Phonetics and phonology iii


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Phonetics and phonology iii

  2. 2. INTONATION• Intonation refers to the melody of speech; it deals with the RISE and FALL of the PITCH of the VOICE in SPOKEN language.
  3. 3. SYSTEMS OF INTONATION• Halliday introduced the notion of a trio of systems operating in English intonation.• TONALITY is the system by which a stretch of spoken text is segmented into a series of discrete units of intonation which correspond to the speaker`s perception of pieces of information.• TONICITY is the system by which an individual, discrete unit of intonation is shown to have a prominent word which indicates the focus of intonation.• TONE is the system of contrasting pitch movement in each unit of intonation, which, among other roles identifies the status of the intonation.
  4. 4. TONES• Tone is the contrastive pitch movement on the tonic syllable.• PRIMARY and SECONDARY TONES• Primary tones are the basic contrastive pitch movement on the tonic,i.e. whether the pitch of the voice MOVES UP (rises), or MOVES DOWN (falls) or combines a movement of DOWN and then UP (fall-rises).• Secondary tones are the finer distinctions of the primary tones,i.e. the degree to which the pitch of the voice rises, falls or combines a fall and a rise (high pitch, middle pitch, fall from a mid pitch or a high pitch). Secondary tones also cover the pitch movements in the pre-tonic segment.
  5. 5. GENERAL MEANINGSFALL• It indicates completeness- major information.• COMPLETENESS• FINALITY• CERTAINTY
  6. 6. RISE• One function is to indicate Incomplete information.• A common sequence of tones in a pair of intonation units: A RISE IN THE FIRST (to indicate incompleteness) and A FALL IN THE SECOND (to indicate completeness).• He simply got ̗up and went `home.• A rising tone before a fall indicates incomplete information;• after a fall, minor information.• A falling- rising tone before a fall indicates theme highlighting; after a fall, or independently it indicates an IMPLICATION.
  8. 8. FALL AND RISE• This sequence is what Halliday termed MAJOR and MINOR information. The main piece of information is contained in the FIRST UNIT and the SECOND UNIT contains an extra piece of information.• MAJOR/MINOR is one system in information; complete/incomplete is another: a fall represents either major o complete and a rise either minor or incomplete.
  9. 9. FALL-RISE• The fall-rise has different meanings depending on whether it precedes a fall, or whether it itself is final.• WHEN IT PRECEDES THE FALL:• When a fall-rise tone precedes a fall in a close sequence of two units, it comes as a contrast with the ordinary rise.Eg:• In the ̗kitchen| you`ll find a sur¬prise.• In the I kitchen| you`ll find a sur¬prise.
  10. 10. • WHEN IT IS IN FINAL POSITION:• It indicates some kind of IMPLICATION “there is a but about it”(Halliday)  it includes RESERVATION, CONTRAST, PERSONAL OPINION OFFERED FOR CONSIDERATION and CONCESSION.• It`s cheap (reservation: `but that`s not the only thing that is true about it`)• It I looks expensive (contrast:`but is it really? `)• It`s worth con sidering (personal opinion: `that`s what i think?`)• Let him think about it (concession: `at least, do that`)
  11. 11. IMPLICATION• The fall-rise conveys `some insinuation in making the statement, expecting the hearer to understand more than is said`. The speaker does not have to verbalize the insinuation, but assumes that the hearer can extrapolate the additional message from the context, the setting or common knowledge.The point of using the fall-rise is that the additional thought does not need to be expressed overtly.
  12. 12. LOW BOUNCE•In STATEMENTS: soothing, reassuring, hint of great self-confidence and self-reliance; (in echoes) questioningwith a tone of surprise and disbelief; (in non-final wordgroups)creating expectancy about what is to follow.Where are you going? ̍Just to post a ̗letter•In WH-QUESTION: with the nuclear tone on theinterrogative word, puzzled; (in echoes) disapproving;otherwise sympathetically interested.They did it last week. They ̍did it ̗when?
  13. 13. • In YES-NO QUESTIONS: genuinely interested. ̍ Are you ˚coming ̗with us?• In COMMANDS: soothing, encouraging, calmy patronizing. ̍ ̗ Don`t worry.• In INTERJECTIONS: airly, casual yet encouraging, often friendly, brighter than when said with the take off. Shall I stand over here? ̍Yes, ̗please
  14. 14. SWITCHBACK• ATTITUDE• In STATEMENTS: grudgingly admitting. Reluctancy or defensively dissenting, concerned, reproachful, hurt, reserved, tentatively suggesting; (in echoes) greatly astonished. i know his i face, / but i can`t recall his `name.//
  15. 15. • In QUESTIONS: (in echoes) greatly astonished; otherwise, interested and concerned as well as surprised. what`s the matter? ̍What`s the ̍ matter?• In COMMANDS: urgently warning with a note of reproach or concern. ̍ Careful with that ̍ glass!ǁ ( You`ll drop it)• In INTERJECTIONS: scornful. Did you lend him any money? ̍ Not ̍ I.
  16. 16. HIGH BOUNCE• ATTITUDE• In STATEMENTS: questioning, trying to elicit a repetition, but lacking any suggestion of disapproval or puzzlement; (in non-final word groups) casual, tentative. it`s your fault. i My fault?• In WH-QUESTIONS: with the nuclear tone on the interrogative word, calling for a repetition of the information already given; with the nuclear tone following the interrogative word, either echoing the listener`s question before going to answer it or (in straightforward, non-echo questions) tentative, casual.
  17. 17. • In YES/NO QUESTIONS: either echoing the listener´s questions or (straightforward, non-echo questions) light and casual. Put your mac on ̍Is it ̍ raining?• In COMMANDS and INTERJECTIONS: querying all or part of the listener´s command or interjection, but with no crucial intention. Take it home. Take it ̍ home?ǁ ( Is ̍ that what you said?) he said he was tired. hReally?
  18. 18. SPECIFIC MEANINGS STATEMENTS•THE DEFINITIVE FALL: complete, expressed withconfidence, definitely and unreservedly.Finality. My name is M John. This is a Tpen
  19. 19. THE IMPLICATIONAL FALL-RISE: non-finality,contrast, reservations, tentativeWho`s that? Well I ̍know her ̍ face?