phonetics and phonology


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phonetics and phonology

  1. 1. Lecture 3 Phonetics and phonology: Speech Sounds and Their Systems Wu Heping
  2. 2. <ul><li>natural sounds </li></ul><ul><li>speech sounds </li></ul><ul><li>no systematic meaning </li></ul><ul><li>a code system. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of Phonetics <ul><li>Phonetics is the science of speech sounds, which aims to provide the set of features or properties that can be used to describe and distinguish all the sounds used in human language. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Three stages in speech chain <ul><li>The production of the message </li></ul><ul><li>The transmission of the message </li></ul><ul><li>The reception of the message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulatory phonetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic phonetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory phonetics </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The principal cavities or resonators: </li></ul><ul><li>-the pharyngeal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>-the oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>-the nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>(-the labial cavity) </li></ul><ul><li>The vocal tract: </li></ul><ul><li>- the long tubular structure formed by the first three cavities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Speech Organs <ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Uvula </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue (tip/blade/front/ middle/back/root) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Palate </li></ul><ul><li>Soft Palate (Velum) </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar Ridge (teeth-ridge) </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth (upper &lower) </li></ul><ul><li>Lips (upper &lower) </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diagram of the speech organs
  8. 8. The process of producing speech <ul><li>The air breathed in -> lungs -> the air pressed out -> </li></ul><ul><li>mouth cavity </li></ul><ul><li>↗ </li></ul><ul><li>windpipe (trachea) -> larynx -> pharynx -> </li></ul><ul><li>↘ nasal cavity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Read the following twister <ul><li>I take it you already know </li></ul><ul><li>Of tough and bough and cough and dough? </li></ul><ul><li>Others may stumble but not you </li></ul><ul><li>On hiccough, thorough, lough and through. </li></ul><ul><li>Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, </li></ul><ul><li>To learn of less familiar traps? </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>I take it you already know </li></ul><ul><li>Of tough and bough and cough and dough? </li></ul><ul><li>坚韧 大树枝 咳嗽 生面团 </li></ul><ul><li>Others may stumble but not you </li></ul><ul><li>On hiccough, thorough, lough and through. </li></ul><ul><li>打嗝 彻底的 湖;海湾 通过 </li></ul><ul><li>Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, </li></ul><ul><li>To learn of less familiar traps? </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>I take it you already know </li></ul><ul><li>Of tough and bough and cough and dough? </li></ul><ul><li>[tΛf] [bau] [kɔf] [dəʊ] </li></ul><ul><li>Others may stumble but not you </li></ul><ul><li>On hiccough, thorough, lough and through. </li></ul><ul><li>['h ɪk Λ p] ['Ѳ Λ rə] [lɔk] [Ѳru:] </li></ul><ul><li>Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, </li></ul><ul><li>To learn of less familiar traps? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Definition of Consonants &Vowels <ul><li>Consonants : the sounds in the production of which there is an obstruction of the air- stream at some point of the vocal tract . </li></ul><ul><li>Vowels : the sounds in the production of which no articulators come very close together and the air-stream passes through the vocal tract without obstruction. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Consonants The place of articulation the manner of articulation.
  14. 14. (2)Place of Articulation <ul><li>When describing the place of articulation, what we usually consider is the place within the vocal tract where the articulators form a stricture. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The place of articulation <ul><li>Bilabial 双唇音 e.g. [p], [m]. </li></ul><ul><li>Labio-dental 唇齿音 e.g. [f]. </li></ul><ul><li>Dental 齿音 e.g.[ð] </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar 齿龈音 e.g. [t] </li></ul><ul><li>Palatal 腭音 e.g..[j]. </li></ul><ul><li>Palato-alveolar 腭龈音 e.g. [ʃ] </li></ul><ul><li>Velar 软腭音 e.g. [k]. </li></ul><ul><li>Glottal 声门音,喉音 e.g. [h] </li></ul><ul><li>Retroflex 卷舌音 . </li></ul><ul><li>Uvular, 小舌音 </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal 咽音 </li></ul>
  16. 16. The manner of articulation. <ul><li>Plosive 爆破音 e.g. [p],[d]. It belongs to a broader category called “stop” (塞音:包括吸塞音( suction stop )和挤压塞音 (pressure stop) ) </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal 鼻音 e.g. [m]. </li></ul><ul><li>Affricate, 塞擦音 e.g. [tʃ]. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid 流音 e.g. [l], [r]. [l] </li></ul><ul><li>Fricative 擦音 e.g. [f], [z]. ( Some fricatives are also called sibilants (丝音) e.g. [s], [ʃ] ) </li></ul><ul><li>Glide 滑音 e.g. [h], [w]. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Give the IPA symbol for each of the consonants described below <ul><li>1) voiced bilabial plosive </li></ul><ul><li>2) voiceless alveolar </li></ul><ul><li>plosive </li></ul><ul><li>3) voiceless dental </li></ul><ul><li>fricative </li></ul><ul><li>4) voiced bilabial nasal </li></ul><ul><li>5) voiceless labio-dental </li></ul><ul><li>fricative </li></ul><ul><li>b </li></ul><ul><li>t </li></ul><ul><li>Ѳ </li></ul><ul><li>m </li></ul><ul><li>f </li></ul>
  18. 19. Vowels
  19. 20. A Diagram of English Vowels
  20. 21. <ul><li>monophthong e.g. [ u ] </li></ul><ul><li>diphthong e.g. [ au ] [ u ə] </li></ul><ul><li>triphthong e.g. [ au ə] </li></ul>
  21. 22. suprasegmentals <ul><li>stress </li></ul><ul><li>pitch </li></ul><ul><li>tone </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>They relate to aspects of pronunciation that go beyond the production of individual segments. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Stress and pitch <ul><li>[,u:n I 'vɜ:sət I ] </li></ul>
  23. 24. Read it! <ul><li>The story in Pinyin : </li></ul><ul><li>shíshì shīshì shīshì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī 。 shì shíshí shì shì shì shī 。 shíshí, shì shí shī shì shì 。 shìshí, shì shīshì shì shì 。 </li></ul><ul><li>shì shì shì shí shī, shì shí shí shĭ shì, shĭ shì shí shī shìshì 。 shì shí shì shí shī shī, shì shíshì 。 shíshì shī, shì shĭ shì shì shíshì 。 shíshì shì, shì shĭ shì shí shí shī shī 。 shí shí, shĭ shí shì shí shī shī shí shí shí shī shī 。 shì shì shì shì 。 </li></ul>
  24. 25. Read again <ul><li>The story in Chinese characters : </li></ul><ul><li>石室诗士施氏,嗜狮,誓食十狮。氏时时适市视狮。十时,适十狮适市。是时,适施氏适市。氏视是十狮,恃十石矢势,使是十狮逝世。氏拾是十狮尸,适石室。石室湿,氏使侍拭石室。石室拭,氏始试食十狮尸。食时,始识是十狮尸实十石狮尸。试释是事。 </li></ul>
  25. 26. A translation from internet (revised) <ul><li>(Once upon a time,) there was a poetic scholar whose name is Mr. Shi, who took delight in lion. He vowed to eat 10 lions. He frequently traveled to towns to see whether there were lions. One day, at 10 o'clock, 10 lions happened to travel to the town. At the same moment, Mr. Shi arrived at the town too. Mr. Shi saw these 10 lions and killed them by casting ten stones. He then picked up those dead bodies, and transported them back to the stone house. When he arrived at home, he found that his house was wet. He ordered his servants to wipe the stone house. after the stone house was wiped, he tried to eat the lions, only to find out that those lions were actually made of stones, This is my attempt to explain this weird story. </li></ul>
  26. 27. From phonetics to phonology <ul><li>Phones and phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>Feature theory </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabification </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological processes and phonological rules </li></ul>
  27. 28. Phones and phoneme <ul><li>p ot, s p ot, sli p </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We pronounce them differently but we know they are the same sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we know two sounds are the same or different? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoneme: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a class of sounds which are identified by a native speaker as the same sound. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The form we ‘think of ‘ sounds and store them in memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marked as /p/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Allophones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the members of these classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The actual phonetic segments produced by a native speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked as [p h ], [p o ] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are the phonemes are identified? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal pairs and complementary distribution </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Distribution of speech sounds <ul><li>Overlapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/t/and /d/ in time and dime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrastive overlapping: (minimal pairs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>same phonetic environment, differences in meaning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The differences in sounds lead to distinctions in meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free variations : same linguistic invironment, no distinction in meaning. (allophones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/t/ in No t ready & Bri t ain. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Complementary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One sound found in a position where the other(s) cannot occur and vice versa: the distribution of one sound is the complement of the distribution of the other. (allophones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pit, spit, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there a minimal pair for the given sounds? If yes, go to 2. If not, go to 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Do the words in the pair differ in meaning ? If yes, go to 3. If not, go to 4. </li></ul><ul><li>The sounds are contrastive, i.e. separate phonemes. </li></ul><ul><li>The sounds are allophones in free variation. Describe the phonetic environment in which each sound appears; e.g. list what comes before and after each sound. Do the sounds occur in the same (or similar) environments, or are their environments complementary? If same/similar, go to 6. </li></ul><ul><li>If complementary, go to 7. 6. The sounds contrast so your best guess is that they're separate phonemes, and you'd expect to find minimal pairs with more data. 7. The sounds represent allophones of a single phoneme. </li></ul>
  29. 30. [l] & [r] in Korean <ul><li>Are /r/ & /l/ allophones of one or two phonemes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rupi “ruby” mul “water” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kiri “road” pal “leg” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saram “person” s əul “Seoul” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ir ω mi “name” ilkop “seven” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ratio “radio” ipalsa “barber” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*[ ω ] is a back unrounded vowel in Korean. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Do they occur in any minimal pairs? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they in complementary distribution? </li></ul><ul><li>In what environment does each occur? </li></ul>
  30. 31. More from Korean <ul><ul><li>son “hand” š ihap “game” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s òm “sack” šilsu “mistake” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sosəl “novel” šipsam “thirteen” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s ε k “color’ šinho “signal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>us “upper” maši “delicious” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are [s] and [š] allophones of the same phoneme or is each an allophone of a separate phoneme? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no minimal pairs that will help to answer this question. Determine, instead, whether they are in complementary distribution. If they are, state their distribution. If they are not in complementary distribution, state the contrasting environment. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. In Czech, there are two alveo -dental stops,[t] and [d], and two palatal stops ,[ty] and [dy]. To how many phonemes are these four sounds assignable? <ul><li>dej = 'give!' </li></ul><ul><li>dyedyit = 'to inherit' </li></ul><ul><li>dyej = 'action' </li></ul><ul><li>dyelo = 'cannon' </li></ul><ul><li>kotel = 'kettle' </li></ul><ul><li>kotye = 'kitten' </li></ul><ul><li>tedi = 'hence' </li></ul><ul><li>tele = 'calf (animal)' </li></ul><ul><li>tyelo = 'body' </li></ul><ul><li>teta = 'aunt' </li></ul><ul><li>tikat = 'to be on a first-name basis' </li></ul><ul><li>titul = 'title' </li></ul><ul><li>tyikat = 'to tick (clock)' </li></ul><ul><li>vada = 'flaw' </li></ul><ul><li>vana = 'bathtub' </li></ul><ul><li>vata = 'absorbent cotton' </li></ul>
  32. 33. Feature Theory <ul><li>The idea of DISTINCTIVE FEATURES was first developed by Roman Jacobson (1896-1982) in the 1940s as a means of working out a set of phonological contrasts or oppositions to capture particular aspects of language sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Major distinctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[consonantal] : distinguish between consonants and vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[sonorant] distinguishes between what we call OBSTRUENTS (stops, fricatives and affricates) and SONORANTS (all other consonants and vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BINARY FEATURES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>features are grouped into two categories: one with this feature and the other without. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary features have two values or specifications denoted by “ + ” and “ – ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so voiced obstruents are marked [+voiced] and voiceless obstruents are marked [–voiced]. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Major class features <ul><li>[consonantal]: produced with major obstruction in the oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>[vocalic]: vowels and syllabic liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>[sonorant]: all and only the singables: vowels, glides, liquids, and nasals </li></ul>[m n] [l r] [j w] [i a] [p b z θ ] examples + + + + - [sonarant] - - - + - [Vocalic] + + - - + [consonental] nasals liquids glides vowels obstruents
  34. 35. Laryngeal features <ul><li>These features represent laryngeal states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[voice] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[spread glottis] This feature distinguishes unaspirated from aspirated consonants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[+SG]: aspirated consonants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Place features <ul><li>[labial] </li></ul><ul><li>[rounded] </li></ul><ul><li>[coronal]: any sound articulated with the tongue tip or blade raised </li></ul><ul><li>[anterior]: any sound articulated in front of the alveopalatal region </li></ul><ul><li>[strident]: the noisy fricatives and affricates </li></ul>[k g ] [ ∫, t∫ ] [t d s z n l r ] [p b m ] examples - - + - [coronal] - - + + [anterior] Palatals/velars alveopalatals Dentals/ alveolars labials
  36. 37. Dorsal features <ul><li>Features represent placement of the body of the tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[High] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Low] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[back] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[tense]: The tense-lax distinction </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Manner features <ul><li>[+/- continuant] Free or nearly free airflow through the oral cavity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>liquids. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[+/- nasal]: any sound made with the velum lowered. </li></ul><ul><li>[+/- lateral] All and only varieties of [l] are [+lateral]. </li></ul><ul><li>[+/- delayed release] This feature distinguishes stops from affricates . Affricate are designated [+dr]. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Psychological reality of features <ul><li>Evidence that features is not only required by the way sounds are conveniently described but also enters directly into the knowledge that speakers have of their language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English plural suffix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[s] lips, lists, maniacs, telegraphs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[z] clubs, herds, colleagues, holes, gears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[iz] places, porches, cabbages, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The choice of suffix is governed by the last sound in the word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[iz] if noun eds with [s z sh ch etc], otherwise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[s] if ends with [p t k f etc], otherwise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[z] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of each group share features that distinguish the group from all other sounds in the language. Translated into fature notation, the rule for the English plural suffix reads as follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[iz] if noun eds with [+coronal, +strident], otherwise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[s] if ends with [+stiff vocal cords, -voice], otherwise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[z] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Phonological processes and rules <ul><li>Phonemic representation will become phonetic form in order for it to be articulated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This process is rule-governed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/p/ becomes [p h ] when it follows the voicess alveolar fricative [s] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A B/X___Y, where </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A: underlying phonemic representation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B: phonetic form </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X, Y: conditioning environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ : the position of the segment undergoing the rule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>: becomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Assimilation processes <ul><li>The spreading of phonetic features either in the anticipation or in the perseveration of articulatory processes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English alveolar nasals becomes bilabial nasals before a labial stop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As in /input/--[imput] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>+nasal +nasal +consonental </li></ul><ul><li>-labial +labial / _____ +labial </li></ul>
  42. 44. Segment deletion and addition processes <ul><li>Delete a /g/ when it occurs before a final nasal consonant. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sign signature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design designation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resign resignation </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Feature addition <ul><li>a segment has a non-distinctive feature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>voiceless stops becomes aspirated at the beginning of a syllable before a stressed vowel. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 46. Dissimilation <ul><li>Rules in which a segment becomes less similar to another segment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sixth—sikst fifth--fift </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Syllable and syllabification <ul><li>Syllable is a phonological unit composed of a nucleus and its associated non-syllabic segments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A complete desciption of the internal structure of a syllable (σ)requires four subsyllabic units: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nuclueus(N) : syllable’s only obligatory member </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A vocalic segment that forms the core of a syllable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The coda (C): those segments following the nucleus in the same syllable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rhyme (R): is made up the nucleus and coda. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The onset (O): is made up of those segments that precede a rhyme in the same syllable. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 49. Procedures of establishing a syllable <ul><li>Since the syllabic nucleus is the only obligatory constituent of a syllable, it is constructed first. </li></ul>
  47. 50. Procedures--2 <ul><li>Onset before codas : the longest sequence of consonants to the left of each nucleus. </li></ul>
  48. 51. Procedure--3 <ul><li>Any remaining consonants to the right of each nuclueus form the coda and are linked to a C above them. </li></ul>
  49. 52. Procedure—4 <ul><li>Syllables that make up a single form branch out from the representation wd. </li></ul>
  50. 54. English syllable structure
  51. 55. Please do the following <ul><li>sprint </li></ul><ul><li>applaud </li></ul><ul><li>improvise </li></ul><ul><li>decline </li></ul><ul><li>explain </li></ul><ul><li>applecart </li></ul>