Settlement Change


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EDEXCEL GCSE Geography Unit 3 Revision for Settlement Change

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  • Settlement Change

    1. 1. Settlement Change Unit 3 – June 6th 2014
    2. 2. Functions of a Settlement A function simply means what a settlement is used for. Historically most settlements where for defence or to control a piece of land, or for agriculture and trade. However, most settlements now rely on the tertiary sector and provide services such as shops, schools, hospitals and entertainment One function that is common to all settlements is to provide housing. Some settlements have become dormitory settlements where people commute to work but are only at home in the evenings and weekends.
    3. 3. Change to Benidorm’s Function 1) Benidorm first developed as a settlement due to its physical location; on a hill for defence 2) Then it became a fishing port as it was situated near the coast 3) When the settlement grew, water was transferred from inland to support a growing agriculture function for citrus fruit and olives. 4) It became an important tourist destination after the the main road between Benidorm and Alicante was built, linking it with the airport there
    4. 4. Causes of Depopulation in the Western Isles Access on and off the island is by boat and plane. Any food for the shops has to come by boat so you are very confined. Remoteness – People feel isolated from things and want to be connected with the rest of society Jobs and Wages –There are not a lot of tertiary or secondary jobs so most are limited to the primary sector Weather – the harsh physical climate of the Western Isles causes them to move away for more mild weather Ambitions – There are no large universities on the island and no tertiary jobs so people move for better jobs Media – seeing adverts and programs on the TV shows people the life they are missing out on
    5. 5. Counter-Urbanisation Case Study – St Ives, Cambridge Counter-urbanisation – the movement of people from the city to the countryside St Ives, Cambridge 25% of people who live there are commuters 100km north of London Close to the A1 motorway and 50 min train journey from King’s Cross Half of the village are young commuters the other half are retired Higher incomes and a better standard of living than anywhere else in the UK Modern housing estates, designer restaurants and shops
    6. 6. Reasons for an increase in housing demand in the UK • Increase in population – between 2001 and 2011 the population increased from 58.8 to 62.6 million people • An increase in the number of households – more people are living alone, marrying later, divorce, and more people are living longer. In 2001 there were 21.6 million households. Of these 30% only had one person living in them. • Increased personal wealth has resulted in more people being able to afford to buy their own home
    7. 7. Four possible locations for new housing in the UK Commuter Belt New housing estates built around existing towns Eco-towns built on brownfield land Suburbs Intensification by people selling off their gardens for building (garden grabbing) and infilling any green spaces with new housing Inner City Blocks of flats and gated communities on Brownfield sites Urban Fringe New housing estates built (1) On the outer edge of a built up area (2) Around villages (use of greenfield land
    8. 8. Commuter Belt Compact estates on Greenfield sites Long journey to work Car freeMost proposed sites are on brownfield land Not actually any jobs there so more like commuter dormitories Within the urban fringe and commuter belt Environmentally friendly – carbon emissions kept low. 30% are for less well off households Compact estates on Greenfield sites 20,000 new homes in eco- towns
    9. 9. Urban Fringe Outer edge of the built up area Near to open countryside but still close to the city Built on Greenfield sites Loss of countryside High dependency on the car to get around. Lots of people of the same economic class Vast areas of low density housing Still close to place of work and best shops Building of edge of town retail parks has brought shops and leisure facilities closer Recently offices and factories have moved to the outer edge shortening the journey times
    10. 10. Suburbs Also involves ‘garden grabbing’ whereby people sell off some of their garden as a building plot Gardens are brownfield not greenfield and government policy prefers brownfield sites Suburban intensification Occurs in the older suburbs Involves building on playing fields and vacant areas of land
    11. 11. What factors encourage suburban sprawl? Good transport links Wasteful use of greenfield sites Greater wealth Low density housing and lack of planning Growth in numbers of households due to divorce and people living longer Shorter working hours Unless there are very strict rules on house building it is very easy for the suburbs to grow outwards and ‘sprawl’ over large areas of countryside. Here are the reasons for this;
    12. 12. Inner City Redevelopment of brownfield sites Housing located in the inner parts of towns and cities that were once factories and slums Concern about personal security is being fixed with gated communities Gated communities are group of homes shut away with CCTV and electronic gates Designed to offer personal security and protect property Ideal for families Redevelopment of brownfield sites Separates well off from less well off people Houses are expensive so can only be an option for the wealthy. Targets for crime People attracted back to the centre by new homes and better facilities
    13. 13. Other factors in building new houses There are laws about how new housing estates should be build to make sure they are attractive to lots of different people. Here are some of the considerations; • Mix of housing types – houses, maisonettes, flats • Size of house – 1, 2, 3, or 4 bedrooms • A mix of owner occupied, rented and council housing • Availability of work in the area • Availability of utilities (water, gas, electricity) • Access to services (shops, schools, pub) • The environmental impact of new housing
    14. 14. Redevelopment of a deindustrialised area – Bristol Harbourside Deindustrialisation occurred because; • Larger cargo ships that could not fit up the River Avon • Competition from new docks at Avonmouth and Portbury. • Closure of tobacco factories, a sand dredging industry and lead-shot works. Problems • Social and economic inequalities – a big divide between the very rich and very poor • Large areas of derelict land • High unemployment: in some areas it rose to almost 20%. Solutions • It was decided to redevelop the former dockland area. • Lloyds TSB relocated their headquarters to the docklands area. • Over the past thirty years, the area has undergone major changes finishing with the opening of the new IMAX theatre, at-Bristol science museum and the Millennium Square. Successes include: • Over 3000 new jobs. • A mixed environment that includes cafe bars, restaurants, cinemas, shops. • New developments for the arts and sports facilities. • An industrial museum and maritime heritage museum. • The saving and usage of listed buildings. For example, the Watershed media centre that includes a cinema, studios, art gallery and café bar was formerly two warehouses.
    15. 15. Advantages Disadvantages Brownfield Site • Reduces the loss of countryside that might otherwise have been taken for building • Helps revive old disused urban areas • Services such as water, electricity, sewers already in place • Located new main areas of employment so commuting time reduced • Often more expensive because old buildings have to be cleared and the land made free of pollution • Often surrounded by rundown areas so does not appeal to more wealthy people • Higher levels of pollution • May not have good access in terms of modern roads. Greenfield Site • Relatively cheap and rates of house building are faster • The layout is not restricted by other buildings around it • Healthier environment • Valuable farm land lost • Attractive scenery lost • Wildlife and habitats lost of disturbed • Development causes noise and light pollution • Encourages suburban sprawl Greenfield vs Brownfield
    16. 16. Reasons for rapid growth in LIC urban areas Rapid Urban Growth Natural Increase – birth rate higher than death rate Accounts for 60% of population growth Urban pull factors (reasons why people are attracted to the city) - Better jobs - Higher wages - Better quality of life - Better education and health care - Better utilities Government support Rural – Urban Migration Accounts for 40% of population growth Causes by rural push and urban pull factors Rural push factors (reasons why people leave the countryside) - Lack of jobs - Harsh lifestyle - Mechanisation of farming - Government uninterested Lack of money Little entertainment Limited education and health care
    17. 17. Case Study of an LIC urban area - Dhaka, Bangladesh • Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh • One of the poorest countries in the world • Cities population is an estimated 12 million but forecast to increase to 21 million by 2050 • Dhaka is hemmed in by large river channels that thread their way through the city • It is these low-lying areas that suffer widespread flooding during the monsoon season • It is in these places that the ‘bostis’ are built; Illegal shanty towns and squatter settlements that have been built by rural to urban migrants that have come to the city looking for work. • The authorities have not provided any other form of housing and they cannot afford to live elsewhere • Overcrowding and disease are major problems • Water pollution and rotting piles of waste are a real health hazard • So too is the smoke from domestic fires and air pollution from the factories and traffic • The most common diseases are diarrhoea, tuberculosis, measles, and malaria • The growth of the population is outstripping the creation of jobs • Most people work in the informal economy e.g. working for themselves • Common jobs are; selling the street, shoe shining, rubbish collection, scavenging and recycling waste • Begging crime and prostitution are also less legal ways of making a living. • In Dhaka, the driving of rickshaws is the most common form of informal activity • No public transport means the rickshaws are an important factor in keeping the city moving • Half a million children are also estimated to be involved in the informal economy • Most of them work from dawn til dusk and earn about 12p per day