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  1. 1. “ What life do you have if you do not have a life together? There is no life that is not in community.” Leeds LEEDS COMMUNITY OF LEEDS HOW CAN WE UNDERSTAND LEEDS AS A LIVING COMMUNITY ?
  2. 2. LEEDS: <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIMS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KEY WORDS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial revolution and process of urbanisation (urban growth) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large population, overcrowded place, packed with people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good transport infrastructure (roads, railway station, motorway , Aire River navigable) or transport networks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need of housing (they were unplanned and poorly financed): BACK-TO-BACK TERRACED HOUSES; DETACHED HOUSES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Living conditions, standard of living </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental implications or ecological impacts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polluted, congested, overcrowded city </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City centre (financial and business centre: shopping centre) The biggest and the widest variety of services (banks, offices, post offices...) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greenbelt, suburban areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational area. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural life (sport activities, sports teams and entertainment) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHOTOS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAPS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEXTS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VIDEO </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACTIVITIES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Scotland Wales
  3. 3. Leeds  Leeds is located in the north of England along the River Aire . It is considered the regional capital of northeast England.  Leeds is one of UK’s largest economies , with the largest financial, commercial and legal sectors outside of London.
  4. 4. Leeds and t he biggest cities <ul><li>75 nationalities </li></ul><ul><li>It was a c entre of wool and sewing factory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It´s population is around 750.000 people . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Now: The city presents various physical elements from different periods of the past . This means that the city is changing continuosly, to improve the quality of life of those who work and live here or visit it . How was it in the past?
  6. 6. <ul><li>1.Originally Leeds was a centre for woollen cloth markets (from sheep!) and corn production </li></ul>2. As population grew , there was more demand for clothing and other materials. 3. So as technology advanced , factories were built for mass production. 4 . People were needed to work in the factories (demand for labour) and so many people moved from the countryside to Leeds 5. Good transport infrastructure was also essential: The Aire river and the railway network The industrial revolution took place there What factors were important ?
  7. 7. Industrial Areas <ul><li>● They c oncentrated the production in one place [materials, labor]. There were historic mill buildings located near sources of power and transport infrastructure (and next to Leeds canal and railway station) </li></ul><ul><li>● They required a lot of capita l investment [factory, </li></ul><ul><li>machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. </li></ul><ul><li>● A lot of back-to-back terraced houses </li></ul><ul><li>were built for working classes near them . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Industrial Revolution in Leeds. As technology advanced factories were built for mass production. People were needed to work in the factories (demand for labour) and so many people moved from the countryside to Leeds. It was rural to urban migration. Leeds grew into such a large and prosperous city Leeds, 1885
  9. 9. The New Industrial City Working classes lived in poor living conditions : overcrowded and dirty places, without adequate housing, sanitation, education etc. Diseases spread quickly
  10. 10. Factory Workers at Home <ul><li>Growing gap between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>The living conditions were dire due to the overcrowded places , the polluted air (respiratory diseases) by the factories and the dirty water of the Aire river . </li></ul>
  11. 11. RAPID GROWTH HAD SEVERE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS . ◘ the growth and increase in population occurred so quickly ◘ the development of housing was unplanned and poorly financed. The result was a mass of back-to-back terraced houses.
  12. 12. HOUSES FOR WORKING CLASSES <ul><li>There was no planning of housing for the growing population. </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were built quickly and cheaply near the factories and they became slums. </li></ul><ul><li>Back to back terraced houses were badly ventilated, little furniture, overcrowded, </li></ul><ul><li>no water, </li></ul><ul><li>Disease spread : respiratory problems, bronchitis, pneumonia </li></ul>
  13. 13. Workers Housing The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare!
  14. 14. WHY DID LEEDS GROW BIGGER IN 1800? <ul><li>Many people moved to the towns looking for jobs. Leeds woollen mills ( 1801..53,000 to 429,000 in 1901) </li></ul>◘ Working classes lived in overcrowded slums near the factories, (heavy pollution, low levels of cleanliness), in the middle of towns. ◘ Middle classes (factory owners) lived in detached houses in the countryside The industrial revolution had a great effect on the urban land which was used in a segregated way.
  15. 15. All cities followed the same pattern of urban land : Social pattern of Leeds housing
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>◘ Low-rent residential area is near to industrial district (heavy and low industry and warehouses). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>◘ High-rent residential areas are in outskirts of the city : suburbs. </li></ul></ul>Pattern of the land-use changed radically: it was determined by the radial transport route beginning at the town centre
  17. 17. <ul><li>The improvement in transport led to the development and growth of the suburbs. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle and upper classes could move out of the congested city and travel easily to work. Popular suburbs were those of Headingley, Roundhay, Chapel Allerton and Potter Newton. </li></ul>The suburbs of Leeds
  18. 18. THE DIVERSIFICATION OF THE ECONOMY <ul><li>The diversification of Leeds’ economy began in the 19th century and continues today. It has changed from textiles to an excellent centre for financial and business services . </li></ul><ul><li>The city centre has been changing and it is now a strong retail centre as well as offering excellent banking, legal, and consultancy services </li></ul>