Reported speech Presentation


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Reported speech Presentation

  1. 1. REPORTED SPEECH Statements <ul><li>When we want to tell someone what someone else said, there are two ways of doing so: </li></ul><ul><li>You can repeat that person’s words( direct speech) </li></ul><ul><li>You can use reported speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom said “I am feeling ill” </li></ul><ul><li>Tom said (that ) he was feeling ill </li></ul><ul><li>Tom told me (that) he was feeling ill. </li></ul>I’m feeling ill
  2. 2. REPORTING STATEMENTS <ul><li>RULES: </li></ul><ul><li>We introduce reported speech with said that or told + indirect object+ that . (That can be omitted) </li></ul><ul><li>We change verbs from present to past and from past or present perfect to past perfect . </li></ul><ul><li>We change modal verbs from will to would , from can to could and must to had to . </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns and time expressions change when necessary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reporting verbs <ul><li>The most common reporting verbs are say (that) and tell somebody (that). Others such as admit, claim, explain, insist, reply , apologize, inform, advise,agree or suggest can be used. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s my fault” she said. </li></ul><ul><li>She said it was her fault. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I haven’t been thinking about you” Ann told me. </li></ul><ul><li>Ann told me she hadn’t been thinking about me. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have been very tired” She explained. </li></ul><ul><li>She explained that she had been very tired. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Say / Tell <ul><li>IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>SAY is not followed by the indirect object : </li></ul><ul><li>Say (that)+ reported statement </li></ul><ul><li>He said he was tired </li></ul><ul><li>He said to me he was tired </li></ul><ul><li>TELL is always followed by an indirect object. </li></ul><ul><li>He told me that he was tired. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reporting statements <ul><li>DIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>“ I like techno music” he informed me. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The are dancing very well” she agreed. </li></ul><ul><li>We bought tickets yesterday.” they explained </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ ve never been here before”. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom declared. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I was listening to the music” she told us. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We will be here tomorrow,” they promised. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Young people must learn to behave” he said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We can go to the festival” he explained. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I may visit you tomorrow ” he said. </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTED SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>He informed me (that) he liked techno music. </li></ul><ul><li>She agreed (that) they were dancing very well. </li></ul><ul><li>They explained (that) they had bought tickets the day before. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom declared (that) he had never been there before. </li></ul><ul><li>She told us (that) she had been listening to the music. </li></ul><ul><li>They promised (that) they would be there the next day . </li></ul><ul><li>He said (that) young people had to learn to behave. </li></ul><ul><li>He explained (that) we could go to the festival. </li></ul><ul><li>He said he migh t visit me the next day. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PRONOUNS <ul><li>Pronouns (I, she, we, etc.) and possessive adjectives (my, your, his, etc.) may change depending who is reporting and who /what they are reporting. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I understand your ideas but I don’t agree with them” </li></ul><ul><li>Report 1: </li></ul><ul><li>My mother told me that she understood my ideas but that she didn’t agree with them . </li></ul><ul><li>Report 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Ted’s mother told him that she understood his ideas but that she didn’t agree with them . </li></ul>
  7. 7. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE <ul><li>DIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>Here </li></ul><ul><li>Now </li></ul><ul><li>This / these </li></ul><ul><li>Tonight </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>There </li></ul><ul><li>Then </li></ul><ul><li>That/ those </li></ul><ul><li>That night </li></ul><ul><li>That day </li></ul><ul><li>The following day/ the next day </li></ul><ul><li>The day before/ the previous day </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reporting verbs ( Exercises) <ul><li>“ I don’t like the bands that are playing here.” John mentioned </li></ul><ul><li>“ Techno music has become very popular”Peter said. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter said that techno music had become very popular. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Please, help me with this problem,” </li></ul><ul><li>Mark begged me to help him with that problem . </li></ul><ul><li>“ I will go to the concert with you next year” Jackie said. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackie said she would go to the concert with me the following year / </li></ul><ul><li>Jackie offered to go to the concertwith me the following year. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m sorry I missed the party” Alex said. </li></ul><ul><li>Alex apologized for missing the party. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s finish early” he suggested. </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested finishing early/ He suggested that they finish early. </li></ul><ul><li>John mentioned that he didn’t like the bands that were playing there </li></ul>
  9. 9. REPORTING QUESTIONS <ul><li>The reporting verb is ASK. </li></ul><ul><li>In Yes/ No questions IF or Whether is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “Have you been here long?” </li></ul><ul><li>He asked if/ whether I had been there long </li></ul><ul><li>In WH- Questions the same word is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “Where do you come from?” </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me where I came from. </li></ul><ul><li>In reported questions word order changes: subject + verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. “How are you? </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me how I was. </li></ul>
  10. 10. REPORTING QUESTIONS (Exercises) <ul><li>The policeman said to us, “Where are you going?” </li></ul><ul><li>The policeman asked us where we were going. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom said: “ What time do the banks close?” </li></ul><ul><li>Tom wanted to know what time the banks closed . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Have you got a driving licence?” the interviewer asked. </li></ul><ul><li>He enquired whether / if I had a driving licence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do you know when Jane’s birthday is?” he asked. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to know when Jane’s birthday was. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why did you call me?” Sandra asked. </li></ul><ul><li>Sandra asked me why I had called her . </li></ul>
  11. 11. REQUESTS & COMMANDS <ul><li>The imperative is used to give orders. When we report an imperative we use </li></ul><ul><li>Tell somebody to do something or ask somebody to do something. ( Do not use SAY) </li></ul><ul><li>Other verbs can be used: order, command, invite, beg, warn. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hurry up, please!” he said. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me to hurry up. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t worry!” she said. </li></ul><ul><li>She told me not to worry. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t forget that it’s our anniversary tomorrow” </li></ul><ul><li>She asked me not to forget our anniversary the next day. </li></ul>