4.2 Parts Of A Eukaryotic Cell


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4.2 Parts Of A Eukaryotic Cell

  1. 1. Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell
  2. 2. Cell Theory <ul><li>1) All living things are made up of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Cells come from other cells </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Prokaryotic <ul><li>One -celled </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>DNA looks like a twisted rubber band </li></ul><ul><li>Do NOT have membrane-covered organelles </li></ul><ul><li>All have a cell wall outside the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Bacteria </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Larger </li></ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Do have membrane-covered organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Some (plants) have a cell wall </li></ul>Eukaryotic Plant Animal
  5. 5. Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells <ul><li>Animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Typical” Animal Cell
  7. 7. “ Typical” Plant Cell
  8. 8. Cell Parts Organelles
  9. 9. The Cell . . . The School <ul><li>Think of the cell as a tiny, little school </li></ul><ul><li>Just like a school has different things (buildings, people, items) that make it function (work), so does the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>In the cell, organelles are the things that make the cell work. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organelles <ul><li>“ little organs” </li></ul><ul><li>Have specific jobs that help keep the cell alive </li></ul><ul><li>Like the organs in your body have specific jobs to help keep you alive </li></ul>
  11. 11. Surrounding the Cell
  12. 12. Cell Wall <ul><li>Stiff outer layer that supports & protects the cell </li></ul><ul><li>All plant cells have a cell wall that is made of a sugar called “ cellulose ” </li></ul><ul><li>( All prokaryotic cells, like bacteria, also have cell walls) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells do not have cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Like a brick wall around a school </li></ul>←
  13. 13. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Every cell has a cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Like a wire fence around a school </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds & protects the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Controls what goes in and out of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Allows nutrients and water in </li></ul><ul><li>Lets waste go out </li></ul>
  14. 14. Inside the Cell
  15. 15. Nucleus <ul><li>Only in eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>The “brain” or “control center”; directs all activites </li></ul><ul><li>Like the office at a school </li></ul><ul><li>Large, dark, sometimes in center </li></ul><ul><li>Contains genetic material – DNA (= the principal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by two membranes which allow materials to go in and out </li></ul>
  16. 16. Proteins <ul><li>Control the chemical reactions in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>The messages of how to make proteins are given by the DNA (principal) </li></ul><ul><li>Like the educated students at a school </li></ul>Not THIS kind of protein!
  17. 17. Ribosomes <ul><li>Smallest organelles in cell </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell contains thousands </li></ul><ul><li>Like the teachers at a school </li></ul><ul><li>Makes protein (= educated students ) </li></ul><ul><li>Found floating inside cell </li></ul><ul><li>Or attached to membranes or organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Found in BOTH prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells </li></ul>->
  18. 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Membranes with many folds </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the cell’s transport & delivery system : folds have passageways = move materials around cell </li></ul><ul><li>Like the hallways at a school </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER: no ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER: ribosomes attached </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Mitochondria <ul><li>Main power source of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Makes energy by breaking down sugar (food) </li></ul><ul><li>Like the cafeteria of a school </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is stored in molecule called ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own DNA that is different from the cell’s DNA </li></ul>
  20. 20. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Usually found in plant and algae cells </li></ul><ul><li>Like solar-powered energy generators at a school </li></ul><ul><li>Contain green chlorophyll = traps the energy of sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Where photosynthesis takes place (Sun + CO2 + H2O  O2 + sugar) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Golgi Complex <ul><li>Packages & delivers materials within and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>The “ Post Office ” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Like the staff room (with teachers’ boxes) at a school </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lysosomes <ul><li>Responsible for cleaning cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy worn-out or damaged organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect cell from harmful products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like the janitors at a school </li></ul><ul><li>Material is enclosed in a vessicle </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosome bumps into vessicle and pours enzymes into it (breaks down what’s inside of it) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vacuoles <ul><li>Storage site for cell </li></ul><ul><li>In plants: large vacuole in center of cell store water , which helps plants keep their shape </li></ul><ul><li>Plants wilt when vacuoles lose water </li></ul><ul><li>Like the underground water tanks at a school </li></ul>