Management Development


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Management Development

  1. 1. Management Development Chapter 11
  2. 2. True or False “Quiz” - 1 <ul><li>It is predicted that there will be fewer managers in the U.S. by 2010 than there are presently. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have been able to describe the managerial job with a high degree of precision. </li></ul>
  3. 3. True or False “Quiz” - 2 <ul><li>The systems or HRD process model isn’t very helpful when it comes to management development. </li></ul><ul><li>Management education is a small and decreasing proportion of all post-secondary educational opportunities that U.S. students are taking. </li></ul>
  4. 4. True or False “Quiz” - 3 <ul><li>Corporate universities are only popular among very large organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior modeling training may work fine for entry-level training, but hasn’t been found to be very effective for management development efforts. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Management Development <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“An organization’s conscious effort to provide its managers (and potential managers) with opportunities to learn, grow, and change, in hopes of producing over the long term a cadre of managers with the skills necessary to function effectively in that organization.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Management Development <ul><li>Three main components or strategies used to provide management development: </li></ul><ul><li>Management education </li></ul><ul><li>Management training </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-job experiences </li></ul>
  7. 7. Describing the Manager’s Job <ul><li>Several approaches have been used to understand the job of managing: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics approach </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial roles approach </li></ul><ul><li>Process models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated competency model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-dimensional model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holistic approach (Mintzberg) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Describing the Manager’s Job <ul><li>Characteristics approach : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily focused within the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High activity levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmented work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily focused on oral communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much information gathering is conducted </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Describing the Manager’s Job <ul><li>Roles approach : </li></ul><ul><li>Fayol’s observational approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mintzberg’s managerial roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisional </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Describing the Manager’s Job <ul><li>Process models : </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated competency model (Boyatzis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies: skills or personal characteristics that contribute to effective performance. These include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal and action management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directing subordinates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Describing the Manager’s Job <ul><li>Process models : </li></ul><ul><li>Four-dimensional model (Schoenfeldt & Steger): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six management functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five relational targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various managerial styles </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Describing the Manager’s Job <ul><li>Holistic approaches : </li></ul><ul><li>Criticisms of earlier approaches by Mintzberg and Vaill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Managing as a performing art” (Vaill). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response by Mintzberg: A “well rounded” model of the managerial job: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The person in the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The frame of the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The agenda of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The actual behaviors that managers perform </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Determining the Content of Management Development - 1 <ul><li>Issue: How to determine the content of a management development/training program. </li></ul><ul><li>What would be recommended, based on the HRD process Model? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with Needs Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survey by Saari et al.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 27% of organizations did any form of needs assessment before designing their management development programs. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Determining the Content of Management Development - 2 <ul><li>Issue: How does the increasingly global economy impact management development? </li></ul><ul><li>Bartlett and Ghoshal propose four categories or roles for managers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate manager </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Determining the Content of Management Development - 2 <ul><li>Issue: Impact of the global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Adler and Bartholomew propose seven transnational skills or competencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergistic learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition and adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign experience </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Determining the Content of Management Development - 3 <ul><li>Issue: Impact of the global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Spreitzer et al. propose fourteen dimensions of international competency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight end-state competency dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., sensitivity to cultural differences, business knowledge, acting with integrity, insight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six learning-oriented dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., use of feedback, seeking opportunities to learn, openness to criticism, flexibility. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Making Management Development Strategic - 1 <ul><li>Issue: How to insure that management development is linked to the organization’s goals and strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Seibert et al. propose four principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin by moving out and up to business strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put job experience before classroom activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be opportunistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide support for experience-based learning. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Making Management Development Strategic - 2 <ul><li>Issue: Linking to organizational strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Burack et al. propose seven points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clear link to business plans and strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seamless programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A global orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual learning occurs within a framework for organizational learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of the organizational culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A career development focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A focus on core competencies </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Management Education <ul><li>Bachelor’s and Master’s programs at colleges and universities (B.B.A., MBA). </li></ul><ul><li>Executive education, e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensed MBA programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short courses by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colleges and universities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consulting firms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private institutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professional and industry associations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Management Education <ul><li>Although very popular, there are many challenges facing management education at present, e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Just-in-time management education” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring value-added </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linking classroom with on-the-job experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting education to real-life issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense competition among providers </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Management Training and Experiences <ul><li>Company-designed courses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., General Electric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Company academies, “colleges,” and corporate universities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Motorola, Xerox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-the-job experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for Creative Leadership research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action learning – a “living case” approach. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Examples of Management Development Approaches - 1 <ul><li>Leadership Training </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Match Program (Fiedler) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-administered workbook. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High LPC leader: stronger need for relationships. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low LPC leader: stronger need for task accomplishment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Examples of Management Development Approaches - 2 <ul><li>Leadership Training </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on leader qualities such as vision, inspiration, and charisma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Transforming followers, creating vision of the goals that may be attained, and articulating for the followers the ways to attain those goals” (Bass, 1985). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Examples of Management Development Approaches - 3 <ul><li>Leadership Training </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders developing leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of CEOs and other senior managers in developing leaders within their own organizations. Example: Dell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective leaders create engaging personal stories to communicate their vision for the future (Cohen & Tichy). </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Examples of Management Development Approaches - 4 <ul><li>Behavior Modeling Training </li></ul><ul><li>Typically includes five steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated effectiveness for changing learning, behavior, and results. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Designing Management Development Programs - 1 <ul><li>Management development must be tied to the organization’s strategic plan. </li></ul><ul><li>A thorough needs analysis is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific objectives should be established for each component. </li></ul><ul><li>Senior management involvement and commitment in all phases is critical. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Designing Management Development Programs - 2 <ul><li>A variety of developmental opportunities should be used. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal (programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal (on-the-job) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure that all participants are motivated to participate. </li></ul><ul><li>The regular evaluation updating of all programs is essential. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>An enormous amount of time and money are spent on management development efforts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough of this is truly “strategic.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success is most likely when there is an appropriate combination of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-job experiences </li></ul></ul>