International and Internal Migration - the UK


Published on

To support AS Geography - studies of international and internal migration in the UK - causes and consequences.

Published in: Technology, Career
  • I HATE YOU :////////////////
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • is the place to resolve the price problem. Buy now and make a deal for you.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

International and Internal Migration - the UK

  1. 1. WEST INDIES TO THE UK (1950s / 60s) Case Study: International Migration Jamaica UK Images: Google Earth
  2. 2. Decolonisation 1922-1975 led to many of England’s colonies becoming independent states. This decolonisation and emergence of the New Commonwealth (former colonies), led to migration – many of the officials who had worked in the colonies returned home and many natives from the ex-colonies (e.g. West Indies) went to the former “motherland” (e.g. UK) to look for better education / jobs “ At the end of the Second World War, Britain was busy rebuilding. The government was thinking about recruiting workers from the Caribbean to cope with the shortage of labour in some British industries. In 1948, an advertisement appeared in a Jamaican newspaper. It stated that there were 300 places on board Windrush for anyone wishing to travel to Britain. Many hoped for better career prospects in Britain, since there was high unemployment at home. The ship landed at Tilbury docks on 21st June 1948. The arrival of the Windrush was the start of a period of migration from the Caribbean to Britain that did not slow down until 1962. By 1955, 18,000 Jamaicans had moved to Britain.” Text Quote from: ARRIVAL OF THE WINDRUSH – the start of West Indies to UK migration
  3. 3. TYPE OF MIGRATION: Permanent AND Voluntary WHO MOVED?: Predominantly adults (many in their 50s) – most unskilled / semi-skilled workers WHEN?: Began in 1948 and didn’t slow until 1962 – between 1961 and middle of 1962 – 98,000 migrated to the UK from the West Indies (from 1945-1960 – free entry for Commonwealth citizens into the UK – but immigration controls restricted this in 1962) <ul><li>Population pressure in the West Indies </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of un & under-employment </li></ul><ul><li>Some political and economic instability </li></ul><ul><li>Poor education </li></ul><ul><li>UK passport (as commonwealth citizens) – doors to many other countries had been closed </li></ul><ul><li>perceived better way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of unskilled labourers to the UK (employment available – British advertising for workers in the Caribbean – particularly for reconstruction after the way </li></ul><ul><li>Also vacancies for taxi & bus drivers, cleaners etc. </li></ul>CAUSES OF THE MIGRATION?: PUSH FACTORS PULL FACTORS Photo source:
  4. 4. CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRATION <ul><li>FOR THE UK: </li></ul><ul><li>Most new commonwealth workers – economic migrants. Filled a gab for labour in unskilled sectors and poorly paid jobs (particularly important during reconstruction after World War II) </li></ul><ul><li>Acted as a replacement population in the UK – drawn to regions of the UK which had not attracted much population from other parts of the country </li></ul><ul><li>gave a more diverse ethnic mix / cultural diversity – often celebrated (e.g. Notting Hill carnival – first began in 1959) </li></ul><ul><li>FOR THE MIGRANTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to take poorly-paid jobs due to lack of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Most lived within own ethnic groups (tended to cluster together as felt more comfortable where shared linguistic, cultural and religious traditions) </li></ul><ul><li>poorest housing property </li></ul><ul><li>Faced some social isolation (prejudice / discrimination) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Some Impacts on Jamaica – socio-economic impacts (both +ve and –ve) </li></ul><ul><li>Employment opportunities (as population pressure reduced) </li></ul><ul><li>cash remittances (transfer of money back to home country from UK) </li></ul><ul><li>brain-drain as more skilled began to move – has some impact on development of country </li></ul><ul><li>loss of one or 2 parents from family household </li></ul><ul><li>loss of human resources (e.g. big reduction in nurses) </li></ul><ul><li>returnees may take back skills / experience </li></ul><ul><li>local construction industry benefited upon return of migrants (often when retire) – build large affluent homes (knock on multiplier effect) </li></ul><ul><li>some returnees have become victims of crime (due to their wealth) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>PROBLEMS FACING IMMIGRANTS TODAY </li></ul><ul><li>Racial prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Language barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Live in poor housing / poor paid jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Lower education opportunities (initially) </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment (often exceeds 70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of government investment in these areas (often concentrated in inner city areas) </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict – authorities speak of high crime, violence, drugs, mugging and residents complain of police harassment. Led to lack of trust and further tension – resulting in INNER CITY RIOTS (e.g. Moss Side – 1981 and Brixton – 1985) </li></ul>Rapid immigration led to clustering and segregation of ethnic groups in cities – with tendency for one ethnic group to concentrate in particular areas – e.g. West Indians in Birmingham SCARMAN REPORT – looked at the social and economic problems affecting inner cities following the 1985 Brixton riots – identified problems in Housing, Education, Jobs and Discrimination Led to measures to try and improve situation – to build trust between ethnic groups and police, end racial discrimination and investment in inner cities.
  7. 7. Case Studies – Internal Migration (UK) <ul><li>Since 1980 – the pattern of international migration in the UK has been from: </li></ul><ul><li>North – South Drift (Regional Migration) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban – Rural (Counter urbanisation) </li></ul><ul><li>Inner – Outer City Areas (suburbanisation) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Regions such as NE had relied on coalfields, shipyards, iron and steel and heavy engineering to provide 1000s of jobs – these industries declined – making 1000s unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast – the SE was a focus of economic growth – 1981-1996 – net inforw to the south (due to higher wages and lower unemployment – particular growth in Surrey, Kent, E Anglia, Dorset) </li></ul>Case Study 1. North – South Drift (1960s onwards)
  8. 8. ‘ perceived’ lower quality of life in North (older housing, derelict land from industry etc.) Rural regions of Scottish Highlands / Central Wales etc. – unemployment & decline in farming workforce – rural depopulation Decline in Heavy Industries – closure of ship building / coal mines etc. little alternative employment – moved to south South (pull) – experienced growth in service industries, close to EU and job opportunities, higher salaries, more social / sporting amenities and better communities (flatter) and channel tunnel E Anglia (growth) London / SE – growth core North-South Drift in the UK
  9. 9. Case Study 2. Counter-urbanisation <ul><li>See your notes on Counter urbanisation in the settlement unit for this (good cross over – will help with revision!) </li></ul><ul><li>Just a few reminders: </li></ul><ul><li>Who moves? </li></ul><ul><li>Younger families (looking for more open space and larger properties) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Income Groups (able to afford larger houses and the costs of commuting) </li></ul><ul><li>Those with Higher Skills (looking for work in modern / footloose industries) </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Counter-urbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures in city (traffic, pollution etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Change (teleworking etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved communications / car owershup </li></ul><ul><li>Urban renewal process (forced re-housing) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT REMEMBER - some reversal of movement in 1990s – regeneration of inner city areas – e.g. London Docklands. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who is moving to rural areas? <ul><li>Traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of Crime (muggings, burglary and car theft) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural dream (idea of the ‘rural idyll’ – pleasant surroundings, quiet etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Estate Agents, housing developers etc.. All encourage outward movement through new developments / building more houses and marketing these areas. </li></ul>What are the push / pull factors? <ul><li>The most affluent and mobile people </li></ul><ul><li>Families with children (keen to avoid the possible disadvantages of city locations) </li></ul>
  11. 11. What factors have helped counterurbanisation? <ul><li>Technological change – fax, blackberry, email, phones, internet – led to growth of ‘teleworking’ or ‘electronic commuting’ (people working from home – encouraging rural living) </li></ul><ul><li>Freezers, telephone, TV etc.. allow rural lifestyle but not isolation </li></ul><ul><li>improvements in road / motorway networks make commuting easier encouraging people to move out from the cities (gradually congestion sets in and cycle begins again) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban renewal processes during the 50’s/60s meant that due to slum clearance large numbers of people had to move from inner city areas – most were rehoused on council estate on edge of city – or beyond the city in New Towns / overspill settlements. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Consequences for the Rural Settlement of Urbanisation <ul><li>Counterurbanisation leads to the growth of suburbanised / dormitory / commuter villages and towns e.g. St Ives (commuter town), Fulbourn, Cherry Hinton etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Effects </li></ul><ul><li>House prices increase – locals young people cannot afford to buy property in areas they grew up </li></ul><ul><li>local resentment caused </li></ul><ul><li>lack of appreciation of traditional customs of village life by newcomers – change in community spirit </li></ul><ul><li>dormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit (very quiet during the day) </li></ul><ul><li>increase in population </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in services – e.g. gas mains, cable TV, supports local schools </li></ul><ul><li>supports some local facilities (e.g. pub, builders etc.) – although others may close </li></ul><ul><li>increased car pollution, accidents in area. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Case Study 3. Inner city – Outer City movement - SUBURBANISATION Again – see your settlement notes – since 1930s – increasing movement from inner cities to the suburbs (related to improved public transport / car ownership) <ul><li>Cleaner, less noise / air pollution, lower crime rate </li></ul><ul><li>Noise and air pollution from traffic, derelict land, higher crime rate </li></ul><ul><li>Newer and more services, fewer ethnic / racial problems </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer, older serivces e.g. schools & hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Lower unemployment, often more skilled jobs in newer high-tech ind. </li></ul><ul><li>High unemployment, lesser skilled jobs in traditional industries </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of modern ind. Estates, footloose ind. Hypermarkets etc. </li></ul><ul><li>decline in older secondary industries </li></ul><ul><li>Less congestion, wider, well planned road system, close to ring roads </li></ul><ul><li>congestion, noise & air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Modern high quality housing with amenities, low density </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality housing, lacking basic amenities, high density and overcrowding </li></ul>Suburbs (Pull) Inner City (Push
  14. 14. CONSEQUENCES FOR THE INNER CITY Advantages Disadvantages CONSEQUENCES FOR THE SUBURBS Advantages Disadvantages <ul><li>Reduces unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>space for immigrants moving in </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced pressure on services </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves a decaying heart </li></ul><ul><li>reduced community spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Local councils receive less money from taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Less investment </li></ul><ul><li>Social unrest and increased crime </li></ul><ul><li>increased use and demand for services </li></ul><ul><li>increase house building </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of living and houses increase </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in industry and offices </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in pollution and traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>decrease in farmland due to the urban sprawl </li></ul>Consequences for the Receiving and Losing area: