Human Resource Development In A Cultrually Diverse Environment


Published on

Published in: Career, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Human Resource Development In A Cultrually Diverse Environment

  1. 1. HRD in a Culturally Diverse Environment Chapter 14
  2. 2. Questions to Consider - 1 <ul><li>What is the current status of women and people of color in the U.S. workforce? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a “glass ceiling” that limits the advancement of women and people of color in U.S. organizations? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Questions to Consider - 2 <ul><li>How do equal employment opportunity, affirmative action, and managing diversity differ? </li></ul><ul><li>How effective are the diversity training programs that are used by organizations? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Questions to Consider - 3 <ul><li>What can organizations do to better prepare their employees to deal with cross-cultural issues, especially if they are sent to work in another country? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of HRD programs can organizations use to develop and promote a more culturally diverse workforce? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Workforce Diversity <ul><li>Increased attention to recruiting, hiring, and developing a more diverse workforce. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest amount of attention has been paid to racial and gender diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other forms of diversity are increasingly being considered: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability/Disability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Organizational Culture <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“A set of shared values, beliefs, norms, artifacts and patterns of behavior that are used as a frame of reference for the way one looks at, attempts to understand, and works within an organization.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organizational Culture and Workforce Diversity <ul><li>What is the impact of increasing workforce diversity on organizational culture? </li></ul><ul><li>People from diverse cultures (or subcultures) often possess different assumptions, values, beliefs and experiences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be gained from this richness of experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the potential problems with such diversity? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Labor Market Changes and Discrimination <ul><li>Two main forms of discrimination: </li></ul><ul><li>Access discrimination </li></ul><ul><li> – Jobs are unavailable (or less available) to people with certain characteristics or backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>– People are treated differently after they are hired (e.g., in the training or promotion opportunities available). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Labor Market Changes and Discrimination <ul><li>Treatment discrimination against women in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What evidence is there of progress in these areas? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are there still significant disparities or problems? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Labor Market Changes and Discrimination <ul><li>Sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted sexual comments or behavior at work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main forms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Labor Market Changes and Discrimination <ul><li>Treatment discrimination against minorities in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial Harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What evidence is there of progress in these areas? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are there still large disparities or problems? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Labor Market Changes and Discrimination <ul><li>Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and other federal laws make it generally unlawful for employers to make decisions based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National origin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disability/Handicap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veteran’s Status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Labor Market Changes and Discrimination <ul><li>Equal Employment Opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitored by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Civil Rights laws cover: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All races </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All colors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both genders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass ceiling – An invisible but impenetrable boundary preventing women and minorities from advancing to senior management levels. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Affirmative Action Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated in 1965 by Executive Order 11246. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on government agencies and contractors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitored by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes efforts “to bring members of underrepresented groups… into a higher degree of participation in some beneficial program.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often targeted at women and minorities. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Steps to meet Affirmative Action (AA) requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written policy statement on EEO/AA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated AA officer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicized EEO/AA policy statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor market analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals and timetables established for any underrepresented group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific programs to achieve these goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal reporting system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and external support systems for AA. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Why is Affirmative Action such a volatile topic in the U.S.? </li></ul><ul><li>What is happening in the courts and in State legislation that is impacting affirmative action? </li></ul><ul><li>How effective have affirmative action efforts been in promoting racial and gender diversity in the U.S. workforce? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Valuing differences and diversity training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating an environment where “each person’s cultural differences are respected” (Walker). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for much of the diversity training conducted since 1980. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to make employees aware of their attitudes towards others, and increase their understanding and acceptance of others. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Effectiveness of diversity training programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anecdotal evidence of increasing awareness from “valuing differences” approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for lack of tangible outcomes from this approach, plus charges that it is too often driven by a “political” agenda. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Managing diversity : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A comprehensive managerial process for developing an organizational culture that works for all employees” (Thomas). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to “create a level playing field for all employees without regard to cultural distinction.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goes beyond affirmative action or valuing diversity. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Comparing Affirmative Action and Diversity Management <ul><li>Affirmative Action </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive, based on law/moral basis </li></ul><ul><li>Not directly linked to team building </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes women and people of color </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes employees </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity Management </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes building diverse teams </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity internally and externally </li></ul>
  21. 21. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Requirements for managing diversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A long-term commitment to change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantive changes in the organizational culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A modified definition of the leadership and management roles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both individual and organizational adaptation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural changes. (Ivancevich & Gilbert, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Adapting to Demographic Changes <ul><li>Effectiveness of managing diversity approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anecdotal evidence of success using this approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of strong empirical evidence for overall effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must ensure that efforts are strategic, proactive, and grounded in solid empirical and theoretical research. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Cross-Cultural Education and Training Programs <ul><li>Impact of globalization: numerous employees sent on expatriate assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Common elements of cross-cultural training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise awareness of cultural differences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on ways that attitudes are shaped. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide factual information about each culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build skills (e.g., language, non-verbal communication, stress management, and adjustment skills). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. HRD Programs for Culturally Diverse Employees <ul><li>Existing HRD programs can be used to promote cultural diversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization and orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring women and minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual and racial harassment training </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Some Concluding Thoughts on HRD and Cultural Diversity - 1 <ul><li>The past forty years have seen real progress in promoting cultural diversity in the U.S. workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this progress has occurred very slowly, and there is still a long way to go. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Some Concluding Thoughts on HRD and Cultural Diversity - 2 <ul><li>Legal efforts (EEO, AA) have had some impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts based on moral imperatives (“The right thing to do,” AA, diversity training) have had some impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts based on economic arguments (diversity management) have had some impact. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Summary <ul><li>Managing a culturally diverse workforce requires a long-term, integrated effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Success is most likely with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top management commitment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An inclusive view of diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions based on a combination of legal, moral, and economic arguments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated HRD efforts that promote diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity defines our world. How will you respond? </li></ul>