L2 cache (2 – 12 MB)o Use of LGA packagingo Fabrication process in nm (65/45/32 nm)o Introduction of L3 cache (core i series)o Technologies such as hyper-threading, turbo- boost,etc.
Hyper-Threading:It is a technology used to improve parallelization ofcomputations performed on PC microprocessors. For eachprocessor core that is physically present, the operatingsystem addresses two virtual processors. In short, one corehandles 2 threads at once.Turbo-Boost:It is a technology in latest Intel processors to dynamicallyincrease the performance of the processor at the need ofthe user. Otherwise it saves energy/power by operating at alower frequency.
The clock rates have increased upto 3.8 GHz.The Fabrication Process has reduced upto 32nm, thus saving power and space.L3 caches have been introduced, as large as 12 MB.The no. of cores on a single die has reached upto 6.Even the memory controllers have been integrated into the processor die itself.