Processes Of Urban Change Sub Urb

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Overview of the three key urban processes - suburbanisation, counter-urbanisation and re-urbanisation

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Processes Of Urban Change Sub Urb

  1. 1. Suburbanisation& Counter Urbanisation<br />PROCESSES OF CHANGE IN URBAN AREAS<br />PART ONE<br />
  2. 2. Population Movements and Urban Areas<br />
  3. 3. Key Themes<br />Suburban growth is caused by the pull of the suburbs and the push of the city<br />The process of suburbanisation is entering a new phase with offices and businesses now leaving the city for the suburbs<br />Rapid urban growth creates social and environmental problems, including sprawl, pollution, congestion, and problems of water supply and waste disposal<br />Planning responses to the problems of urban growth vary in terms of their attitude to the quality of urban life and the environment.<br />
  4. 4. PROCESSES OF CHANGE IN URBAN AREAS<br />1. Suburbanisation – decentralisation of people, employment and services from the inner part of the city towards the margins of the built up area – the effects of suburbanisation are felt within the city and in the surrounding rural areas.<br /> - remember this has much to do with the improvements in public transport and increases in income (You need to be prepared to be able to talk through the causesandconsequences drawing on examples you have studied)<br />2. Counterurbanisation – this is change extending beyond the city area and marks the apparent reversal of the urbanisation process which is occurring in MEDCs – i.e. urban – rural migration is taking place.<br />
  5. 5. SUBURBANISATION<br />DEFINITION<br />Suburbanisation is the outward growth of urban development which may engulf surrounding villages and urban areas<br />
  6. 6. Growth and decline cities<br />75% of people in MEDC’s live in urban places<br />However since 1970’s the trend has been to move out of cities into rural areas – this is caused COUNTERURBANISATION<br />This pattern hides significant variations between cities <br />Why are people moving out?<br />
  7. 7. Suburbanisation in MEDCs has been occurring since the mid 20th century<br />The main reasons for it are-<br /> Transport infrastructure improved – public and private<br /> (reliable bus service, electric trains, and cars)<br /> Increasing wealth<br /> Decentralisation of industry and other facilities in the suburbs<br /> Demand and availability of housing (often to replace outdated inner city)<br /> Availability of low-cost land allowed cheaper, but larger houses to be built<br />
  8. 8. Suburbanisation in the modern era<br />
  9. 9. Who moved?<br />1950 -1980 30% UK city based population moved out of central areas to urban fringe<br />Wealthier middle-class inhabitants were able to commute to work (professional white collar, high skilled blue collar workers)<br />
  10. 10. Why did they move?<br />Perception of better lifestyle:<br /> clean & green<br /> less congestion<br /> sense of community<br /> (Village Hall, Church, Pub, School, Shop, Sports Club etc.<br />Safe:<br /> Less crime & vandalism<br />Economic change:<br /> Footloose industry – self employed entrepreneurs<br />
  11. 11. How did they move?<br />Transport evolution brought a new phase of suburban growth, each one adding a ring onto the existing city<br />
  12. 12. Consequences of Suburbanisation<br />Consequences were decentralisation of towns and cities<br />Many estates were private houses, but there will still several council estates built to re-house people from the inner cities.<br />The major consequence of Suburbanisation therefore was social segregation<br />N.B. every suburbanised village is slightly different, but the same principles, causes and consequences applies<br />East Keswick is an example of a large suburbanised village<br />
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  14. 14. Suburban Dream<br />Families to own their own home with a garden<br />Send their children to good schools<br />Escape the dirt and crime of the city<br />
  15. 15. Private Estates<br />
  16. 16. Council Estates<br />
  17. 17. INFILLING<br />
  18. 18. Rural Urban Fringe – North Leeds<br />
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  20. 20. Result = urban sprawl<br />
  21. 21. The Limitations<br />Suburbanisation in the UK has been limited by the establishments of-<br />Green Belts<br /><ul><li> These have prevented further spread of residential areas and other developments
  22. 22. In many other MEDCs these planning restrictions do not exist e.g. Phoenix, USA see textbook p200 201</li></li></ul><li>
  23. 23. PROCESSES OF CHANGE IN URBAN AREAS<br />PART TWO<br />
  24. 24. Counter Urbanisation<br />Definition:<br />Counter Urbanisation is<br />“The movement of people from an urban area into the surrounding rural area”<br />A different process to Suburbanisation, but easy to confuse them if not careful<br />(Suburbanisation is the movement from the centre of urban areas to the outskirts)<br />
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  26. 26. There are 2 distinct trends:<br />A movement of employment to rural areas<br />A movement of people to rural areas who then commute.<br />Counter-urbanisation began in Britain in the 1960s in particular and by 1990 a net movement of 1,700 people were leaving for rural areas.<br />
  27. 27. Causes of Counter Urbanisation<br />Accessibility- railways, motorways etc.. Easier to get to work<br />Mobility- more people now own cars<br />Increased wealth- meaning houses and travel is more affordable<br />Agriculture- less labour and land needed- land becomes available<br />Because of previous point, many agricultural workers leave the area<br />Green belts mean people need to go further out to get the place they are looking for<br />Fashion- people’s desire to live here<br />
  28. 28. Who is moving to rural areas?<br /><ul><li>The most affluent and mobile people
  29. 29. Families with children (keen to avoid the possible disadvantages of city locations)</li></ul>What are the push / pull factors?<br />Traffic congestion<br />Pollution<br />Fear of Crime (muggings, burglary and car theft)<br />Rural dream (idea of the ‘rural idyll’ – pleasant surroundings, quiet etc.)<br />Estate Agents, housing developers etc.. All encourage outward movement through new developments / building more houses and marketing these areas.<br />
  30. 30. Consequences of Counter Urbanisation<br />Negative Effects<br />House prices increase – locals young people cannot afford to buy property in areas they grew up – loss of traditional buildings<br />Middle class immigrants – social structure changes -local resentment caused<br />Lack of appreciation of traditional customs of village life by newcomers – change in community spirit<br />Dormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit (very quiet during the day)<br />Increase in population<br />Increased traffic flow & dependence on car – increase congestion & accidents<br />Decline in local shops & services (N.B. issue of Post Office closures) replaced by(supermarket/filling station)<br />Loss of agricultural land<br />
  31. 31. Positive Effects<br />Improvement in services – e.g. gas mains, cable TV, supports local schools<br />Supports some local facilities (e.g. pub, builders etc.) – although others may close<br />Primary schools might flourish (or close) – young population - increase nursery provision<br />Housing fabric improved, new housing, bar conversions.<br />Light industry may develop, B&B, small hotels, bistros<br />
  32. 32. Model of a Suburbanised Village<br />
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  36. 36. To finish off :<br />Your case study for the exam is the local example of East Kewsick<br />However, the textbook example often quoted is Bicester in Oxon<br />Read the material on Pages 202 & 203<br />Answer Questions 1, 2 & 3<br />
  37. 37. Re-urbanisation <br />PROCESSES OF CHANGE IN URBAN AREAS<br />PART TWO<br />
  38. 38. Who moves back?<br />Some people decide that rural locations are not suitable for them and end up moving back <br />Who?<br /><ul><li> Young couples with no children
  39. 39. Older people (divorced / separated or prefer availability of services in urban areas)</li></ul>Why?<br /><ul><li> Some find urban areas more convenient with the range of services available
  40. 40. nearer shops
  41. 41. shorter commuting distance for those who actually work in the city (reduce travelling times / stress / tiredness)
  42. 42. entertainment – night life / clubs / theatres</li></ul>Housing Location and type – people that move back tend to move to<br /><ul><li>Apartments (with security systems etc.)
  43. 43. 3 storey town houses (more being built – densification)</li></li></ul><li>Question<br />Assess the effects of suburbanisation on cities within countries of different levels of economic development<br />(10 marks). <br />
  44. 44. Mark scheme<br />Level 1: simple statements of effects which could apply to a wide range of suburbanisation. There is limited use of case study material and no overall assessment is given. <br />(1-4 marks)<br />
  45. 45. Level 2: Statements of effects that are sophisticated and/or linked to specific areas of study. Good use is made of exemplification to support the answer. Marks in the upper range should be awarded for clear references to suburbanisation within urban areas at different levels of economic development. Assessment is tentative and implicit. <br />(5-8 marks) <br />
  46. 46. Level 3: A fully developed answer, with good elaboration and clear detail of the effects of suburbanisation with the chosen urban areas. Statements of assessment are explicit. <br />(9-10 marks)<br />Note the key word is ‘assess’ therefore you must make some judgement of the effects of suburbanisation on the chosen areas referred to. You must refer to at least 2 different countries at different stages of economic development- good use of case study material is necessary. A wholly general or theoretical answer will have difficulty accessing the higher levels. <br />

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