Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function
  2. 2. Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are composed of one or more cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cell Diversity <ul><li>Cells vary in shape, size and internal organization. </li></ul><ul><li>All cells have a specific job to do and look and function the best for that job. </li></ul>
  4. 4. White blood cells Stem cells
  5. 5. Nerve Cells Heart cells
  6. 6. Skin cells Plant cells
  7. 8. Important Vocabulary <ul><li>Many cells have a variety of internal structures called organelles or mini organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Many cells have a large organelle called the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells that contain organelles and a nucleus are called eukaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells that DO NOT contain organelles and a nucleus are called prokaryotic cells. </li></ul>
  8. 10. What’s the difference here? <ul><li>Let’s compare three items: a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell and a virus. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the similarities? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences? </li></ul>
  9. 15. Flu virus
  10. 16. T4 Bacteriophage
  11. 17. HIV
  12. 18. Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes Vs. Viruses <ul><li>No membrane bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Has a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few organelles or none at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Has a capsule surrounding it </li></ul><ul><li>Three main types. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus with membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Only plants have cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Contains many organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Has a lipid bi-layer membrane surrounding it. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized by thousands of different sizes and shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>No membranes </li></ul><ul><li>No organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot reproduce on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Generally not considered alive by most standards </li></ul>
  13. 19. Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell <ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm (cytosol) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth) </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosome </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia and Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul>
  14. 21. Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells <ul><li>Contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Have a cell wall to maintain structure and rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>Usually do not contain lysosomes and peroxisomes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are square and rigid or geometric shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Limited movement </li></ul><ul><li>Have one large central vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>No cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>No chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Contain lysosomes and peroxisomes </li></ul><ul><li>Contain cilia and/or flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are fluid and flexible, many shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells can move around. </li></ul><ul><li>Has small vacuoles </li></ul>
  15. 23. Parts of Eukaryotic Cell You are required to know the parts, what they look like and their function for the test!
  16. 24. Cell Membrane <ul><li>The cell membrane is selectively permeable which means some substances can cross and others cannot cross. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membranes are made of primarily lipids and proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membranes are made of a lipid bi-layer. </li></ul><ul><li>A cell membrane is called a fluid mosaic because it behaves more like a liquid than a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>It is flexible and provides an effective barrier and transport function. </li></ul>
  17. 26. DRAW THIS!
  18. 27. Cytoplasm <ul><li>This lies between the cell membrane inside of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a fluid that all the organelles float in. </li></ul><ul><li>It is sometimes called the cytosol. </li></ul>
  19. 28. Mitochondria <ul><li>Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria create ATP for the cell to use as energy. </li></ul><ul><li>One cell many have thousands of mitochondria depending on its function. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria have two membranes and have their own DNA which only comes from the mother. </li></ul>
  20. 30. Ribosomes <ul><li>Ribosomes are the most numerous of the cell’s organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are responsible for creating proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are found free in the cytoplasm and also attached to the rough ER. (endoplasmic reticulum) </li></ul>
  21. 32. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>The ER comes in two varieties, the rough ER and the smooth ER. </li></ul><ul><li>The rough ER contains ribosomes and makes proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>The smooth ER does not contain ribosomes and makes lipids such as steroids. </li></ul><ul><li>The rough and smooth ER are sometimes attach to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Both ER are involved in cell product transport of proteins and lipids. </li></ul>
  22. 34. Ribosomes Nucleus
  23. 35. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>The golgi is the processing, packaging and transport system. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a system of membranes that work closely with the ER. </li></ul><ul><li>The golgi modifies the products for transport throughout the cell. </li></ul>
  24. 38. Lysosomes <ul><li>Lysosomes contain enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and RNA. </li></ul><ul><li>These enzymes can also digest old organelles, viruses and bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes are rare in plant cells. </li></ul>
  25. 40. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Cytoskeleton’s are made of two parts: the microtubules and the microfilaments. </li></ul><ul><li>The microtubules assist in cell division by moving the cells apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments are made of protein and help with muscle contractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Both help support the cell and give structure but do allow for movement. </li></ul>
  26. 41. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Some cells have flagella. They usually only have one. </li></ul><ul><li>Many cells have cilia which can number in the thousands. </li></ul><ul><li>A flagella is like a whip. </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia are like tiny paddles. </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia and flagella are made of microtubules. </li></ul>Cilia Flagella
  27. 42. Nucleus <ul><li>The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope. </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus contains all the DNA for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It directs all the activities of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The nuclear envelope contains pores so that RNA can pass into the cytoplasm during protein synthesis. </li></ul>
  28. 44. Nucleolus <ul><li>The nucleolus is found inside the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>It is responsible for making the ribosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>There is usually only one. </li></ul>
  29. 45. Cell Wall <ul><li>Found in plant cells and bacteria only. </li></ul><ul><li>Not found in animal cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain structure and protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Does contain small pores to move water and oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out. </li></ul>
  30. 46. Vacuoles <ul><li>These are fluid filled and store many different things such as water, waste, enzymes and poisons. </li></ul><ul><li>In plants vacuoles take up 90% of the space. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles are small in animal cells. </li></ul>
  31. 48. Chloroplast <ul><li>This also called a plastid. </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts have their own membrane and their own DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells and some protists. (little animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts do photosynthesis and contain chlorophyll which make them green. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis creates sugar from sunlight for the plant to use. </li></ul>